Screening of exosomal miRNAs derived from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues: Determination of targets for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
ABSTRACT: Exosomal micro (mi)RNAs have been suggested to have important roles in abdominal obesity, and to be associated with metabolic alterations via posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. However, exosomal miRNA profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have rarely been investigated. In the present study, microarray data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database with the following accession numbers: GSE68885 (exosomal miRNAs in SAT obtained from seven patients with obesity and five lean patients), GSE50574 (exosomal miRNAs in VAT obtained from seven patients with obesity and five lean patients) and GSE29718 [mRNAs in SAT (obtained from seven patients with obesity and eight lean patients) and VAT (obtained from three patients with obesity and two lean patients)]. Differentially expressed (DE)?miRNAs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data method, and mRNA targets of DE?miRNAs were predicted using the miRWalk2.0 database. Potential functions of DE?miRNA target genes were determined using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. As a result, 10 exosomal DE?miRNAs were identified in SAT between patients with obesity and lean patients, while 58 DE?miRNAs were identified in VAT between patients with obesity and lean patients. miRNA (miR)?4517 was revealed to be a downregulated exosomal miRNA between SAT and VAT, while the other DE?miRNAs were SAT?(e.g. hsa?miR?3156?5p and hsa?miR?4460) or VAT?(e.g. hsa?miR?582?5p, hsa?miR?566 and miR?548) specific. Following overlapping with the target genes of DE?miRNAs, only one DEG [cluster of differentiation 86 (CD86)] was identified in SAT samples, whereas 25 DEGs (e.g. fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), FOS like 2, AP?1 transcription factor subunit (FOSL2); and adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 (AMPD3)] were identified in VAT samples. CD86 was revealed to be regulated by hsa?miR?3156?5p; whereas FGF2, FOSL2 and AMPD3 were revealed to be regulated by hsa?miR?582?5p, hsa?miR?566 and miR?548, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that these target genes may be associated with inflammation. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs may represent underlying therapeutic targets for the treatment of abdominal obesity and metabolic disorders via regulation of inflammatory genes.
Project description:Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.
Project description:Purpose:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Exosomes are membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles, and exosomal RNA can be a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis in RCC patients. We aim to identify differences in miRNA expression profiles in peripheral blood exosomes between RCC patients and healthy subjects as well as to investigate novel markers of RCC. Methods:We performed exosomal miRNA sequencing of plasma samples obtained from five RCC patients and five control subjects, subsequently 22 RCC patients and 16 control subjects were investigated using qPCR to confirm the differential miRNA which from plasma exosomal RNA sequencing. ROC curves were constructed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of exosomal miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of RCC. Results:Exosomes were isolated with the exoeasy maxi kit and confirmed using TEM and NTA. They have a spherical structure with a diameter of approximately 40-180 nm. The exosomal miRNA sequence results showed that a total of 2357 miRNAs were detected, and 245 miRNAs were differentially expressed between RCC patients and healthy controls (p<0.001, average counts >5, log|fc|>1). Further analysis revealing that, versus the control, 17 miRNAs are up-regulated and 5 miRNAs are down-regulated under selection conditions with average miRNAs counts >100. qPCR was performed using 38 subjects-the results showed that the expression levels of hsa-mir-149-3p and hsa-mir-424-3p were upregulated; the expression levels of hsa-mir-92a-1-5p were significantly downregulated in the plasma exosomes of RCC. For diagnosis of RCC, the AUC of hsa-mir-92a-1-5p, hsa-mir-149-3p and hsa-mir-424-3p was 0.8324, 0.7188 and 0.7727, with the sensitivity of 0.875, 0.750 and 0.750, and the specificity of 0.773,0.727 and 0.818, respectively, at the best cutoff value. Conclusion:Our study revealed that the expression levels of hsa-mir-92a-1-5p, hsa-mir-149-3p and hsa-mir-424-3p were significantly abnormal in RCC patients, which may be novel biomarkers for RCC diagnosis.
Project description:Background: Given the role that vitamin D (VD) plays in the regulation of the inflammatory activity of adipocytes, we aimed to assess whether obesity changes the expression of VD-related genes in adipose tissue and, if so, to investigate whether this phenomenon depends on microRNA interference and how it may influence the local inflammatory milieu. Methods: The expression of genes encoding VD 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and receptor (VDR), selected interleukins and microRNAs was evaluated by real-time PCR in visceral (VAT) and in subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues of 55 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 31 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2) individuals. Results: VDR mRNA levels were higher, while CYP27B1 levels were lower in adipose tissues of obese patients than in those of normal-weight controls (VAT: P = 0.04, SAT: P < 0.0001 and VAT: P = 0.004, SAT: P = 0.016, respectively). The expression of VDR in VAT of obese subjects correlated negatively with levels of miR-125a-5p (P = 0.0006, rs = -0.525), miR-125b-5p (P = 0.001, rs = -0.495), and miR-214-3p (P = 0.009, rs = -0.379). Additionally, VDR mRNA concentrations in visceral adipose tissues of obese subjects correlated positively with mRNA levels of interleukins: 1?, 6 and 8. Conclusions: We observed obesity-associated up-regulation of VDR and down-regulation of CYP27B mRNA levels in adipose tissue. VDR expression correlates with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and may be regulated by miRNAs.
