Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated From Neonates With Sepsis.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents in neonates. There are "classic" and hypervirulent strains of K. pneumoniae. The "classic" non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is associated with nosocomial infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infections in previously healthy adult people, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility. The role of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae (including hv-KP) in neonatal infections is unknown. The aim of the study was the assessment of the impact of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae strains on clinical features and outcomes of neonatal infection. Materials and Methods: Two groups of infants were enrolled. The first group consisted of 10 neonates with sepsis caused by K. pneumoniae. The second group consisted of 10 neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by K. pneumoniae. We investigated the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates to antibiotics, the ability of the microorganism to produce ESBL, and virulence factors, including the rmpA gene, aerobactin, and colibactin genes. In neonates with sepsis, we investigated K. pneumoniae isolates, which was taken from the blood, in neonates with UTI-from the urine. Results: In neonates with sepsis testing of K. pneumoniae isolates for ESBL production was positive in 60% of cases, in neonates with UTI-in 40% of cases. All blood and urine ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillins, including protected ones, and third-generation cephalosporins. At the same time, these isolates were sensitive to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The rmpA gene was detected in four blood, and three urine K. pneumoniae isolates. In neonates with sepsis rmpA gene in two cases was detected in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. They were infants with meningitis, and both cases were fatal. In the group of infants with UTI, the rmpA gene was detected only in K. pneumoniae isolates not producing ESBL. Aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected in two neonates with sepsis and in three neonates with UTI. In all cases, aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected only in rmpA-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Out of three fatal outcomes, two cases were caused by hv-KP producing ESBL. Conclusion: The prevalence of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae among neonates with sepsis and other neonatal infection is higher than we think. The most severe forms of neonatal sepsis with an unfavorable outcome in our study were due to virulent strains of K. pneumoniae.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) has been increasingly reported and is now recognized as a significant threat to public health; however, characterization of MDR-hvKP has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, 124 of 428 (28.92%) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from January 2010 to December 2016 were identified with aerobactin and defined as hvKP; these included 94 non-MDR-KP, 20 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), and 10 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) isolates. The remaining 304 isolates without presence of virulence factor aerobactin were defined as classic K. pneumoniae (cKP). The antimicrobial resistance rate of cKP was significantly higher than that of the hvKP isolates in the non-MDR-KP group, but showed no significant differences in the ESBL-KP and CR-KP groups. The detection frequencies of capsular serotype K1 (magA), hypermucoviscosity, sequence type 23 (ST23), and the virulence gene rmpA were significantly higher in the hvKP than cKP isolates in all three groups (P < 0.05). Most of the hypervirulent ESBL-KP and CR-KP isolates were K non-typeable (16/30) and harbored at least one gene for virulence (26/30). The hypervirulent ESBL-KP isolates primarily carried bla CTX-M (12/20, 60%) genes, and the hypervirulent CR-KP isolates mainly carried bla NDM- 1 (8/10, 80%) genes. Moreover, three hypervirulent ESBL-KP and two hypervirulent CR-KP isolates showed resistance to tigecycline but were sensitive to colistin. The transcriptional levels of rmpA in cKP were much lower than that in hvKP isolates in all three groups. Furthermore, overexpression of rmpA in the rmpA-low-expression cKP isolates could enhance bacterial virulence in the mouse infection experiment. In conclusion, our data suggest that the capsular serotype K1 (magA), rmpA, hypermucoviscosity, and ST23 were strongly associated with hvKP in non-MDR-KP, ESBL-KP, and CR-KP groups, and low rmpA expression levels contributed to the absence of hypervirulent phenotype.
Project description:The study was conducted to establish predictors of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) neonatal sepsis and mortality in a tertiary hospital, Tanzania. Between July and December 2016, blood culture was performed in neonates with clinical features of sepsis and neonates/mothers/guardians were screened for ESBL colonization. Selected isolates underwent whole genome sequencing to investigate relatedness. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for ESBL-PE associated neonatal sepsis and mortality. Neonatal ESBL-PE sepsis was detected in 32(10.5%) of the 304 neonates investigated. Neonatal ESBL-PE sepsis was independently predicted by admission at the Intensive care Unit and positive mother and neonate ESBL-PE colonization. Deaths occurred in 55(18.1%) of neonates. Neonates infected with ESBL-PE, admitted at ICU, increased age and those transferred from other centres had significantly high mortality rates. Gram-negative bacteria formed the majority (76%) of the isolates, of which 77% were ESBL-PE. Virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae ST45 carrying blaCTX-M-15 were commonly isolated from neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST45) were the predominant cause of ESBL-PE neonatal sepsis and mortality. Improved infection control and antibiotic stewardship are crucial in controlling the spread of resistant strains. Rapid diagnostic tests to detect ESBL-PE in low-income countries are needed to guide treatment and reduce ESBL-PE-associated mortality.
