Design, synthesis, and evaluation of curcumin analogues as potential inhibitors of bacterial sialidase.
ABSTRACT: Sialidases are key virulence factors that remove sialic acid from the host cell surface glycan, unmasking receptors that facilitate bacterial adherence and colonisation. In this study, we developed potential agents for treating bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Nan A that inhibit bacterial sialidase using Turmeric and curcumin analogues. Design, synthesis, and structure analysis relationship (SAR) studies have been also described. Evaluation of the synthesised derivatives demonstrated that compound 5e was the most potent inhibitor of S. pneumoniae sialidase (IC50?=?0.2?±?0.1?µM). This compound exhibited a 3.0-fold improvement in inhibitory activity over that of curcumin and displayed competitive inhibition. These results warrant further studies confirming the antipneumococcal activity 5e and indicated that curcumin derivatives could be potentially used to treat sepsis by bacterial infections.
Project description:Sialidase transition state analog inhibitor 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en, DANA) has played a leading role in developing clinically used anti-influenza virus drugs. Taking advantage of the Neu5Ac2en-forming catalytic property of Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidase SpNanC, an effective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) strategy has been developed to directly access Neu5Ac2en and its C-5, C-9, and C-7-analogs from N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) and analogs. The obtained Neu5Ac2en analogs can be further derivatized at various positions to generate a larger inhibitor library. Inhibition studies demonstrated improved selectivity of several C-5- or C-9-modified Neu5Ac2en derivatives against several bacterial sialidases. The study provides an efficient enzymatic method to access sialidase inhibitors with improved selectivity.
Project description:Herein we report the synthesis of N-acetyl neuraminic acid derivatives as 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides and their use in fluorometrically quantifying human and bacterial sialidase activity and substrate specificities. We found that sialidases in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL60 were able to cleave sialic acid substrates with fluorinated C-5 modifications, in some cases to a greater degree than the natural N-acetyl functionality. Human sialidases isoforms were also able to cleave unnatural substrates with bulky and hydrophobic C-5 modifications. In contrast, we found that a bacterial sialidase isolated from Clostridium perfringens to be less tolerant of sialic acid derivatization at this position, with virtually no cleavage of these glycosides observed. From our results, we conclude that human sialidase activity is a significant factor in sialic acid metabolic glycoengineering efforts utilizing unnatural sialic acid derivatives. Our fluorogenic probes have enabled further understanding of the activities and substrate specificities of human sialidases in a cellular context.
Project description:Sialidases hydrolytically remove sialic acids from sialylated glycoproteins and glycolipids. Sialidases are widely distributed in nature and sialidase-mediated desialylation is implicated in normal and pathological processes. However, mechanisms by which sialidases exert their biological effects remain obscure, in part because sialidase substrate preferences are poorly defined. Here we report the design and implementation of a sialidase substrate specificity assay based on chemoselective labeling of sialosides. We show that this assay identifies components of glycosylated substrates that contribute to sialidase specificity. We demonstrate that specificity of sialidases can depend on structure of the underlying glycan, a characteristic difficult to discern using typical sialidase assays. Moreover, we discovered that Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidase NanC strongly prefers sialosides containing the Neu5Ac form of sialic acid versus those that contain Neu5Gc. We propose using this approach to evaluate sialidase preferences for diverse potential substrates.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes a range of disease states. Sialidases are important bacterial virulence factors. There are three pneumococcal sialidases: NanA, NanB, and NanC. NanC is an unusual sialidase in that its primary reaction product is 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en, also known as DANA), a nonspecific hydrolytic sialidase inhibitor. The production of Neu5Ac2en from ?2-3-linked sialosides by the catalytic domain is confirmed within a crystal structure. A covalent complex with 3-fluoro-?-N-acetylneuraminic acid is also presented, suggesting a common mechanism with other sialidases up to the final step of product formation. A conformation change in an active site hydrophobic loop on ligand binding constricts the entrance to the active site. In addition, the distance between the catalytic acid/base (Asp-315) and the ligand anomeric carbon is unusually short. These features facilitate a novel sialidase reaction in which the final step of product formation is direct abstraction of the C3 proton by the active site aspartic acid, forming Neu5Ac2en. NanC also possesses a carbohydrate-binding module, which is shown to bind ?2-3- and ?2-6-linked sialosides, as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid, which is captured in the crystal structure following hydration of Neu5Ac2en by NanC. Overall, the pneumococcal sialidases show remarkable mechanistic diversity while maintaining a common structural scaffold.
Project description:Aberrant expression of human sialidases has been shown to associate with various pathological conditions. Despite the effort in the sialidase inhibitor design, less attention has been paid to designing specific inhibitors against human sialidases and characterizing the substrate specificity of different sialidases regarding diverse terminal sialic acid forms and sialyl linkages. This is mainly due to the lack of sialoside probes and efficient screening methods, as well as limited access to human sialidases. A low cellular expression level of the human sialidase NEU2 hampers its functional and inhibitory studies. Here we report the successful cloning and expression of the human sialidase NEU2 in E. coli. About 11 mg of soluble active NEU2 was routinely obtained from 1 L of E. coli cell culture. Substrate specificity studies of the recombinant human NEU2 using twenty p-nitrophenol (pNP)-tagged ?2-3- or ?2-6-linked sialyl galactosides containing different terminal sialic acid forms including common N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), non-human N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulosonic acid (Kdn), or their C5-derivatives in a microtiter plate-based high-throughput colorimetric assay identified a unique structural feature specifically recognized by the human NEU2 but not two bacterial sialidases. The results obtained from substrate specificity studies were used to guide the design of a sialidase inhibitor that was selective against human NEU2. The selectivity of the inhibitor was revealed by the comparison of sialidase crystal structures and inhibitor docking studies.
