ABSTRACT: A growing number of studies have explored EUS-guided vascular catheterization due to the relative proximity of the gastrointestinal tract to the major blood vessels of the mediastinum and abdomen. In particular, EUS-guided access of the portal vein (PV) may be favorable given the relative difficulty of PV access through standard percutaneous routes. Two major diagnostic applications of EUS-guided vascular access include angiography and assessment of intravascular pressure. This review will outline the different devices and techniques employed to obtain angiographic visualization and/or direct pressure measurements of the portal circulation. Ease of access, safety, and important lessons learned from each approach will be highlighted.
Project description:The continued need to develop minimally invasive alternatives to surgical and radiologic interventions has driven the development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided treatments. EUS has now stepped into the therapeutic arena. EUS provides the unique advantage of both real-time imaging and access to structures within and adjacent to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Hence, EUS-guided therapeutic techniques continue to evolve in several directions enabling a variety of minimally invasive therapies for pancreatic and biliary pathologies. Furthermore, the close proximity of the GI tract to vascular structures in the mediastinum and abdomen permits EUS-guided vascular access and therapy. Studies have demonstrated several EUS-guided vascular interventions by using standard endoscopic accessories and available tools from the interventional radiology armamentarium. This article provides an overview of the literature including clinical and nonclinical studies for the management of nonvariceal and variceal GI bleeding, formation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IPSS), and EUS-guided cardiac access and therapy.
Project description:Background and Aims:Portal hypertension is a serious adverse event of liver cirrhosis. Recently, we developed a simple novel technique for EUS-guided portal pressure gradient (PPG) measurement (PPGM). Our animal studies showed excellent correlation between EUS-PPGM and interventional radiology-acquired PPGM. In this video we demonstrate the results of the first human pilot study of EUS-PPGM in patients with liver disease. Methods:EUS-PPGM was performed by experienced endosonographers using a linear echoendoscope, a 25-gauge FNA needle, and a novel compact manometer. The portal vein and hepatic vein (or inferior vena cava) were targeted by use of a transgastric or transduodenal approach. Feasibility was defined as successful PPGM in each patient. Safety was based on adverse events captured in a postprocedural interview. Results:Twenty-eight patients underwent EUS-PPGM with 100% technical success and no adverse events. PPG ranged from 1.5 to 19 mm Hg and had excellent correlation with clinical parameters of portal hypertension, including the presence of varices (P = .0002), PH gastropathy (P = .007), and thrombocytopenia (P = .036). Conclusion:This novel technique of EUS-PPGM using a 25-gauge needle and compact manometer is feasible and appears safe. Given the availability of EUS and the simplicity of the manometry setup, EUS-guided PPG may represent a promising breakthrough for procuring indispensable information in the management of patients with liver disease.
Project description:EUS-guided FNA or biopsy sampling is widely practiced. Optimal sonographic visualization of the needle is critical for image-guided interventions. Of the several commercially available needles, bench-top testing and direct comparison of these needles have not been done to reveal their inherent echogenicity. The aims are to provide bench-top data that can be used to guide clinical applications and to promote future device research and development.Descriptive bench-top testing and comparison of 8 commonly used EUS-FNA needles (all size 22 gauge): SonoTip Pro Control (Medi-Globe); Expect Slimline (Boston Scientific); EchoTip, EchoTip Ultra, EchoTip ProCore High Definition (Cook Medical); ClearView (Conmed); EZ Shot 2 (Olympus); and BNX (Beacon Endoscopic), and 2 new prototype needles, SonoCoat (Medi-Globe), coated by echogenic polymers made by Encapson. Blinded evaluation of standardized and unedited videos by 43 EUS endoscopists and 17 radiologists specialized in GI US examination who were unfamiliar with EUS needle devices.There was no significant difference in the ratings and rankings of these needles between endosonographers and radiologists. Overall, 1 prototype needle was rated as the best, ranking 10% to 40% higher than all other needles (P < .01). Among the commercially available needles, the EchoTip Ultra needle and the ClearView needle were top choices. The EZ Shot 2 needle was ranked statistically lower than other needles (30%-75% worse, P < .001).All FNA needles have their inherent and different echogenicities, and these differences are similarly recognized by EUS endoscopists and radiologists. Needles with polymeric coating from the entire shaft to the needle tip may offer better echogenicity.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Biliary drainage (BD) under EUS guidance is usually indicated for malignant biliary obstruction. Recently, EUS-guided transluminal treatment has been applied to benign biliary disease (BBD). This multicenter retrospective study evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment for BBD with long-term follow-up. Patients and Methods:This retrospective study investigated patients treated between September 2015 and October 2016 at participating hospitals in the therapeutic endoscopic group. The inclusion criteria comprised complications with BBD obstructive jaundice or cholangitis and failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or inaccessible ampulla of Vater. Results:Twenty-six patients underwent EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment. Indications for EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment comprised anastomotic biliary stricture (n = 17), bile duct stones (n = 5), inflammatory biliary stricture (n = 3), and acute pancreatitis prevention (n = 1). Thirteen of these 26 patients underwent scheduled reintervention, with technical success achieved in all 13 patients. None of the deployed stents became dysfunctional. Among the 13 patients who underwent reintervention on demand, stents had become dysfunctional in six patients (stent patency: 48, 90, 172, 288, 289, and 608 days). Reintervention was successfully performed in all patients. During follow-up (median, 749 days), severe adverse events were not seen in any patients. Conclusion:We concluded that EUS-guided transluminal stent deployment for BBD is feasible and safe. Because metal stent dysfunction was more frequent when deployed on demand, such stents should be exchanged for plastic stents in a scheduled manner if a metal stent is used.