Extended-pulsed fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection in patients aged ?60 years (EXTEND): analysis of cost-effectiveness.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:The randomized Phase IIIb/IV EXTEND trial showed that extended-pulsed fidaxomicin significantly improved sustained clinical cure and reduced recurrence versus vancomycin in patients ?60?years old with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Cost-effectiveness of extended-pulsed fidaxomicin versus vancomycin as first-line therapy for CDI was evaluated in this patient population. Methods:Clinical results from EXTEND and inputs from published sources were used in a semi-Markov treatment-sequence model with nine health states and a 1?year time horizon to assess costs and QALYs. The model was based on a healthcare system perspective (NHS and Personal Social Services) in England. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results:Patients receiving first-line extended-pulsed fidaxomicin treatment had a 0.02 QALY gain compared with first-line vancomycin (0.6267 versus 0.6038 QALYs/patient). While total drug acquisition costs were higher for extended-pulsed fidaxomicin than for vancomycin when used first-line (£1356 versus £260/patient), these were offset by lower total hospitalization costs (which also included treatment monitoring and community care costs; £10?815 versus £11?459/patient) and lower costs of managing adverse events (£694 versus £1199/patient), reflecting the lower incidence of CDI recurrence and adverse events with extended-pulsed fidaxomicin. Extended-pulsed fidaxomicin cost £53 less per patient than vancomycin over 1?year. The probability that first-line extended-pulsed fidaxomicin was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30?000/QALY was 76% in these patients. Conclusions:While fidaxomicin acquisition costs are higher than those of vancomycin, the observed reduced recurrence rate with extended-pulsed fidaxomicin makes it a more effective and less costly treatment strategy than vancomycin for first-line treatment of CDI in older patients.
Project description:The cost of treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Spain is substantial. Findings from the randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3b/4 EXTEND study showed that an extended-pulsed fidaxomicin (EPFX) regimen was associated with improved sustained clinical cure and reduced recurrence of CDI versus vancomycin in patients aged 60 years and older. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of EPFX versus vancomycin for the treatment of CDI in patients aged 60 years and older from the perspective of the National Health System (NHS) in Spain. We used a Markov model with six health states and 1-year time horizon. Health resources, their unit costs and utilities were based on published sources. Key efficacy data and transition probabilities were obtained from the EXTEND study and published sources. A panel of Spanish clinical experts validated all model assumptions. In the analysis, 0.638 and 0.594 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient were obtained with EPFX and vancomycin, respectively, with a gain of 0.044 QALYs with EPFX. The cost per patient treated with EPFX and vancomycin was estimated to be €10,046 and €10,693, respectively, with a saving of €647 per patient treated with EPFX. For willingness-to-pay thresholds of €20,000, €25,000 and €30,000 per QALY gained, the probability that EPFX was the most cost-effective treatment was 99.3%, 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively. According to our economic model and the assumptions based on the Spanish NHS, EPFX is cost-effective compared with vancomycin for the first-line treatment of CDI in patients aged 60 years and older.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents a significant economic healthcare burden, especially the cost of recurrent disease. Fidaxomicin produced significantly lower recurrence rates and higher sustained cure rates in clinical trials. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in Germany in the first-line treatment of patient subgroups with CDI at increased risk of recurrence.A semi-Markov model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of fidaxomicin vs. vancomycin from a payer perspective in Germany. The model cycle length was 10 days. The time horizon was 1 year. Model inputs were probability of clinical cure, 30-day probability of recurrence, and 30-day attributable mortality based on evidence from two randomized controlled trials comparing fidaxomicin and vancomycin in patients with CDI. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were cost per quality-adjusted life year gained, cost per bed-day saved, and cost per recurrence avoided.Despite higher drug acquisition costs, fidaxomicin was dominant in the cancer subgroup (less costly and more effective) and cost-effective in the other subgroups, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios vs. vancomycin ranging from €26,900 to €44,500. Hospitalization costs of the first-line treatment of CDI with fidaxomicin vs. vancomycin were lower in every patient subgroup, resulting in budget impacts ranging from -€1325 (in patients ?65 years) to -€2438 (in cancer patients). Reductions in the cost of treating recurrence with fidaxomicin ranged from -€574.32 per patient in those receiving concomitant antibiotics to -€1500.68 per patient in renally impaired patients.In patient subgroups with CDI at increased recurrence risk, fidaxomicin was cost-effective vs. vancomycin, and less costly and more effective in patients with cancer.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with high management costs, particularly in recurrent cases. Fidaxomicin treatment results in lower recurrence rates than vancomycin and metronidazole, but has higher acquisition costs in Europe and the USA. This systematic literature review summarises economic evaluations (EEs) of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and metronidazole for treatment of CDI.Electronic databases (MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Library) and conference proceedings (ISPOR, ECCMID, ICAAC and IDWeek) were searched for publications reporting EEs of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and/or metronidazole in the treatment of CDI. Reference bibliographies of identified manuscripts were also reviewed. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated according to the overall population of patients with CDI, as well as in subgroups with severe CDI or recurrent CDI, or those at higher risk of recurrence or mortality.Overall, 27 relevant EEs, conducted from the perspective of 12 different countries, were identified. Fidaxomicin was cost-effective versus vancomycin and/or metronidazole in 14 of 24 EEs (58.3%), vancomycin was cost-effective versus fidaxomicin and/or metronidazole in five of 27 EEs (18.5%) and metronidazole was cost-effective versus fidaxomicin and/or vancomycin in two of 13 EEs (15.4%). Fidaxomicin was cost-effective versus vancomycin in most of the EEs evaluating specific patient subgroups. