Prediction of Ewing Sarcoma treatment outcome using attenuated tissue reflection FTIR tissue spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma is the second most common type of primary bone cancer and predominantly affects children and young people. Improved outcome prediction is key to delivering risk-adjusted, appropriate and effective care to cancer patients. Advances in the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of tissues enable it to be a non-invasive method to obtain information about the biochemical content of any biological sample. In this retrospective study, attenuated tissue reflection FTIR spectroscopy of biopsy samples from paediatric patients reveals spectral features that are diagnostic for Ewing Sarcoma. Furthermore, our results suggest that spectral features such as these may be of value for the prediction of treatment outcome independent to well-known, routinely used risk factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improved outcome prediction is vital for the delivery of risk-adjusted, appropriate and effective care to paediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma-the second most common paediatric malignant bone tumour. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of tissues allows the bulk biochemical content of a biological sample to be probed and makes possible the study and diagnosis of disease. METHODS:In this retrospective study, FTIR spectra of sections of biopsy-obtained bone tissue were recorded. Twenty-seven patients (between 5 and 20 years of age) with newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma of bone were included in this study. The prognostic value of FTIR spectra obtained from Ewing sarcoma (ES) tumours before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analysed in combination with various data-reduction and machine learning approaches. RESULTS:Random forest and linear discriminant analysis supervised learning models were able to correctly predict patient mortality in 92% of cases using leave-one-out cross-validation. The best performing model for predicting patient relapse was a linear Support Vector Machine trained on the observed spectral changes as a result of chemotherapy treatment, which achieved 92% accuracy. CONCLUSION:FTIR spectra of tumour biopsy samples may predict treatment outcome in paediatric Ewing sarcoma patients with greater than 92% accuracy.
Project description:Saliva biomarkers using reagent-free biophotonic technology have not been investigated as a strategy for early detection of breast cancer (BC). The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been proposed as a promising tool for disease diagnosis. However, its utilization in cancer is still incipient, and currently saliva has not been used for BC screening. We have applied ATR-FTIR onto saliva from patients with breast cancer, benign breast disease, and healthy matched controls to investigate its potential use in BC diagnosis. Several salivary vibrational modes have been identified in original and second-derivative spectra. The absorbance levels at wavenumber 1041?cm-1 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in saliva of breast cancer patients compared with those of benign patients, and the ROC curve analysis of this peak showed a reasonable accuracy to discriminate breast cancer from benign and control patients. The 1433-1302.9?cm-1 band area was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in saliva of breast cancer patients than in control and benign patients. This salivary ATR-FTIR spectral area was prevalidated as a potential diagnostic biomarker of BC. This spectral biomarker was able to discriminate human BC from controls with sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 80%, respectively. Besides, it was able to differentiate BC from benign disease with sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 70%, respectively. Briefly, for the first time, saliva analysis by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential use of salivary spectral biomarkers (1041?cm-1 and 1433-1302.9?cm-1) as a novel alternative for noninvasive BC diagnosis, which could be used for screening purposes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue. Despite aggressive treatment, survival remains poor, particularly in patients with metastatic disease. Failure to treat Ewing sarcoma is due to the lack of understanding of the molecular pathways that regulate metastasis. In addition, no molecular prognostic markers have been identified for Ewing sarcoma to risk stratify patients. PROCEDURE:Ewing sarcoma patients were divided into high or low Twist1 gene expression and survival curves were generated using the R2 microarray-based Genomic Analysis platform (http://r2.amc.nl). Tumors from Ewing sarcoma patients were also evaluated for TWIST1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Ewing sarcoma xenografts were established to evaluate the role of TWIST1 in metastasis. The effects of Twist1 on migration and invasion were evaluated using migration and invasion assays in A673 and RDES cells. RESULTS:Twist1 expression was a negative prognostic marker for overall survival in a public Ewing sarcoma patient data set based on Twist1 mRNA levels and in patient tumor samples based on Twist1 immunohistochemistry. TWIST1 is detected in significantly higher percentage of patients with metastatic diseases than localized disease. Using Ewing sarcoma tumor xenografts in mice, we found that suppressing TWIST1 levels suppressed metastasis without affecting primary tumor development. Knockdown of Twist1 inhibited the migration and invasion capability, while overexpression of Twist1 promoted migration and invasion in Ewing sarcoma cells. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that TWIST1 promotes metastasis in Ewing sarcoma and could be used as a prognostic marker for treatment stratification; however, further validation is required in a larger cohort of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ewing sarcoma, the second most frequent bone tumor in children and adolescents, is often presented with localized disease or metastatic-related symptoms. In this study, we aim to construct and validate a nomogram for patients with Ewing sarcoma to predict the 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS:Demographic and clinic pathological characteristics of patients with Ewing sarcoma diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 were extracted from SEER database. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were carried out to identify the independent characteristics. The independent factors were further included into the construction of a nomogram. Finally, c-index and calibration curves were used to validate the nomogram. RESULTS:A total of 578 patients were enrolled into our analysis. The results of univariate Cox analysis showed that age, 7th AJCC stage, 7th AJCC T stage, 7th AJCC N stage, 7th AJCC M stage, metastatic status to lung, liver and bone were significant factors. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed and it confirmed age, N stage and bone metastasis as independent variables. Next, a nomogram was constructed using these independent variables in prediction to the 3- and 5-year OS. Furthermore, favorable results with c-indexes (0.757 in training set and 0.697 in validation set) and calibration curves closer to ideal curves indicated the accurate predictive ability of this nomogram. CONCLUSIONS:The individualized nomogram demonstrated a good ability in prognostic prediction for patients with Ewing sarcoma.
