High-Resolution PTP1B Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of PTP1B Inhibitors from Miconia albicans.
ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for deactivation of the insulin receptor, and consequently acts as a negative regulator of insulin signal transduction. In recent years, PTP1B has become an important target for controlling insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, the ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Miconia albicans (IC50 = 4.92 µg/mL) was assessed by high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of antidiabetic compounds. This disclosed eleven PTP1B inhibitors, including five polyphenolics: 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl-4,6-di-O-galloyl-?-d-glucopyranose (2), myricetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (3), quercetin 3-O-(2?-galloyl)-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (5), mearnsetin 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (6), and kaempferol 3-O-?-l-arabinopyranoside (8) as well as eight triterpenoids: maslinic acid (13), 3-epi-sumaresinolic acid (14), sumaresinolic acid (15), 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (16), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (17), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl 2?-hydroxydulcioic acid (18), oleanolic acid (19), and ursolic acid (20). These results support the use of M. albicans as a traditional medicine with antidiabetic properties and its potential as a source of PTP1B inhibitors.
Project description:The inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is considered a valid strategy to combat insulin resistance and type II diabetes. We show here that a dichloromethane extract of Ratanhiae radix ( RR_EX) dose-dependently inhibits human recombinant PTP1B in vitro and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in murine myocytes. By determination of the PTP1B inhibiting potential of 11 recently isolated lignan derivatives from RR_EX, the observed activity of the extract could be partly assigned to ratanhiaphenol III. This compound inhibited PTP1B in vitro with an IC (50) of 20.2 µM and dose-dependently increased insulin receptor phosphorylation as well as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in cultured myotubes. This is the first report to reveal an antidiabetic potential for a constituent of rhatany root, traditionally used against inflammatory disorders, by showing its capability of inhibiting PTP1B.
Project description:PTP1B is a master regulator in the insulin and leptin metabolic pathways. Hyper-activated PTP1B results in insulin resistance and is viewed as a key factor in the onset of type II diabetes and obesity. Moreover, inhibition of PTP1B expression in cancer cells dramatically inhibits cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the computationally guided optimization of a salicylic acid-based PTP1B inhibitor 6, identifying new and more potent bidentate PTP1B inhibitors, such as 20h, which exhibited a > 4-fold improvement in activity. In CHO-IR cells, 20f, 20h, and 20j suppressed PTP1B activity and restored insulin receptor phosphorylation levels. Notably, 20f, which displayed a 5-fold selectivity for PTP1B over the closely related PTP? protein, showed no inhibition of PTP-LAR, PRL2 A/S, MKPX, or papain. Finally, 20i and 20j displayed nanomolar inhibition of PTP?, representing interesting lead compounds for further investigation.
Project description:Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) that function as negative regulators of the insulin signaling cascade have been identified as novel targets for the therapeutic enhancement of insulin action in insulin resistant disease states. Reducing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase1B (PTP1B) abundance not only enhances insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism but also protects against obesity induced by high fat feeding. PTP1B inhibitors such as Formylchromone derivatives, 1, 2-Naphthoquinone derivatives and Oxalyl aryl amino benzoic derivatives may eventually find an important clinical role as insulin sensitizers in the management of Type-II Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We have carried out docking of modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivatives into three dimensional structure of PTP1B using BioMed CAChe 6.1. These compounds exhibit good selectivity for PTP1B over most of phosphatases in selectivity panel such as SHP-2, LAR, CD45 and TCPTP found in literature. This series of compounds identified the amino acid residues such as Gly220 and Arg221 are important for achieving specificity via H-bonding interactions. Lipophilic side chain of methionine in modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivative [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] lies in closer vicinity of hydrophobic region of protein consisted of Meth258 and Phe52 in comparison to active ligand. Docking Score in [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] is -131.740Kcal/mol much better than active ligand score -98.584Kcal/mol. This information can be exploited to design PTP1B specific inhibitors.
Project description:Chromatographic isolation of the 80% MeOH extract of Acer ginnala (AG) yielded seven galloyl derivatives: gallic acid (1), ginnalin B (2), acertannin (3), maplexin D (4), maplexin E (5), quercetin-3-O-(2''-galloyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-(2''-galloyl)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (7). This is the first study to report the isolation of compounds 4 and 5 from AG. Galloyl derivatives 3-7 exhibited potent radical scavenging activities, with 5 and 7 showing particularly strong inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, oral administration of AG extract (500?mg/kg?b.w.) improved symptoms of hyperglycemia and blunted the increases in serum GOT/GPT levels in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that galloyl derivatives (1-7) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents and that AG extract has potential as a functional material or novel herbal medicine for treating diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated as a negative regulator of insulin receptor (IR) signaling and a potential drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes and other associated metabolic syndromes. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of PTP1B can be considered as an attractive approach for the design of new therapeutic agents of type II diabetes and cancer diseases. In a continuing search for new PTP1B inhibitors, a new tetramic acid possessing a rare pyrrolidinedione skeleton named fumosorinone A (1), together with five known ones 2-6 were isolated from the entomogenous fungus Isaria fumosorosea. The structures of 2-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Fumosorinone A (1) and beauvericin (6) showed significant PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.24 ?M and 0.59 ?M.