Project description:Galectins (Gal) exert many activities, including regulation of inflammation and adipogenesis. We evaluated modulation of Gal-1, -3, -9 and -12 in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue in mice.We used two mouse models of obesity, high-fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and ob/ob mice. We also evaluated the response of Gal-1 KO mice to DIO.Both age and diet modulated expression of galectins, with DIO mice having higher serum Gal-1 and Gal-3 versus lean mice after 13-17 weeks of high-fat diet. In DIO mice there was a progressive increase in expression of Gal-1 and Gal-9 in SAT, whereas Gal-3 increased in both VAT and SAT. Expression of Gal-12 declined over time in VAT of DIO mice, similar to adiponectin. Obesity lead to increased production of Gal-1 in adipocytes, whereas the increased Gal-3 and Gal-9 of obesity mostly derived from the stromovascular fraction. Expression of Gal-12 was restricted to adipocytes. There was increased production of Gal-3 and Gal-9, but not Gal-1, in CD11c(-) and CD11c(+) macrophages from VAT of DIO versus lean mice. Expression of Gal-1, -3 and -12 in VAT and SAT of ob/ob mice followed a trend comparable to DIO mice. Rosiglitazone reduced serum Gal-1, but not Gal-3 and modulated expression of Gal-3 in VAT and Gal-9 and Gal-12 in SAT of DIO mice. High-fat feeding lead to increased adiposity in Gal-1 KO versus WT mice, with loss of correlation between leptin and adiposity and no alterations in glucose and insulin levels.Obesity leads to differential modulation of Gal-1, 3, 9 and 12 in VAT and SAT, with Gal-1 acting as a modulator of adiposity.
Project description:To the best of our knowledge, the microRNA (miR/miRNA) expression profile of plasma exosomes in ovarian cancer has not been previously studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the practicality of using plasma exosomal miRNAs as novel serological biomarkers of ovarian cancer. In the study, exosome-like vesicles were purified from the plasma of patients with ovarian cancer and healthy women using differential centrifugation. The purified vesicles, ranging from 50-100 nm in size, were identified as exosomes by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that 65 known miRNAs, 34 of which were upregulated and 31 downregulated, were differentially expressed between patients with ovarian cancer and healthy women (P<0.05; fold change ≥2). The miRNA expression levels of hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p and hsa-miR-93-5p were significantly increased, whereas hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-99b-5p expression levels were significantly decreased in the exosomes of patients with ovarian cancer compared with those in the healthy controls. Additionally, the miRNA expression levels of plasma hsa-miR-93-5p were significantly increased in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those in the healthy controls, while the plasma expression levels of hsa-miR-122-5p and hsa-miR-99b-5p were significantly decreased in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those in the healthy controls. Overall, the present study identified plasma and exosomal miRNAs with dysregulated expression in patients with ovarian cancer compared with that in healthy controls, and the differentially expressed miRNAs may have potential as diagnostic and prognostic targets for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer.
Project description:Circulating exosomes from prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radiotherapy are attractive candidate biomarkers for monitoring treatment response. Multiple workflows for isolation and content characterization of exosomes in biofluids have been attempted. We report a protocol to isolate and characterize exosomal miRNAs content and assess radiation-induced changes.In this pilot study, we performed targeted exosomal miRNA profiling of 25 serum samples obtained from PCa patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease treated with curative radiotherapy (RT), and controls. Post-treatment blood samples were collected at least 28 days after radiation therapy as a paired follow-up sample. The complete workflow consisted of two phases: I) filtration and polyethylene glycol salt precipitation phase which enriched particles below 200 nm in size followed by characterization using electron microscopy, and II) flow cytometry. Finally, miRNA expression analysis between untreated and treated patient samples was performed using RNA extraction kit, and qRT-PCR.In our preliminary data, 1 ml of serum from PCa patients showed higher exosomal concentration (3.68E+10) compared to controls (6.07E+08). The overall expression of exosomes after RT was found to be higher compared to untreated samples; the median value changed from 3.68E+10 to 5.40E+10; p?=?0.52. Using electron microscopy, we were able to visualize cup-shaped vesicles with morphology and size compatible with exosomes. The bead-based flow cytometry showed positivity for exosomal tetraspanins surface markers CD63 and CD9. All five miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-miR-141-3p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-99b-5p) have been identified in exosomes. Despite overall changes in hsa-let-7a-5p expression after radiation, the difference was significant only in the high-risk group (p?=?0.037). In addition, the radiation response to hsa-miR-21-5p was elevated in the high-risk group compared to the intermediate group (p?=?0.036).Herewith, we demonstrated a protocol for isolation of serum exosomes and exosomal miRNA amplification. The recovery of exosomal miRNAs and their differential expression after radiation treatment suggests promising biomarker potential that requires further investigation in larger patient cohorts.