Project description:Invasive syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), including liver abscess, is mainly caused by community-acquired strains with characteristics of positive hypermucoviscosity (HV) phenotype and regulator of mucoid phenotype A (rmpA) and transcriptional activator (rmpA2) genes. Extended- spectrum ?-lactamase-producing KP (ESBL-KP) is commonly nosocomial and rarely HV-positive. We aimed to explore the reasons of the rarer prevalence of HV phenotype, rmpA and rmpA2 as well as the virulence phenotype among the ESBL-KP isolates from clinical specimens than those non-ESBL isolates. The ?-lactamase genes, rmpA, rmpA2 and genes for K capsule serotype of 440 KP isolates were analyzed. The virulence of the isolates was characterized by the mouse lethality experiments. The prevalence rates of HV phenotype (? 50% vs. < 10%) as well as rmpA and rmpA2 genes (? 50-60% vs. < 20-30%) were significantly higher in non-ESBL group than in the ESBL group (p < 0.0001). Expression of HV phenotype in the rmpA-positive KP isolates was significantly rarer in the ESBL group than in non-ESBL group (33.3% vs. 91.9%, p < 0.0001). The frameshift mutations of rmpA and/or rmpA2 corresponded to negative HV phenotype of KP isolates that harbored the rmpA and/or rmpA2, resulting in variable mouse lethality (LD50, ? 10(3) - >5 × 10(7) CFU). The mutation rates might significantly differ among KP isolates from various sources. Virulence was dependent on rmpA-related HV phenotype. In conclusion, ESBL-KP isolates were less hypermucoviscous and less virulent than non-ESBL KP isolates, mostly due to concurrently lower carriage and higher mutation rates of the rmpA and rmpA2 genes.
Project description:Since the spread of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDRKP) strains is considered as a challenge for patients with weakened or suppressed immunity, the emergence of isolates carrying determinants of hypervirulent phenotypes in addition may become a serious problem even for healthy individuals. The aim of this study is an investigation of the nonoutbreak K. pneumoniae emergence occurred in early 2017 at a maternity hospital of Kazan, Russia. Ten bacterial isolates demonstrating multiple drug resistance phenotypes were collected from eight healthy full-term breastfed neonates, observed at the maternity hospital of Kazan, Russia. All the infants and their mothers were dismissed without symptoms or complaints, in a satisfactory condition. Whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing was performed with the purpose to track down a possible spread source(s) and obtain detailed information about resistance determinants and pathogenic potential of the collected isolates. Microdilution tests have confirmed production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) and their resistance to aminoglycoside, ?-lactam, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, and fosfomycin antibiotics and Klebsiella phage. The WGS analysis has revealed the genes that are resistant to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim and ESBL determinants. The pangenome analysis had split the isolates into two phylogenetic clades. The first group, a more heterogeneous clade, was represented by 5 isolates with 4 different in silico multilocus sequence types (MLSTs). The second group contained 5 isolates from infants born vaginally with the single MLST ST23, positive for genes corresponding to hypervirulent phenotypes: yersiniabactin, aerobactin, salmochelin, colibactin, hypermucoid determinants, and specific alleles of K- and O-antigens. The source of the MDRKP spread was not defined. Infected infants have shown no developed disease symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The definition of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp), traditionally regarded as hypermucoviscosity, is controversial. However, data based on both phenotype (hypermucoviscous) and genetic (aerobactin) criteria are limited. METHODS:A retrospective study was conducted in 175 geriatric patients between January 2008 and January 2014. The clinical and molecular data, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) production, virulence gene, and multilocus sequence typing of the hvKp-group (hypermucoviscosity and aerobactin positive) were compared with those of classic K. pneumoniae (cKp) isolates. RESULTS:Of 175 Kp isolates, 45.7% were hvKp. In pathogenicity, K1, K2, magA, rmpA, and rmpA2 genes were strongly associated with hvKp (P?<?0.01). In the hvKp group, invasive infections (P?<?0.000), liver abscess (P?=?0.008), abdominal infection (P?=?0.002) and septic shock (P?=?0.035) are significantly higher than cKp group. Patients with better nutritional status were frequently infected with hvKp. However, host inflammatory reaction is most severe in hvKp group. Patients with diabetes (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.548) and digestive diseases (OR?