Project description:3-bromo-4,5-Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2-benzenediol (CYC31) is a bromophenol protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor isolated from the red alga Rhodomela confervoides. Here, the effect of CYC31 on the insulin signaling and fatty-acid-induced disorders in C2C12 myotubes was investigated. Molecular docking assay showed that CYC31 was embedded into the catalytic pocket of PTP1B. A cellular study found that CYC31 increased the activity of insulin signaling and promoted 2-NBDG uptake through GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myotubes. Further studies showed that CYC31 ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, CYC31 treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT-1B) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), which was tightly linked with fatty acid oxidation. These findings suggested that CYC31 could prevent palmitate-induce insulin resistance and could improve fatty acid oxidation through PTP1B inhibition.
Project description:Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) induces insulin resistance in various basic and clinical research. In our previous work, a synthetic oleanolic acid (OA) derivative C10a with PTP1B inhibitory activity has been reported. However, C10a has some pharmacological defects and cytotoxicity. Herein, a structure-based drug design approach was used based on the structure of C10a to elaborate the smaller tricyclic core. A series of tricyclic derivatives were synthesised and the compounds 15, 28 and 34 exhibited the most PTP1B enzymatic inhibitory potency. In the insulin-resistant human hepatoma HepG2 cells, compound 25 with the moderate PTP1B inhibition and preferable pharmaceutical properties can significantly increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and showed the insulin resistance ameliorating effect. Moreover, 25 showed the improved in vivo antihyperglycaemic potential in the nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced T2D. Our study demonstrated that these tricyclic derivatives with improved molecular architectures and antihyperglycaemic activity could be developed in the treatment of T2D.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome describes a set of obesity-related disorders that increase diabetes, cardiovascular, and mortality risk. Studies of liver-specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1b) deletion mice (L-PTP1b(-/-)) suggest that hepatic PTP1b inhibition would mitigate metabolic-syndrome through amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic-reticulum stress, and whole-body lipid metabolism. However, the altered molecular-network states underlying these phenotypes are poorly understood. We used mass spectrometry to quantify protein-phosphotyrosine network changes in L-PTP1b(-/-) mouse livers relative to control mice on normal and high-fat diets. We applied a phosphosite-set-enrichment analysis to identify known and novel pathways exhibiting PTP1b- and diet-dependent phosphotyrosine regulation. Detection of a PTP1b-dependent, but functionally uncharacterized, set of phosphosites on lipid-metabolic proteins motivated global lipidomic analyses that revealed altered polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (PUFA) and triglyceride metabolism in L-PTP1b(-/-) mice. To connect phosphosites and lipid measurements in a unified model, we developed a multivariate-regression framework, which accounts for measurement noise and systematically missing proteomics data. This analysis resulted in quantitative models that predict roles for phosphoproteins involved in oxidation-reduction in altered PUFA and triglyceride metabolism.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important roles in downregulation of insulin and leptin signaling and is an established therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. PTP1B is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in response to various stimuli, including insulin. The reversibly oxidized form of the enzyme (PTP1B-OX) is inactive and undergoes profound conformational changes at the active site. We generated conformation-sensor antibodies, in the form of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), that stabilize PTP1B-OX and thereby inhibit its phosphatase function. Expression of conformation-sensor scFvs as intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) enhanced insulin-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of the ? subunit of the insulin receptor and its substrate IRS-1 and increased insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKB/AKT. Our data suggest that stabilization of the oxidized, inactive form of PTP1B with appropriate therapeutic molecules may offer a paradigm for phosphatase drug development.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a novel therapeutic target for type-2 diabetes, which negatively regulates the insulin signaling transduction. Bis (2, 3-dibromo-4, 5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (BDDE), a novel bromophenol isolated from the Red Alga, is a novel PTP1B inhibitor. But the anti-diabetic effects are not clear. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic effects of BDDE. METHODS:The insulin-resistant HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of BDDE. MTT assay was used to determine the safety concentrations in HepG2 cells. Glucose assay kit was used to check glucose uptake after treated with BDDE. Western blotting assay was used to explore the potent mechanisms. The db/db mice were used to evaluate the in vivo antidiabetic effects of BDDE. Body weight, blood glucose, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, and insulin level were checked at the respective time points. Gastrocnemii were dissected and used to analyze the PTP1B and insulin receptor ? (IR?) expression. RESULTS:BDDE increased the insulin-resisted glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. BDDE also decreased the expression of PTP1B and activated the substrates and downstream signals in insulin signal pathway, such as IR?, insulin receptor substrate-1/2 (IRS1/2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). In the db/db mice model, BDDE significantly decreased the blood glucose, HbA1c and triglyceride (TG) levels. BDDE also decreased the expression of PTP1B and activated the phosphorylation of IR? in gastrocnemii. Moreover, BDDE at high doses downregulated the body weight without affecting food and water intake. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that BDDE as a new PTP1B inhibitor improves glucose metabolism by stimulating the insulin signaling and could be used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus.