Maternal exposure to farming environment protects offspring against allergic diseases by modulating the neonatal TLR-Tregs-Th axis.
ABSTRACT: As the development of urbanization in China, the morbidity of allergic disease rise up prominently even in children, which may be partially associated with the excessively clean environment. It has been reported that common microorganism in rural environment shows protective effects on allergic disease by modulating TLRs-Tregs/Th cell axis. But the mechanism of this protection still needs to be elucidated in detail. We investigated the effects of maternal exposure to farming environment on the neonatal innate immune system, especially on the TLR-Treg-Th (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17) axis, in the Jilin province of China.Eighty-four non-farming and 42 farming pregnant women were recruited. Endotoxins and glucans in dust from the living rooms of the pregnant mothers were measured. Cord blood mononuclear cells were challenged with phytohemagglutinin, lipopolysaccharide, or peptidoglycan. Proliferative response of lymphocyte was measured by 3H-TdR incorporation methods, CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + T cells percentage was assessed with flow cytometry, Tregs specific genes (FOXP3, LAG3, GITR, CTLA-4 and TGF-β) and TLR2, TLR4 genes expression were detected by RT-PCR, specific cytokines of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Tregs were measured with flow cytometer, suppressive capacity of Tregs was tested by culturing with effector cells in vitro, and TLR2/4 gene polymorphism was detected.Higher endotoxin content was observed in the living rooms of the farming mothers. Compared with that in the non-farming group, in farming neonatal CBMCs, lymphocyte proliferation declined; the IFN-γ/IL-13 ratio increased; and the quantity of Tregs and gene expression of FOXP3, GITR, CTLA4 and TLR2 increased significantly (P < 0.05). Isolated Tregs suppressed the proliferation of effector T cells and IL-13 production more strongly in vitro (P = 0.04, 0.03, respectively), and the TLR2 polymorphism affected FOXP3 expression and IFN-γ and IL-13 production.Maternal exposure to farming affected the quantity and function of neonatal Tregs upon stimulation with PPG and LPS, which partly contributed to reducing the risk for allergic diseases in the offspring. The results of our study will lay the theoretical foundation for allergic disease prevention in early life.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a costimulatory molecule with diverse effects on effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that GITR ligation subverts the induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs and directs the activated CD4(+) T cells to Th9 cells. Such GITR-mediated iTreg to Th9 induction enhances anti-tumour immunity in vivo. Mechanistically, GITR upregulates the NF-?B family member p50, which recruits histone deacetylases to the Foxp3 locus to produce a 'closed' chromatin structure. Furthermore, GITR ligation also activates STAT6, and STAT6 renders Il9 locus accessible via recruitment of histone acetyltransferase p300, and together with inhibition of Foxp3, GITR induces strong Th9 responses. Thus, Th9 cells and iTregs are developmentally linked and GITR can subvert tolerogenic conditions to boost Th9 immunity.
Project description:Interleukin 9 (IL-9)-producing helper T (Th9) cells have a crucial function in allergic inflammation, autoimmunity, immunity to extracellular pathogens and anti-tumor immune responses. In addition to Th9, Th2, Th17 and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells produce IL-9. A transcription factor that is critical for IL-9 induction in Th2, Th9 and Th17 cells has not been identified. Here we show that the forkhead family transcription factor Foxo1 is required for IL-9 induction in Th9 and Th17 cells. We further show that inhibition of AKT enhances IL-9 induction in Th9 cells while it reciprocally regulates IL-9 and IL-17 in Th17 cells via Foxo1. Mechanistically, Foxo1 binds and transactivates IL-9 and IRF4 promoters in Th9, Th17 and iTreg cells. Furthermore, loss of Foxo1 attenuates IL-9 in mouse and human Th9 and Th17 cells, and ameliorates allergic inflammation in asthma. Our findings thus identify that Foxo1 is essential for IL-9 induction in Th9 and Th17 cells.The transcription factor Foxo1 can control regulatory T cell and Th1 function. Here the authors show that Foxo1 is also critical for IL-9 production by Th9 cells and other IL-9-producing cells.
