The hemicellulose-degrading enzyme system of the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium stercorarium: comparative characterisation and addition of new hemicellulolytic glycoside hydrolases.
ABSTRACT: Background:The bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass in various industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels, requires the degradation of hemicellulose. Clostridium stercorarium is a thermophilic bacterium, well known for its outstanding hemicellulose-degrading capability. Its genome comprises about 50 genes for partially still uncharacterised thermostable hemicellulolytic enzymes. These are promising candidates for industrial applications. Results:To reveal the hemicellulose-degrading potential of 50 glycoside hydrolases, they were recombinantly produced and characterised. 46 of them were identified in the secretome of C. stercorarium cultivated on cellobiose. Xylanases Xyn11A, Xyn10B, Xyn10C, and cellulase Cel9Z were among the most abundant proteins. The secretome of C. stercorarium was active on xylan, ?-glucan, xyloglucan, galactan, and glucomannan. In addition, the recombinant enzymes hydrolysed arabinan, mannan, and galactomannan. 20 enzymes are newly described, degrading xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, and aryl-glycosides of ?-d-xylose, ?-d-glucose, ?-d-galactose, ?-l-arabinofuranose, ?-l-rhamnose, ?-d-glucuronic acid, and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine. The activities of three enzymes with non-classified glycoside hydrolase (GH) family modules were determined. Xylanase Xyn105F and ?-d-xylosidase Bxl31D showed activities not described so far for their GH families. 11 of the 13 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were most active at pH 5.0 to pH 6.5 and at temperatures of 57-76 °C. Investigation of the substrate and product specificity of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes revealed that only the GH10 xylanases were able to degrade arabinoxylooligosaccharides. While Xyn10C was inhibited by ?-(1,2)-arabinosylations, Xyn10D showed a degradation pattern different to Xyn10B and Xyn10C. Xyn11A released longer degradation products than Xyn10B. Both tested arabinose-releasing enzymes, Arf51B and Axh43A, were able to hydrolyse single- as well as double-arabinosylated xylooligosaccharides. Conclusions:The obtained results lead to a better understanding of the hemicellulose-degrading capacity of C. stercorarium and its involved enzyme systems. Despite similar average activities measured by depolymerisation tests, a closer look revealed distinctive differences in the activities and specificities within an enzyme class. This may lead to synergistic effects and influence the enzyme choice for biotechnological applications. The newly characterised glycoside hydrolases can now serve as components of an enzyme platform for industrial applications in order to reconstitute synthetic enzyme systems for complete and optimised degradation of defined polysaccharides and hemicellulose.
Project description:Pseudomonas cellulosa is a highly efficient xylan-degrading bacterium. Genes encoding five xylanases, and several accessory enzymes, which remove the various side chains that decorate the xylan backbone, have been isolated from the pseudomonad and characterized. The xylanase genes consist of xyn10A, xyn10B, xyn10C, xyn10D, and xyn11A, which encode Xyn10A, Xyn10B, Xyn10C, Xyn10D, and Xyn11A, respectively. In this study a sixth xylanase gene, xyn11B, was isolated which encodes a 357-residue modular enzyme, designated Xyn11B, comprising a glycoside hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain appended to a C-terminal X-14 module, a homologue of which binds to xylan. Localization studies showed that the two xylanases with glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 catalytic modules, Xyn11A and Xyn11B, are secreted into the culture medium, whereas Xyn10C is membrane bound. xyn10C, xyn10D, xyn11A, and xyn11B were all abundantly expressed when the bacterium was cultured on xylan or beta-glucan but not on medium containing mannan, whereas glucose repressed transcription of these genes. Although all of the xylanase genes were induced by the same polysaccharides, temporal regulation of xyn11A and xyn11B was apparent on xylan-containing media. Transcription of xyn11A occurred earlier than transcription of xyn11B, which is consistent with the predicted mode of action of the encoded enzymes. Xyn11A, but not Xyn11B, exhibits xylan esterase activity, and the removal of acetate side chains is required for xylanases to hydrolyze the xylan backbone. A transposon mutant of P. cellulosa in which xyn11A and xyn11B were inactive displayed greatly reduced extracellular but normal cell-associated xylanase activity, and its growth rate on medium containing xylan was indistinguishable from wild-type P. cellulosa. Based on the data presented here, we propose a model for xylan degradation by P. cellulosa in which the GH11 enzymes convert decorated xylans into substituted xylooligosaccharides, which are then hydrolyzed to their constituent sugars by the combined action of cell-associated GH10 xylanases and side chain-cleaving enzymes.
