Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications.
ABSTRACT: Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC) and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC) showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01). Hongyingzi (S-1), one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8) had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7), that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01) and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01) may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.
Project description:Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV) is a kind of traditional fermented food worldwide. In this study, the changes of physicochemical properties, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were evaluated during the brewing process of ZAV. In addition, the correlation between phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activities was investigated during the aging process (AP) of ZAV. The results showed that total acids, non-volatile acids, and amino nitrogen increased gradually during the brewing process. Reducing sugar decreased sharply at the early fermentation stage and then increased during the AP. Meanwhile, TPC, TFC, and TAA kept a very low level at the stage of alcohol fermentation (AF), and increased to the highest level at the sixth year of the AP. TAA has a high positive correlation with TPC and TFC during the brewing process of ZAV. In addition, the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and catechin were higher than other phenolic compounds and reached the highest level at the sixth year of the AP, and were the main composition of phenolic compounds during the AP. Moreover, gallic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid had the higher contribution at the early stage of the AP, and then declined to a lower level. Catechin, vanillic acid, and syringic acid had a higher contribution during the AP. These findings would be helpful in controlling the quality of vinegar and improving its functional properties.
Project description:Brewing spent grains (BSGs) are the main by-product from breweries and they are rich of proanthocyanidins, among other phenolic compounds. However, literature on these compounds in BSGs is scarce. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidin compounds in brewing spent grains using a sonotrode. To set the sonotrode extraction up, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three factors, namely, solvent composition, time of extraction, and ultrasound power. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of proanthocyanidin compounds were performed using HPLC coupled to fluorometric and mass spectrometer detectors. The highest content of proanthocyanidins was obtained using 80/20 acetone/water (<i>v</i>/<i>v</i>), 55 min, and 400 W. The established method allows the extraction of 1.01 mg/g dry weight (d.w.) of pronthocyanidins from BSGs; this value is more than two times higher than conventional extraction.
Project description:Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean countries especially in Morocco. Pomegranate peel and seed contain considerable amounts of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to phytochemically characterize the pomegranate peels and seeds obtained from three Moroccan provinces, using UHPLC-DAD. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and metal chelating of pomegranate peel were also evaluated. The results showed that pomegranate peel possesses the highest phenolic (TPC: 224.39?mg GAE/g dw) and flavonoid (TFC: 62.64?mg rutin/g dw) contents. Punicalagin-? and punicalagin-?, are the abundant compounds found in peel: 216.36 ± 9.94?mg/g, 154.94 ± 5.21?mg/g, respectively. Pomegranate peels showed significantly (p < 0.05) high antioxidant activity 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) EC50: 42.71 ± 0.04??g/mL, 2.2?-Azino-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS) EC50: 62.15 ± 0.01??g/mL), and chelating activity (FRAP 1.85 ± 0.00?mg ascorbic acid equivalents/100?g, Fe2+: 2.52 ± 0.01??mol EDTA equivalents/g dw) compared to seeds. A positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic was found. According to achieved results, high antioxidant capacity of pomegranate extracts, especially peel, shed light to further use as natural food preservatives. Pomegranate peel could be used for the fortification of food with fiber by introducing it in dietary, as well as in health applications due to its higher antioxidant capacity.
Project description:Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.
Project description:Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of ?-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.
Project description:This study aimed to systematically assess the phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of 21 chestnut samples collected from six geographical areas of China. All these samples exhibit significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC) and antioxidant capacities assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), ABTS free radical scavenging capacities (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 14 free phenolic acids. Chestnuts collected from Fuzhou, Jiangxi (East China) exhibited the maximum values for TPC (2.35 mg GAE/g), CTC (13.52 mg CAE/g), DPPH (16.74 ?mol TE/g), ABTS (24.83 ?mol TE/g), FRAP assays (3.20 mmol FE/100g), and total free phenolic acids (314.87 µg/g). Vanillin and gallic acids were found to be the most abundant free phenolic compounds among other 14 phenolic compounds detected by HPLC. Overall, the samples from South China revealed maximum mean values for TPC, CTC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Among the three chestnut varieties, Banli presented prominent mean values for all the assays. These finding will be beneficial for production of novel functional food and developing high-quality chestnut varieties.