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were cure rate, recurrence rate, time horizon, drug costs and length and cost of hospitalisation.In most EEs, fidaxomicin was demonstrated to be cost-effective versus metronidazole and vancomycin in patients with CDI. These results have relevance to clinical practice, given the high budgetary impact of managing CDI and increasing restrictions on healthcare budgets.This analysis was initiated and funded by Astellas Pharma Inc.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Fidaxomicin was non-inferior to vancomycin with respect to clinical cure rates in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in two Phase III trials, but was associated with significantly fewer recurrences than vancomycin. This economic analysis investigated the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in patients with severe CDI and in patients with their first CDI recurrence. METHODS: A 1 year time horizon Markov model with seven health states was developed from the perspective of Scottish public healthcare providers. Model inputs for effectiveness, resource use, direct costs and utilities were obtained from published sources and a Scottish expert panel. The main model outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), for fidaxomicin versus vancomycin; ICERs were interpreted using willingness-to-pay thresholds of £20,000/QALY and £30,000/QALY. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total costs were similar with fidaxomicin and vancomycin in patients with severe CDI (£14,515 and £14,344, respectively) and in patients with a first recurrence (£16,535 and £16,926, respectively). Improvements in clinical outcomes with fidaxomicin resulted in small QALY gains versus vancomycin (severe CDI, +0.010; patients with first recurrence, +0.019). Fidaxomicin was cost-effective in severe CDI (ICER £16,529/QALY) and dominant (i.e. more effective and less costly) in patients with a first recurrence. The probability that fidaxomicin was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000/QALY was 60% for severe CDI and 68% in a first recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Fidaxomicin is cost-effective in patients with severe CDI and in patients with a first CDI recurrence versus vancomycin.
Project description:The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in pediatric patients continues to rise. Most of the pediatric recommendations for CDI treatment are extrapolated from the literature and guidelines for adults. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends oral metronidazole as the first-line treatment option for an initial CDI and the first recurrence if they are mild to moderate in severity. Oral vancomycin is recommended to be used for severe CDI and the second recurrent infection. Additional pulsed regimen of oral vancomycin, which is tapered, may increase efficacy in refractory patients. However, there is lack of large studies evaluating the use of fidaxomicin in pediatrics to know whether it could be a safe and effective treatment option for difficult-to-treat patients. Fidaxomicin is associated with higher total drug costs compared to metronidazole and vancomycin, but the literature supports its use due to a lower rate of CDI recurrence, which may result in cost savings. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the use of fidaxomicin in patients <18 years old and to understand its role in the standard of care for pediatric patients with CDI.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by high rates of recurrence, resulting in substantial health care costs. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI in France.We developed a decision-analytic simulation model to compare 5 treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI: pulsed-tapered vancomycin, fidaxomicin, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) via colonoscopy, FMT via duodenal infusion, and FMT via enema. The model outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) among the 5 treatments. ICERs were interpreted using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY. Uncertainty was evaluated through deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Three strategies were on the efficiency frontier: pulsed-tapered vancomycin, FMT via enema, and FMT via colonoscopy, in order of increasing effectiveness. FMT via duodenal infusion and fidaxomicin were dominated (i.e. less effective and costlier) by FMT via colonoscopy and FMT via enema. FMT via enema compared with pulsed-tapered vancomycin had an ICER of €18,092/QALY. The ICER for FMT via colonoscopy versus FMT via enema was €73,653/QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations showed that FMT via enema was the most cost-effective strategy in 58% of simulations and FMT via colonoscopy was favored in 19% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY.FMT via enema is the most cost-effective initial strategy for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In 2018, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI). However, there is little guidance regarding which treatments are cost-effective.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a Markov model to simulate a cohort of patients presenting with an initial CDI diagnosis. We used the model to estimate the costs, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of different CDI treatment regimens recommended in the recently published 2018 IDSA guidelines. The model includes stratification by the severity of the initial infection, and subsequent likelihood of cure, recurrence, mortality, and outcomes of subsequent recurrences. Data sources were taken from IDSA guidelines and published literature on treatment outcomes. Outcome measures were discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).<h4>Results</h4>Use of fidaxomicin for nonsevere initial CDI, vancomycin for severe CDI, fidaxomicin for first recurrence, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for subsequent recurrence (strategy 44) cost an additional $478 for 0.009 QALYs gained per CDI patient, resulting in an ICER of $31 751 per QALY, below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. This is the optimal, cost-effective CDI treatment strategy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Metronidazole is suboptimal for nonsevere CDI as it is less beneficial than alternative strategies. The preferred treatment regimen is fidaxomicin for nonsevere CDI, vancomycin for severe CDI, fidaxomicin for first recurrence, and FMT for subsequent recurrence. The most effective treatments, with highest cure rates, are also cost-effective due to averted mortality, utility loss, and costs of rehospitalization and/or further treatments for recurrent CDI.
Project description:Background. This analysis examined the efficacy of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in 406 Canadian patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), based on data from 2 randomized, clinical trials. Methods. Patients received fidaxomicin or vancomycin 1. Patients were assessed for clinical response recurrence of infection and sustained clinical response for 28 days after treatment completion. Patients at increased risk of recurrence were subjected to subgroup analyses. Results. Clinical response rates for fidaxomicin (90.0%) were noninferior to those with vancomycin (92.2%; 95% confidence interval for difference: -7.7, 3.5). However, fidaxomicin-treated patients had lower recurrence (14.4% versus 28.0%, p = 0.001) and higher sustained clinical response (77.1% versus 66.3%, p = 0.016). Compared with vancomycin, fidaxomicin was associated with lower recurrence rates in all subgroups, reaching statistical significance in patients with age ≥ 65 years (16.0% versus 30.9%, p = 0.026), concomitant antibiotic use (16.2% versus 38.7%, p = 0.036), and non-BI strains (11.8% versus 28.3%, p = 0.004). Higher sustained clinical response rates were observed for fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in all subgroups; this was statistically significant in the non-BI subgroup (82.8% versus 69.1%, p = 0.021). Conclusions. In Canadian patients, fidaxomicin was superior to vancomycin in sustaining clinical response and reducing CDI recurrence.
Project description:Poor outcomes following Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been associated with advanced age, presence of cancer and C. difficile PCR-ribotype 027. The impact of baseline risk factors on clinical outcomes was evaluated using data from the EXTEND study, in which rate of sustained clinical cure (SCC) in the overall population was significantly higher with an extended-pulsed fidaxomicin (EPFX) regimen than with vancomycin. Patients aged ??60 years received EPFX (fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily, days 1-5; once daily on alternate days, days 7-25) or vancomycin (125 mg four times daily, days 1-10). We analysed outcomes by advanced age, cancer diagnosis, CDI severity, prior CDI occurrence and infection with PCR-ribotype 027. The primary endpoint was SCC 30 days after end of treatment (EOT; clinical response at test-of-cure with no subsequent recurrence). SCC rates 30 days after EOT did not differ significantly between EPFX (124/177, 70.1%) and vancomycin (106/179, 59.2%) regardless of age, cancer diagnosis, CDI severity and prior CDI. In patients with PCR-ribotype 027, SCC rate 30 days after EOT was significantly higher with EPFX (20/25, 80%) than with vancomycin (9/22, 40.9%) (treatment difference, 39.1%; 95% CI, 13.2-64.9; P?=?0.006). Subgroup analyses from the EXTEND study suggest that EPFX is efficacious as a potential treatment for CDI regardless of age, cancer diagnosis, infection with PCR-ribotype 027, CDI severity or prior CDI. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02254967.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of morbidity and healthcare costs, and is characterized by high rates of disease recurrence. The cost-effectiveness of newer treatments for recurrent CDI has not been examined, yet would be important to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost effectiveness of competing strategies for recurrent CDI.We constructed a decision-analytic model comparing 4 treatment strategies for first-line treatment of recurrent CDI in a population with a median age of 65 years: metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). We modeled up to 2 additional recurrences following the initial recurrence. We assumed FMT delivery via colonoscopy as our base case, but conducted sensitivity analyses based on different modes of delivery. Willingness-to-pay threshold was set at $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year.At our base case estimates, initial treatment of recurrent CDI using FMT colonoscopy was the most cost-effective strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $17 016 relative to oral vancomycin. Fidaxomicin and metronidazole were both dominated by FMT colonoscopy. On sensitivity analysis, FMT colonoscopy remained the most cost-effective strategy at cure rates >88.4% and CDI recurrence rates <14.9%. Fidaxomicin required a cost <$1359 to meet our cost-effectiveness threshold. In clinical settings where FMT is not available or applicable, the preferred strategy appears to be initial treatment with oral vancomycin.In this decision analysis examining treatment strategies for recurrent CDI, we demonstrate that FMT colonoscopy is the most cost-effective initial strategy for management of recurrent CDI.