=?2.196) are more likely to be infected with hvKp. Importantly, the detection of hvKp isolates increased from January 2008 to January 2010, January 2010 to January 2012, and January 2010 to January 2014 (12, 30, and 48 isolates, respectively). Overall, 16.3% of hvKp isolates produced ESBLs and 20.0% were MDR-hvKp. Multivariate analysis implied that infection occurred in the ICU (OR?=?5.826) and patients with indwelling stomach tubes (OR?=?6.461) are independent risk factors for ESBL-hvKp infection. CONCLUSIONS:HvKp, especially ESBL-hvKp and MDR-hvKp, is emerging in the elderly. It is essential to enhance clinical awareness and management of hvKp infections.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) have traditionally been considered two individual populations; however, strains displaying both phenotypes have emerged during the recent decade. Understanding the genotypic and phenotypic basis of the convergence could be of clinical importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity associated with different combinations of genotypes (i.e., sequence types, virulence factors, and capsular serotypes) and phenotypes (i.e., hypermucoviscosity and drug susceptibility) in K. pneumoniae. A total of 11 K. pneumoniae isolates causing bloodstream infections were included in the study, and they were assigned to seven STs (ST23, ST15, ST268, ST660, ST86, ST65, and ST1660) and carried various K-loci (KL1, KL2, KL16, KL20, and KL24). Hypermucoviscosity was observed for six isolates. bla KPC-2 was detected in six carbapenem-resistant isolates, and the remaining ones were either multidrug-resistant or resistant to two types of antibiotics. Aerobactin- and yersiniabactin-encoding genes were detected in all isolates. Although rmpA2 was detected in all isolates, most contained frameshift mutations (82%). Genes encoding salmochelin, RmpA, and PEG344 were detected in seven isolates. Colibactin-encoding genes were carried by six isolates. Discrepancies among measured virulence in Galleria mellonella and the serum-killing assay, and genotypes and phenotypes were detected. The results illustrate the complexity and difficulty with the current knowledge of hypervirulence to predict the phenotype by using genetic and phenotypic markers. Additionally, the emergence of carbapenem resistance in two isolates of KPC-2-producing hvKP of different sequence types emphasizes the urgency with which reliable clinical diagnostics for hvKP is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The comparisons of molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) isolates from humans and other animal hosts are not well studied. Our goal was to compare the molecular epidemiology of KP strains that were isolated from urban rodents, shrews, and healthy people. RESULTS:K. pneumoniae (KP) isolates were isolated from fecal samples of rodents, shrews and healthy adults in 2015 in southern China. In total, 465 fecal samples were collected, of which 85 from rodents, 105 from shrews, and 275 from healthy adults. Antimicrobial susceptibility and production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) of the isolates were tested. PCR-based methods were used to detect specific genes, including ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M) in ESBL-producing isolates, capsular serotypes (K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57) in hypervirulent KPs (hvKPs), and virulence genes (magA, wcaG, rmpA, uge, kfu, and aerobactin) in hvKP isolates. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to exclude the homology of these isolates. The carriage rate of KP in urban rodents and shrews (78.42%) was higher than that in healthy adults (66.18%) (?2?=?8.206, P?=?0.004). The prevalence rates of ESBL-producing isolates among rodents, shrews, and humans were 7.94, 12.79, and 17.03%, respectively. The positive rates of CTX-M, TEM and SHV types in ESBL-producing isolates were 29.79, 27.66, and 17.02%, respectively. Serotype K1, K5, K20, and K57 were detected in both small mammals and humans. PFGE typing revealed thirty-six clusters. PFGE cluster A was clustered by samples of shrews and healthy adult, with a similarity of 88.4%. MLST typing revealed thirty-eight types. ST23 and ST35 were detected in samples of shrews and healthy adults. ST37 was detected in samples of 2 rodents and a healthy adult. CONCLUSIONS:Overlapping serotypes of hvKP were observed in both the animals and humans. The same PFGE or MLST types were also found in isolates derived humans, rodents and shrews. Therefore, urban rodents and shrews might play a certain role in the transmission of drug-resistant and hypervirulent KP.
Project description:Background:The emergence of the NDM-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains has led to limited therapeutic options for clinical treatment. Understanding the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm assay, and the virulence genes of these isolated strains is of great significance. Methods:The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae. The clinical information of the patients was collected from medical records. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing. Sixty strains of NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolated during the same period were collected as the control group for the virulence analysis. The virulence phenotype of the strains was preliminarily evaluated by the string test and crystal violet semiquantitative biofilm formation experiment. PCR combined with gene sequencing was used to detect common high toxicity capsule genes (K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57) and common virulence-related genes (entB, ybtS, ureA, ycf, WabG, FimH, uge, iutA, KfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, magA, Alls, IrnN, and VatD). Results:In the 30 nonduplicated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates, 43.33% (13/30) of the patients had a history of a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Nine STs were identified, 77% (10/13) strains from the NICU were ST11. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae string tests were all negative, and 35% (21/60) NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae were positive. The ratios of NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates biofilm formation ability according to strong, medium, and weak classification were 67%, 23%, and 10%, respectively. NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolates were 60%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (t?=?0.61, P=0.2723). The virulence-associated genes with more than 80% of detection rates among the 30 NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates included entB (100%, 30/30), ybtS (93.33%, 28/30), ureA (90%, 27/30), ycf (83.33%, 25/30), and wabG (90%, 27/30). KfuB and iutA were detected at prevalence of 3.33% and 13.33%. vatD, allS, iroN, aerobactin, and rmpA were not detected. In the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae, all other 14 virulence genes except VatD were detected. After statistical analysis, FimH, WabG, ycf, iutA, kfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, and Alls virulence genes, P < 0.005, there was a statistical difference. Conclusion:NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae exhibited multidrug resistance, MLST typing is mainly ST11, there is small clonal dissemination in the NICU in the hospital, and the NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate is lower than the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate.
Project description:Some important virulence factors have been elucidated in Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. We investigated the relationship between virulence factors and multilocus sequence types (STs) and assessed the risk factors for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae. From April 2004 through April 2012, a total of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumonia (23 with bacteremia and 97 without bacteremia) were collected from 10 medical institutions in Japan. Additionally, 10 strains of K. pneumoniae serotype K2 that were isolated >30 years ago were included in this study. These isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the characteristics of their virulence factors, such as hypermucoviscosity phenotype and RmpA and aerobactin production between patients with and without bacteremia, were examined. MLST analysis was performed on the 120 isolates from patients with pneumonia, and some sequence type groups were defined as genetic lineages (GLs). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia (21.7%) than in those without bacteremia (7.2%). The majority of the strains with serotype K2 were classified into GL14 or GL65, and rmpA and the gene for aerobactin were present in all GL65-K2 strains but absent in all GL14-K2 strains. In a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for bacteremia included GL65 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81 to 49.31), as well as neoplastic disease (AOR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.61 to 37.92), immunosuppression (AOR, 17.85; 95% CI, 1.49 to 214.17), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.29 to 17.61). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia and was associated with the virulence factors of K. pneumoniae.
Project description:The objective of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in carbapenem resistance and virulence of a K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate 24835. The virulence of the strain was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole-genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the carbapenem resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae 24835. Strain 24835 was highly resistant to carbapenems and belonged to ST14, exhibited hypermucoviscous and unique K2-aerobactin-kfu-rmpA positive phenotype. As the only carbapenemase gene in strain 24835, blaNDM-5 was located on a 46-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is a very close relation of pNDM-MGR194 from India. Genetic context of blaNDM-5 in strain 24835 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in K. pneumoniae 24835. Significantly increased resistance to serum killing and mice mortality were found in the virulent New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing K. pneumoniae strain compared to the other NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Our study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of K. pneumoniae 24835, a strain displaying carbapenem resistance and relatively high level of virulence. These findings are concerning for the potential of NDM-like genes to disseminate among virulent K. pneumoniae isolates.