Project description:Interleukin 9 (IL-9) producing helper T (Th9) cells play a crucial role in allergic inflammation, autoimmunity, immunity to extracellular pathogens and anti-tumor immune response. In addition to Th9, Th2, Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells produce IL-9. Transcription factor that is critical for IL-9 induction in Th2, Th9 and Th17 cells has not been identified. Here we show that Foxo1, a forkhead family transcription factor, requires for IL-9 induction in Th9 and Th17 cells. We further show that inhibition of AKT enhances IL-9 induction in Th9 cells while it reciprocally regulates IL-9 and IL-17 in Th17 cells via Foxo1. Mechanistically, Foxo1 binds and transactivates IL-9 and IRF4 promoters in Th9, Th17 and iTregs. Furthermore, loss of Foxo1 attenuates IL-9 in mouse and human Th9 and Th17 cells, and ameliorates allergic inflammation in asthma. Our findings thus identify that Foxo1 is essential for IL-9 induction in Th9 and Th17 cells. Overall design: Transcriptional analysis of Th0 and TGF-beta 1 + IL-4 induced Th9 cells
Project description:The alveolar bone resorption is a distinctive feature of periodontitis progression and determinant for tooth loss. Regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) display immuno-suppressive mechanisms and tissue repairing functions, which are critical to support periodontal health. Tregs may become unstable and dysfunctional under inflammatory conditions, which can even accelerate tissue destruction. In this study, experimental periodontitis was associated with the progressive and increased presence of Th17 and Treg-related mediators in the gingiva (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, RANKL, IL-10, TGF-? and GITR; P?<?0.05), and the proliferation of both Treg and Th17 cells in cervical lymph nodes. Tregs from cervical lymph nodes had reduced Foxp3 expression (>?25% MFI loss) and increased IL-17A expression (>?15%), compared with Tregs from spleen and healthy controls. Tregs gene expression analysis showed a differential signature between health and disease, with increased expression of Th17-associated factors in periodontitis-derived Tregs. The ex vivo suppression capacity of Tregs on osteoclastic differentiation was significantly lower in Tregs obtained from periodontally diseased animals compared to controls (P?<?0.05), as identified by the increased number of TRAP+ osteoclasts (P?<?0.01) in the Tregs/pre-osteoclast co-cultures. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Tregs become phenotypically unstable and lose anti-osteoclastogenic properties during experimental periodontitis; thus, further promoting the Th17-driven bone loss.
Project description:The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy ?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-?t was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25- population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25- cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA.
Project description:The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in allergic sensitization and diseases; however, many questions remain unanswered, such as characteristics of the most effective strains in modulation of allergic responses and how orally administered probiotics affect the systemic immune system. In the present work, oral administration of five lactic acid bacteria strains showed variable effects on protection against the allergic reaction in a mouse model of food allergy to shrimp tropomyosin (ST). The most effective anti-allergic strain, Bacillus coagulans 09.712 (Bc), greatly improved epithelial barrier function and increased lymphocytes proliferation. Moreover, Bc suppresses ST sensitization by altering Th1/Th2/Treg balance as a result of strong induction of CD4+Foxp3+Tregs in combination with IL-10 producing. Bc-specific induction of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs also suppresses Th17 pro-inflammatory response in this mouse model. Finally, the intake of Bc suppresses mTOR activation and thus the phosphorylation of downstream factors. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by Bc further results in FOXP3 up-regulation and GATA-3 down-regulation, which, in turn, facilitate to control Th2-predominant and Th17 pro-inflammatory responses caused by ST. Our work provides further characterization of the anti-allergic effects of probiotic LAB strains, and identifies new targets for preventive and curative treatment of food allergies.
Project description:Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cells (Treg) is required for their development and suppressive function. How different inflammatory signals affect Foxp3 chromatin structure, expression and Tregs plasticity are not completely known. In the present study, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand peptidoglycan inhibited Foxp3 expression in both natural Treg (nTreg) and TGF?-driven adaptive Treg (aTreg). Inhibition was independent of paracrine Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines. PGN-induced T cell-intrinsic TLR2-Myd88-dependent IFR1 expression and induced IRF1 bound to IRF1 response elements (IRF-E) in the Foxp3 promoter and intronic enhancers, and negatively regulated Foxp3 expression. Inflammatory IL-6 and TLR2 signals induced divergent chromatin changes at the Foxp3 locus and regulated Treg suppressor function, and in an islet transplant model resulted in differences in their ability to prolong graft survival. These findings are important for understanding how different inflammatory signals can affect the transplantation tolerance and immunity.