Project description:A multiple xylanase system with high levels of xylanase activity produced from Penicillium oxalicum GZ-2 using agricultural waste as a substrate has been previously reported. However, the eco-physiological properties and origin of the multiplicity of xylanases remain unclear. In the present study, eight active bands were detected using zymography, and all bands were identified as putative xylanases using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. These putative xylanases are encoded by six different xylanase genes. To evaluate the functions and eco-physiological properties of xylanase genes, xyn10A, xyn11A, xyn10B and xyn11B were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzymes xyn10A and xyn10B belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanases, while xyn11A and xyn11B belong to GH11 xylanases. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant proteins revealed that all enzymes exhibited xylanase activity against xylans but with different substrate specificities, properties and kinetic parameters. These results demonstrated that the production of multiple xylanases in P. oxalicum GZ-2 was attributed to the genetic redundancy of xylanases and the post-translational modifications, providing insight into a more diverse xylanase system for the efficient degradation of complex hemicelluloses.
Project description:Two xylanase-encoding genes, named xyn11A and xyn10B, were isolated from a genomic library of Cellulomonas pachnodae by expression in Escherichia coli. The deduced polypeptide, Xyn11A, consists of 335 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 34,383 Da. Different domains could be identified in the Xyn11A protein on the basis of homology searches. Xyn11A contains a catalytic domain belonging to family 11 glycosyl hydrolases and a C-terminal xylan binding domain, which are separated from the catalytic domain by a typical linker sequence. Binding studies with native Xyn11A and a truncated derivative of Xyn11A, lacking the putative binding domain, confirmed the function of the two domains. The second xylanase, designated Xyn10B, consists of 1,183 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 124,136 Da. Xyn10B also appears to be a modular protein, but typical linker sequences that separate the different domains were not identified. It comprises a N-terminal signal peptide followed by a stretch of amino acids that shows homology to thermostabilizing domains. Downstream of the latter domain, a catalytic domain specific for family 10 glycosyl hydrolases was identified. A truncated derivative of Xyn10B bound tightly to Avicel, which was in accordance with the identified cellulose binding domain at the C terminus of Xyn10B on the basis of homology. C. pachnodae, a (hemi)cellulolytic bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut of herbivorous Pachnoda marginata larvae, secretes at least two xylanases in the culture fluid. Although both Xyn11A and Xyn10B had the highest homology to xylanases from Cellulomonas fimi, distinct differences in the molecular organizations of the xylanases from the two Cellulomonas species were identified.
Project description:Division and degradation of bacterial cell walls requires coordinated action of a myriad of enzymes. This particularly applies to the elaborate cell walls of acid-fast organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which consist of a multi-layered cell wall that contains an unusual glycan called arabinogalactan. Enzymes that cleave the D-arabinan core of this structure have not previously been identified in any organism. We have interrogated the diverse carbohydrate degrading enzymes expressed by the human gut microbiota and uncovered four families of glycoside hydrolases with activity against the D-arabinan or D-galactan components of arabinogalactan. Using novel exo-D-galactofuranosidases from gut bacteria we generated enriched D-arabinan and used it to identify Dysgonomonas gadei as a D-arabinan degrader. This enabled the discovery of endo- and exo- acting enzymes that cleave D-arabinan. We have identified new members of the DUF2961 family (GH172), and a novel family of glycoside hydrolases (DUF4185) that display endo-ᴅ-arabinofuranase activity. The DUF4185 enzymes are conserved in mycobacteria and found in many microbes, suggesting that the ability to cleave these mycobacterial glycans plays an important role in the biology of diverse organisms. All mycobacteria encode two conserved endo-D-arabinanases that display different preferences for the D-arabinan-containing cell wall components arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan, suggesting they are important for cell wall modification and/or degradation. The discovery of these enzymes will support future studies into the structure and function of the mycobacterial cell wall.