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a useful modality for imaging of the blood vessels of the mediastinum and abdomen. The aorta acts as an important home base during EUS imaging. The aorta and its branches are accessible by standard angiographic methods, but endosonography also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the aorta and its branches. This article describes the techniques of imaging of different part of the aorta by EUS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several suction techniques have been developed recently to enhance tissue acquisition when sampling solid lesions using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The aim of this study is to determine whether a new modified wet suction technique (MWST) compared with the conventional dry suction technique (DRST) shall present better outcomes with respect to diagnostic yield and specimen quality of solid lesions in the intra-abdomen and mediastinum. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a single-blind, randomized, controlled, superiority trial conducted at four large tertiary care centers in China. Two hundred and ninety-six patients with solid lesions referred for EUS-FNA will be randomly assigned to group A, using DRST for the first pass, or group B, using MWST for the first pass in a ratio of 1:1. Following a 2?×?2 cross-over design, the pass sequence for group A is DRST, MWST, DRST, MWST. For group B, the pass sequence is MWST, DRST, MWST, DRST. All procedures will be performed by experienced echoendoscopists, and the patients and assessors (cytologists and pathologists) will be blinded during the entire study. The primary outcome measure is the diagnosis yield. Secondary outcome measures are specimen quality, including assessment of quantity of cell, tissue integrity, and blood contamination. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale randomized controlled trial to compare MWST with DRST when sampling solid lesions in the intra-abdomen and mediastinum. The results may contribute to future multicenter clinical trials in standardizing suction techniques during EUS-FNA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials.gov, NCT02789371 . Retrospectively registered on 6 June 2016.
Project description:Background and Aims:Differentiating pancreatic cystic lesions remains a challenge when the current technique of EUS-guided FNA is used. Recently, a miniaturized biopsy forceps with an outer diameter of 0.8 mm has been developed, thus allowing it to be passed through the bore of a standard 19-gauge FNA needle to acquire tissue. Methods:This study consisted of a retrospective review of all cases of EUS-guided through-the-needle forceps biopsy technique (TTNFB) performed for pancreatic cystic lesions at a single academic tertiary care center over a 12-month period. Technical success was defined as acquisition of adequate tissue for formal histologic analysis. Safety was assessed through the monitoring and recording of periprocedural and postprocedural adverse events. Results:The technical success of EUS-guided TTNFB was 87% (13/15). EUS-guided TTNFB with histologic analysis yielded pancreatic cyst diagnoses in 11 of 15 (73%) patients, compared with 0 of 15 (0%) patients with the use of EUS-FNA and cytologic analysis (P < .001). Of the 15 cystic lesions, 8 were diagnosed as intrapapillary mucinous neoplasm based on EUS-TTNFB. Conclusion:This TTNFB technique has the potential to improve the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA for pancreatic cystic neoplasms.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) have been not only a diagnostic tool, but also available in interventional therapy, which often previously needed surgical approaches to achieve. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of EUS-guided Nd:YAG laser ablation in unresectable tumors of the caudate lobe and left liver. We discussed ten cases of the caudate lobe and left liver tumors underwent laser ablation with EUS guidance. And we also have reviewed previous publication of EUS-guided thermal ablation for liver tumors in several decade years. EUS-guided Nd:YAG laser ablation (LA) of these tumors were successfully completed in ten patients, who had favourable prognosis with no complications in two-month follow-up. Based on our early observations, this suggested that EUS-guided LA might be technically feasible in selected patients with tumors of the caudate lobe and left liver. However, the safety of this technique need to be further confirmed in the future and if possible larger, prospective trials.
Project description:The use of EUS has application in the nodal staging of head and neck cancer. The technique and the anatomy of head and neck region using EUS have not been described. EUS from three stations in thoracic esophagus, cervical esophagus, and hypopharynx can allow imaging of head and neck. In this article we describe the normal structures from the three stations. The EUS imaging of head and neck can give relevant and additional information in malignancies of head and neck.
Project description:Background and Objectives:EUS training is recognized to have a substantial learning curve. To date, few dedicated training programs for EUS have been described. The swine model has been highlighted as a realistic tool to enhance EUS training. Studies extensively describing EUS swine anatomy are lacking in the current literature. The article aims to describe both radial and linear EUS pancreatobiliary swine anatomy. Materials and Methods:Four live pigs were endoscoped under general anesthesia using both radial and linear array echoendoscopes. Relevant images and videos were recorded. Results:It was possible to effectively image aorta, crus of the diaphragm, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, pancreas, common bile duct, gallbladder, portal vein, kidneys, spleen, and hepatic hilum. Images were comparable to human EUS findings, with some remarkable differences. The pancreas was relatively larger in swine and in contrast to humans has three segments (duodenal, splenic, and connecting lobe). Conclusions:The swine model was a highly realistic teaching model for linear and radial pancreatobiliary EUS and a useful tool for training in the setting of in vivo hands-on sessions.