Project description:Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV) is one of the well-known fermented condiments in China, which is produced by solid-state fermentation. It can be classified into traditional Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (TZAV) and industrial Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (IZAV) because of different production methods. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variations and differences on chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of TZAV and IZAV during the aging process. The proximate composition, organic acids content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phenolic compounds composition of TZAV and IZAV were detected during the aging process. Organic acids contents, TPC, TFC, TAA and phenolic compounds contents in ZAV were increased during the aging process. Acetic acid, lactic acid and pyroglutamic acid in ZAV were major organic acids. With the extension of aging time, TZAV and IZAV had similar proximate compositions and organic acids content. The values of TPC, TFC and TAA were higher in TZAV than in IZAV when aging is more than 3 years. Rutin and p-coumaric acid were detected in TZAV but not in IZAV. In principal component analysis (PCA), TZAV and IZAV can be divided into two groups according to their phenolic compounds composition. These findings provide references for evaluating TZAV and IZAV on the basis of their characterizations.
Project description:Polyphenols in sorghum grains are a source of dietary antioxidants. Polyphenols in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under two day/night temperature regimes of optimal temperature (OT, 32/21 °C and high temperature (HT, 38/21 °C) were investigated. A total of 23 phenolic compounds were positively or tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Compared with other pigmented types, the phenolic profile of white sorghum PI563516 was simpler, since fewer polyphenols were detected. Brown sorghum IS 8525 had the highest levels of caffeic and ferulic acid, but apigenin and luteolin were not detected. Free luteolinidin and apigeninidin levels were lower under HT than OT across all genotypes (p ≤ 0.05), suggesting HT could have inhibited 3-deoxyanthocyanidins formation. These results provide new information on the effects of HT on specific polyphenols in various Australian sorghum genotypes, which might be used as a guide to grow high antioxidant sorghum grains under projected high temperature in the future.
Project description:Peruvian corn biodiversity is one of the highest in the world and may represent an important natural source of health relevant phenolic bioactive compounds whose potential needs to be investigated. This study investigated twenty-two Peruvian corn samples corresponding to five corn races (Arequipeño, Cabanita, Kculli, Granada and Coruca) in relation to their total phenolic contents (TPC), anthocyanin contents, Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and ORAC methods). Subsequently using both free and cell-wall bound phenolic fractions their health relevance targeting hyperglycemia (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibition) and obesity (lipase inhibition) potentials was evaluated using in vitro assay models. Antioxidant capacity and TPC were high in bound fractions from yellow-colored races in contrast to the purple-colored race (Kculli) which had high TPC (mainly anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in the free form. The major phenolic acids detected by UPLC were ferulic and p-coumaric acids. High ?-glucosidase (32.5-76.1%, 25 mg sample dose) and moderate ?-amylase inhibitory activities (13.6-29.0%, 250 mg sample dose) were found in all free fractions, but only samples from the Kculli race had lipase inhibitory activity (58.45-92.16%, 12.5 mg sample dose). Principal component analysis revealed that the variability of data was affected by the race and the ?-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities positively correlated with anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity. Some accessions of Kculli, Granada and Cabanita races are promising for future breeding strategies focused on the development of improved corn varieties targeted for the design of functional foods relevant for hyperglycemia and obesity prevention.
Project description:Heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull.) is noted for a diverse chemical composition and a broad range of biological activity. The current study was aimed at monitoring changes in the accumulation of certain groups of phenolic compounds in various organs of heather (leaves, stems, roots, rhizomes, flowers, and seeds) at different growth stages (vegetative, floral budding, flowering, and seed ripening) as well as studying antioxidant (employing the DPPH and FRAP assays) and antibacterial activity of its extracts. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins was detected in leaves and roots at all growth stages, except for the flowering stage. At the flowering stage, the highest content of some groups of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins) was observed in flowers. Highest antioxidant activity was recorded for the flower extracts (about 500 mg of ascorbic acid equivalents per gram according to the DPPH assay) and for the leaf extract at the ripening stage (about 350 mg of ascorbic acid equivalents per gram according to the FRAP assay). Strong correlation was noted between antioxidant activity (DPPH) and the content of anthocyanins (r = 0.75, p ? 0.01) as well as between antioxidant activity (FRAP) and the total content of phenolic compounds (r = 0.77, p ? 0.01). Leaf extracts and stem extracts turned out to perform antibacterial action against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, whereas root extracts appeared to be active only against B. subtilis, and rhizome extracts against E. coli.