Project description:Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains a multi-enzyme system for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. The bacterium uses a number of endo-acting extracellular enzymes that break down the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides into decorated oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides enter the cell and are further hydrolyzed into sugar monomers by a set of intracellular glycoside hydrolases. One of these intracellular degrading enzymes is GanB, a glycoside hydrolase family 42 ?-galactosidase capable of hydrolyzing short ?-1,4-galactosaccharides to galactose. GanB and related enzymes therefore play an important part in the hemicellulolytic utilization system of many microorganisms which use plant biomass for growth. The interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of these enzymes stems from their potential biotechnological applications. GanB from G. stearothermophilus T-6 has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified, biochemically characterized and crystallized in our laboratory as part of its complete structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belong to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with average crystallographic unit-cell parameters of a=71.84, b=181.35, c=196.57?Å. Full diffraction data sets to 2.45 and 2.50?Å resolution have been collected for both the wild-type enzyme and its E323A nucleophile catalytic mutant, respectively, as measured from flash-cooled crystals at 100?K using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for the full three-dimensional crystal structure determination of GanB.
Project description:The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan provides an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan-degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan-degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 ?-l-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endoarabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 ?-l-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 ?-l-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B). The genes were expressed as recombinant proteins, and the functions of the purified proteins were determined with para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked sugars and naturally occurring pectin structural elements as the substrates. The results demonstrated that CpAbn43A is an endoarabinanase while CpAbf51A and CpAbf51B are ?-l-arabinofuranosidases that exhibit diverse substrate specificities, cleaving ?-1,2, ?-1,3, and ?-1,5 linkages of purified arabinan-oligosaccharides. Furthermore, both CpAbf127A and CpAbf127B cleaved ?-arabinofuranose residues in complex arabinan side chains, thus providing evidence of the function of this family of enzymes on such polysaccharides. The optimal temperatures of the enzymes ranged between 60°C and 75°C, and CpAbf43A and CpAbf51A worked synergistically to release arabinose from branched and debranched arabinan. Furthermore, the hydrolytic activity on branched arabinan oligosaccharides and degradation of pectic substrates by the endoarabinanase and l-arabinofuranosidases suggested a microbe equipped with diverse activities to degrade complex arabinan in the environment. Based on our functional analyses of the genes in the arabinan degradation cluster and the substrate-binding studies on a component of the cognate transporter system, we propose a model for arabinan degradation and transport by C. polysaccharolyticusIMPORTANCE Genomic DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis allowed the identification of a gene cluster encoding several proteins predicted to function in arabinan degradation and transport in C. polysaccharolyticus The analysis of the recombinant proteins yielded detailed insights into the putative arabinan metabolism of this thermophilic bacterium. The use of various branched arabinan oligosaccharides provided a detailed understanding of the substrate specificities of the enzymes and allowed assignment of two new GH127 polypeptides as ?-l-arabinofuranosidases able to degrade pectic substrates, thus expanding our knowledge of this rare group of glycoside hydrolases. In addition, the enzymes showed synergistic effects for the degradation of arabinans at elevated temperatures. The enzymes characterized from the gene cluster are, therefore, of utility for arabinose production in both the biofuel and food industries.