Project description:Sialidases or neuraminidases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. They play important roles in bacterial and viral infection and have been attractive targets for drug development. Structure-based drug design has led to potent inhibitors against neuraminidases of influenza A viruses that have been used successfully as approved therapeutics. However, selective and effective inhibitors against bacterial and human sialidases are still being actively pursued. Guided by crystal structural analysis, several derivatives of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en or DANA) were designed and synthesized as triazole-linked transition state analogs. Inhibition studies revealed that glycopeptide analog E-(TriazoleNeu5Ac2en)-AKE and compound (TriazoleNeu5Ac2en)-A were selective inhibitors against Vibrio cholerae sialidase, while glycopeptide analog (TriazoleNeu5Ac2en)-AdE selectively inhibited Vibrio cholerae and A. ureafaciens sialidases.
Project description:Bacteriophages specific for Escherichia coli K1 express a tailspike protein that degrades the polysialic acid coat of E. coli K1 that is essential for bacteriophage infection. This enzyme is specific for polysialic acid and is a member of a family of endo-sialidases. This family is unusual because all other previously reported sialidases outside of this family are exo- or trans-sialidases. The recently determined structure of an endo-sialidase derived from bacteriophage K1F (endoNF) revealed an active site that lacks a number of the residues that are conserved in other sialidases, implying a new, endo-sialidase-specific catalytic mechanism. Using synthetic trifluoromethylumbelliferyl oligosialoside substrates, kinetic parameters for hydrolysis at a single cleavage site were determined. Measurement of kcat/Km at a series of pH values revealed a dependence on a single protonated group of pKa 5. Mutation of a putative active site acidic residue, E581A, resulted in complete loss of sialidase activity. Direct 1H NMR analysis of the hydrolysis of trifluoromethylumbelliferyl sialotrioside revealed that endoNF is an inverting sialidase. All other wild type sialidases previously reported are retaining glycosidases, implying a new mechanism of sialidase action specific to this family of endo-sialidases.
Project description:Fibrosis involves increasing amounts of scar tissue appearing in a tissue, but what drives this is unclear. In fibrotic lesions in human and mouse lungs, we found extensive desialylation of glycoconjugates, and upregulation of sialidases. The fibrosis-associated cytokine TGF-?1 upregulates sialidases in human airway epithelium cells, lung fibroblasts, and immune system cells. Conversely, addition of sialidases to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induces accumulation of extracellular TGF-?1, forming what appears to be a sialidase - TGF-?1 - sialidase positive feedback loop. Monocyte-derived cells called fibrocytes also activate fibroblasts, and we found that sialidases potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. A sialylated glycoprotein called serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation, and sialidases attenuate SAP function. Injections of the sialidase inhibitors DANA and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) starting either 1?day or 10 days after bleomycin strongly attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in the mouse bleomycin model, and by breaking the feedback loop, cause a downregulation of sialidase and TGF-?1 accumulation. Together, these results suggest that a positive feedback loop involving sialidases potentiates fibrosis, and suggest that sialidase inhibitors could be useful for the treatment of fibrosis.
Project description:Influenza virus sialidase has an essential role in the virus' life cycle. Two distinct groups of influenza A virus sialidases have been established, that differ in the flexibility of the '150-loop', providing a more open active site in the apo form of the group-1 compared to group-2 enzymes. In this study we show, through a multidisciplinary approach, that novel sialic acid-based derivatives can exploit this structural difference and selectively inhibit the activity of group-1 sialidases. We also demonstrate that group-1 sialidases from drug-resistant mutant influenza viruses are sensitive to these designed compounds. Moreover, we have determined, by protein X-ray crystallography, that these inhibitors lock open the group-1 sialidase flexible 150-loop, in agreement with our molecular modelling prediction. This is the first direct proof that compounds may be developed to selectively target the pandemic A/H1N1, avian A/H5N1 and other group-1 sialidase-containing viruses, based on an open 150-loop conformation of the enzyme.
Project description:Sialidase removes sialic acid from sialoglycoconjugates and plays crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Various human cancers express an abnormally high level of the plasma membrane-associated sialidase isoform.Visualization of sialidase activity in living mammalian tissues would be useful not only for understanding sialidase functions but also for cancer diagnosis. However, since enzyme activity of mammalian sialidase is remarkably weak compared with that of bacterial and viral sialidases, it has been difficult to detect sialidase activity in mammalian tissues. We synthesized a novel benzothiazolylphenol-based sialic acid derivative (BTP-Neu5Ac) as a fluorescent sialidase substrate. BTP-Neu5Ac can visualize sialidase activities sensitively and selectively in acute rat brain slices. Cancer cells implanted orthotopically in mouse colons and human colon cancers (stages T3-T4) were also clearly detected with BTP-Neu5Ac. The results suggest that BTP-Neu5Ac is useful for histochemical imaging of sialidase activities.