Project description:Although obesity represents a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the link between these pathological conditions is not so clear. The manner in which the different elements of adipose tissue (AT) interplay in order to grow has been suggested to have a role in the genesis of metabolic complications, but this has not yet been fully addressed in humans. Through IHC, transmission electron microscopy, cytometry, and in vitro cultures, we described the morphological and functional changes of subcutaneous and visceral AT (SAT and VAT) in normoglycemic, prediabetic and T2DM patients with obesity compared to lean subjects. In both SAT and VAT we measured a hypertrophic and hyperplastic expansion, causing similar vascular rarefaction in obese patients with different degrees of metabolic complications. Capillaries display dysfunctional basement membrane thickening only in T2DM patients evidencing VAT as a new target of T2DM microangiopathy. The largest increase in adipocyte size and decrease in adipose stem cell number and adipogenic potential occur both in T2DM and in prediabetes. We showed that SAT and VAT remodeling with stemness deficit is associated with early glucose metabolism impairment suggesting the benefit of an AT-target therapy controlling hypertrophy and hyperplasia already in prediabetic obese patients.
Project description:Coiled-coil domain-containing 80 (CCDC80) is an adipocyte-secreted protein that modulates glucose homeostasis in response to diet-induced obesity in mice. The objective of this study is to analyze the link between human CCDC80 and obesity. CCDC80 protein expression was assessed in paired visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from 10 subjects (BMI range 22.4-38.8 kg/m2). Circulating CCDC80 levels were quantified in serum samples from two independent cross-sectional cohorts comprising 33 lean and 15 obese (cohort 1) and 32 morbid obese (cohort 2) male subjects. Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and blood neutrophil count were quantified in serum samples from both cohorts. Additionally, circulating free IGF-1 levels and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were assessed in cohort 1 whereas C-reactive protein levels and degree of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis were studied in cohort 2. In lean subjects, total CCDC80 protein content assessed by immunoblotting was lower in VAT than in SAT. In obese patients, CCDC80 was increased in VAT (P<0.05), but equivalent in SAT compared with lean counterparts. In cohort 1, serum CCDC80 correlated negatively with the acute insulin response to glucose and IGF1 levels, and positively with blood neutrophil count, independently of BMI, but not with insulin sensitivity. In cohort 2, serum CCDC80 was positively linked to the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (r=0.46; P=0.009), atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, r=0.62; P<0.001) and hepatic steatosis (ANOVA P=0.025). Overall, these results suggest for the first time that CCDC80 may be a component of the obesity-altered secretome in VAT and could act as an adipokine whose circulant levels are linked to glucose tolerance derangements and related to inflammation-associated chronic complications.
Project description:The present study aimed to identify shared microRNAs (miRNAs) in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and their exosomes using microarray data (accession number GSE103708) available from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including exosomal samples from 13 OC cell lines and 3 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines, and their original cell samples. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE?miRNAs) were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray data method, and mRNA targets of DE?miRNAs were predicted using the miRWalk2 database. The potential functions of target genes were analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and intersected with known OC?associated pathways downloaded from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. The associations between crucial miRNAs and target genes, and their clinical associations, were validated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. As a result, 16 upregulated and 6 downregulated DE?miRNAs were shared in OC cell lines and their exosomes compared with normal controls. The target genes of 11 common DE?miRNAs were predicted. Among these DE?miRNAs, a low expression of homo sapiens (hsa)?miR?145?5p was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis and higher stages. Although 91 target genes were predicted for hsa?miR?145?5p, only 4 genes [connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), myotubularin?related protein 14, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha and suppressor of cytokine signaling 7] were suggested as risk factors for prognosis. The subsequent Pearson's correlation analysis validated a significant negative correlation between hsa?miR?145?5p and CTGF (r=?0.1126, P=0.02188). According to the results of the functional analysis, CTGF is involved in the Hippo signaling pathway (hsa04390). In conclusion, decreased expression of hsa?miR?145 in OC and OC?derived exosomes may be a crucial biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of OC.
Project description:Both obesity and weight loss may cause molecular changes in adipose tissue. This study aimed to characterize changes in adipose tissue miRNome in order to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity and weight changes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed in 47 samples of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from normal-weight (N), obese (O) and obese after surgery-induced weight loss (PO) individuals. Subsequently miRNA expression was validated by real-time PCR in 197 adipose tissues and bioinformatics analysis performed to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity-related changes in miRNA expression. NGS identified 344 miRNAs expressed in adipose tissues with ?5 reads per million. Using >2 and <-2 fold change as cut-offs we showed that the expression of 54 miRNAs differed significantly between VAT-O and SAT-O. Equally, between SAT-O and SAT-N, the expression of 20 miRNAs differed significantly, between SAT-PO and SAT-N the expression of 79 miRNAs differed significantly, and between SAT-PO and SAT-O, the expression of 61 miRNAs differed significantly. Ontological analyses disclosed several molecular pathways regulated by these miRNAs in adipose tissue. NGS-based miRNome analysis characterized changes of the miRNA profile of adipose tissue, which are associated with changes of weight possibly responsible for a differential regulation of molecular pathways in adipose tissue when the individual is obese and after the individual has lost weight.