Project description:In literature, extensive studies have been conducted on popular wood degrading white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium about its lignin degrading mechanisms compared to the cellulose and hemicellulose degrading abilities. This study delineates cellulose and hemicellulose degrading mechanisms through large scale metadata analysis of P. chrysosporium gene expression data (retrieved from NCBI GEO) to understand the common expression patterns of differentially expressed genes when cultured on different growth substrates. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolase classes commonly expressed during breakdown of cellulose such as GH-5,6,7,9,44,45,48 and hemicellulose are GH-2,8,10,11,26,30,43,47 were found to be highly expressed among varied growth conditions including simple customized and complex natural plant biomass growth mediums. Genes encoding carbohydrate esterase class enzymes CE (1,4,8,9,15,16) polysaccharide lyase class enzymes PL-8 and PL-14, and glycosyl transferases classes GT (1,2,4,8,15,20,35,39,48) were differentially expressed in natural plant biomass growth mediums. Based on these results, P. chrysosporium, on natural plant biomass substrates was found to express lignin and hemicellulose degrading enzymes more than cellulolytic enzymes except GH-61 (LPMO) class enzymes, in early stages. It was observed that the fate of P. chrysosporium transcriptome is significantly affected by the wood substrate provided. We believe, the gene expression findings in this study plays crucial role in developing genetically efficient microbe with effective cellulose and hemicellulose degradation abilities.
Project description:Plant pathogenic fungi must be able to degrade host cell walls in order to penetrate and invade plant tissues. Among the plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) produced, xylanases are of special interest since its degradation target, xylan, is one of the main structural polysaccharides in plant cell walls. In the biotrophic fungus <i>Ustilago maydis</i>, attempts to characterize PCWDEs required for virulence have been unsuccessful, most likely due to functional redundancy. In previous high-throughput screening, we found one xylanase to be important for <i>U. maydis</i> infection. Here, we characterize the entire <i>U. maydis</i> endo-xylanase family, comprising two enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 10 family, Xyn1 and Xyn2, one from GH11, Xyn11A, and one from GH43, Xyn3. We show that all endo-xylanases except Xyn3 are secreted and involved in infection in a non-redundant manner, suggesting different roles for each xylanase in this process. Taking a closer look inside the plant during the pathogenic process, we observed that all secreted xylanases were necessary for fungal proliferation. Finally, we found that at least Xyn11A accumulated in the apoplast of the infected plant after three days, highlighting the role of these enzymes as important secreted proteins during fungal proliferation inside plant tissues.
Project description:Geobacillus stearothermophilus T1 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains an extensive system for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. The bacterium uses a number of extracellular enzymes that break down the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides into short oligosaccharides, which enter the cell and are further hydrolyzed into sugar monomers by dedicated intracellular glycoside hydrolases. The interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of these proteins originates mainly from the wide range of their potential biotechnological applications. Studying the different hemicellulolytic utilization systems in G. stearothermophilus T1, a new galactan-utilization gene cluster was recently identified, which encodes a number of proteins, one of which is a GH1 putative 6-phospho-?-galactosidase (Gan1D). Gan1D has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized as part of its comprehensive structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with average crystallographic unit-cell parameters of a = 67.0, b = 78.1, c = 92.1 Å, ? = 102.4, ? = 93.5, ? = 91.7°. A full diffraction data set to 1.33 Å resolution has been collected for the wild-type enzyme, as measured from flash-cooled crystals at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for the detailed three-dimensional crystal structure analysis of Gan1D.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-?-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a ?-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain ?-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic ?-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the ?(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is found as the side chain of the rhamnogalacturonan type I complex in pectin, has remained partially studied. Here, we investigated the galactan utilization system consisting of the ganSPQAB operon and its regulator ganR This study improves our knowledge of the carbohydrate degradation systems of B. subtilis, especially the pectin degradation systems. Moreover, the galactan-degrading enzymes may be exploited for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides, which are used as prebiotic substances in the food industry.