Project description:Interleukin-2 (IL-2) transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells can induce tumor specific T and NK cell responses and reduce tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this stimulation is not high enough to inhibit tumor growth completely. In addition to recognition of the cognate antigen, optimal T-cell stimulation requires signals from so-called co-stimulatory molecules. Several members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily have been identified as co-stimulatory molecules that can augment antitumor immune responses. OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand (OX40L?=?CD252; also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand family member 4) is one example of such receptor/ligand pair with co-stimulatory function. In the present investigation, we generated OX40L transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells and tested their immunostimulatory activity in vitro. OX40L transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells showed preserved expression of Ewing sarcoma-associated (anti)gens including lipase member I, cyclin D1 (CCND1), cytochrome P450 family member 26B1 (CYP26B1), and the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1) oncogene. OX40L-expressing tumor cells showed a trend for enhanced immune stimulation against Ewing sarcoma cells in combination with IL-2 and stimulation of CD137. Our data suggest that inclusion of the OX40/OX40L pathway of co-stimulation might improve immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In 2012, two publications revealed a particular sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma cells to the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This review updates the reader on PARP function, the development of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) and the evidence for targeting PARP in Ewing sarcoma. It concludes with a description of ongoing/emerging PARPi clinical trials in patients with Ewing sarcoma. RECENT FINDINGS:PARP has a major role in DNA repair, and is a transcription regulator. The oncoprotein in Ewing sarcoma, EWS-FLI1, is proposed to interact with PARP-1, driving PARP-1 expression, which further promotes transcriptional activation by EWS-FLI1. Thus, there are two rationales for PARPi in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma: to disrupt the interaction between EWS-FLI1 and PARP, and for chemo-potentiation or radio-potentiation. The first clinical trial with a single agent PARPi failed to show significant responses, but preclinical evidence for combinations of PARPi with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is very promising. SUMMARY:Despite initial excitement for the potential of PARPi as single agent therapy in Ewing sarcoma, the emerging preclinical data now strongly support testing PARPi in combination with chemo/radiotherapy clinically.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor. Although the 5-year survival rate of localized disease approaches 75%, the prognosis of metastatic and/or therapy-resistant disease remains dismal despite the wide use of aggressive therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4) in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. GSTM4 is required for oncogenic transformation and mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing analyses of Ewing sarcoma cells and combined our results with publicly available datasets to demonstrate that GSTM4 is a major GST specifically expressed in Ewing sarcoma. Pharmacological inhibition of GSTM4 activity using a pan GST inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), significantly limited cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation of Ewing sarcoma cells. Moreover, combined use of NBDHEX and etoposide synergistically increased cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for GSTM4 as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that GSTM4 limits apoptosis owing to its ability to interact with Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and inhibit signaling via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase axis. To exploit our observation that GSTM4 expression is specifically up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma, we tested the effect of a GSTM4-activated anti-cancer agent, O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K, on tumor growth and survival. We found that JS-K robustly decreased Ewing sarcoma cell viability and xenograft tumor growth and improved overall survival of xenograft mice. Our data suggest that GSTM4 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of high GSTM4-expressing Ewing sarcoma. Strategies that combine standard chemotherapy with agents that inhibit GSTM4, that are activated by GSTM4, or that block GSTM4/ASK1 interactions, can potentially be more specific and/or efficacious than standard therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Oleaginous fungi can accumulate lipids by utilizing a wide range of waste substrates. They are an important source for the industrial production of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid) and have been suggested as an alternative route for biodiesel production. Initial research steps for various applications include the screening of fungi in order to find efficient fungal producers with desired fatty acid composition. Traditional cultivation methods (shake flask) and lipid analysis (extraction-gas chromatography) are not applicable for large-scale screening due to their low throughput and time-consuming analysis. Here we present a microcultivation system combined with high-throughput Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for efficient screening of oleaginous fungi.The microcultivation system enables highly reproducible fungal fermentations throughout 12 days of cultivation. Reproducibility was validated by FTIR and HPLC data. Analysis of FTIR spectral ester carbonyl peaks of fungal biomass offered a reliable high-throughput at-line method to monitor lipid accumulation. Partial least square regression between gas chromatography fatty acid data and corresponding FTIR spectral data was used to set up calibration models for the prediction of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaturation index, total lipid content and main individual fatty acids. High coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.86-0.96) and satisfactory residual predictive deviation of cross-validation (RPDCV = 2.6-5.1) values demonstrated the goodness of these models.We have demonstrated in this study, that the presented microcultivation system combined with rapid, high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy is a suitable screening platform for oleaginous fungi. Sample preparation for FTIR measurements can be automated to further increase throughput of the system.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is a bone and soft tissue sarcoma that occurs in children and young adults. The EWS-FLI1 gene fusion is the driver mutation in most Ewing sarcoma tumors and functions, in part, as an aberrant transcription factor. We recently identified that Ewing sarcoma cells are sensitive to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. In this report, we show that Ewing sarcoma cells are sensitive to treatment with clofarabine, which is a nucleoside analogue and allosteric inhibitor of RNR. However, clofarabine is a reversible inhibitor of RNR and we found that the effect of clofarabine is limited when using a short (6-hour) drug treatment. Gemcitabine, on the other hand, is an irreversible inhibitor of the RRM1 subunit of RNR and this drug induces apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma cells when used in both 6-hour and longer drug treatments. Treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with gemcitabine also results in activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), which is a critical mediator of cell survival in the setting of impaired DNA replication. Notably, inhibition of CHK1 function in Ewing sarcoma cells using a small-molecule CHK1 inhibitor, or siRNA knockdown, in combination with gemcitabine results in increased toxicity both in vitro and in vivo in a mouse xenograft experiment. Overall, our results provide insight into Ewing sarcoma biology and identify a candidate therapeutic target, and drug combination, in Ewing sarcoma.