Project description:In vivo GITR ligation has previously been shown to augment T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity, yet the underlying mechanisms of this activity, particularly its in vivo effects on CD4+ foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), have not been fully elucidated. In order to translate this immunotherapeutic approach to the clinic it is important gain better understanding of its mechanism(s) of action. Utilizing the agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody DTA-1, we found that in vivo GITR ligation modulates regulatory T cells (Tregs) directly during induction of melanoma tumor immunity. As a monotherapy, DTA-1 induced regression of small established B16 melanoma tumors. Although DTA-1 did not alter systemic Treg frequencies nor abrogate the intrinsic suppressive activity of Tregs within the tumor-draining lymph node, intra-tumor Treg accumulation was significantly impaired. This resulted in a greater Teff:Treg ratio and enhanced tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell activity. The decreased intra-tumor Treg accumulation was due both to impaired infiltration, coupled with DTA-1-induced loss of foxp3 expression in intra-tumor Tregs. Histological analysis of B16 tumors grown in Foxp3-GFP mice showed that the majority of GFP+ cells had lost Foxp3 expression. These "unstable" Tregs were absent in IgG-treated tumors and in DTA-1 treated TDLN, demonstrating a tumor-specific effect. Impairment of Treg infiltration was lost if Tregs were GITR(-/-), and the protective effects of DTA-1 were reduced in reconstituted RAG1(-/-) mice if either the Treg or Teff subset were GITR-negative and absent if both were negative. Our results demonstrate that DTA-1 modulates both Teffs and Tregs during effective tumor treatment. The data suggest that DTA-1 prevents intra-tumor Treg accumulation by altering their stability, and as a result of the loss of foxp3 expression, may modify their intra-tumor suppressive capacity. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist anti-GITR mAbs as an immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, and CD357) is expressed at high levels in activated T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we present data from mouse and human studies suggesting that GITR is a crucial player in the differentiation of thymic Tregs (tTregs), and expansion of both tTregs and peripheral Tregs (pTregs). The role of GITR in Treg expansion is confirmed by the association of GITR expression with markers of memory T cells. In this context, it is not surprising that GITR appears to be a marker of active Tregs, as suggested by the association of GITR expression with other markers of Treg activation or cytokines with suppressive activity (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-?), the presence of GITR(+) cells in tissues where Tregs are active (e.g., solid tumours), or functional studies on Tregs. Furthermore, some Treg subsets including Tr1 cells express either low or no classical Treg markers (e.g., FoxP3 and CD25) and do express GITR. Therefore, when evaluating changes in the number of Tregs in human diseases, GITR expression must be evaluated. Moreover, GITR should be considered as a marker for isolating Tregs.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (TNFRSF18, CD357) is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and is inducible on effector T cells. In this report, we examine the role of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein ligand (GITR-L), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, on the development and expansion of Tregs. We found that GITR-L is dispensable for the development of naturally occurring FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the thymus. However, the expansion of Treg in GITR-L (-/-) mice is impaired after injection of the dendritic cells (DCs) inducing factor Flt3 ligand. Furthermore, DCs from the liver of GITR-L (-/-) mice were less efficient in inducing proliferation of antigen-specific Treg cells in vitro than the same cells from WT littermates. Upon gene transfer of ovalbumin into hepatocytes of GITR-L (-/-)FoxP3(GFP) reporter mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV8-OVA) the number of antigen-specific Treg in liver and spleen is reduced. The reduced number of Tregs resulted in an increase in the number of ovalbumin specific CD8(+) T effector cells. This is highly significant because proliferation of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells itself is dependent on the presence of GITR-L, as shown by in vitro experiments and by adoptive transfers into GITR-L (-/-) Rag (-/-) and Rag (-/-) mice that had received AAV8-OVA. Surprisingly, administering ?CD3 significantly reduced the numbers of FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the liver and spleen of GITR-L (-/-) but not WT mice. Because soluble Fc-GITR-L partially rescues ?CD3 induced in vitro depletion of the CD103(+) subset of FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Treg cells, we conclude that expression of GITR-L by antigen presenting cells is requisite for optimal Treg-mediated regulation of immune responses including those in response during gene transfer.