Identification of new type I interferon-stimulated genes and investigation of their involvement in IFN-? activation.
ABSTRACT: Virus infection induces the production of type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs bind to their heterodimeric receptors to initiate downstream cascade of signaling, leading to the up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISGs play very important roles in innate immunity through a variety of mechanisms. Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified, it is commonly recognized that more ISGs await to be discovered. The aim of this study was to identify new ISGs and to probe their roles in regulating virus-induced type I IFN production. We used consensus interferon (Con-IFN), an artificial alpha IFN that was shown to be more potent than naturally existing type I IFN, to treat three human immune cell lines, CEM, U937 and Daudi cells. Microarray analysis was employed to identify those genes whose expressions were up-regulated. Six hundred and seventeen genes were up-regulated more than 3-fold. Out of these 617 genes, 138 were not previously reported as ISGs and thus were further pursued. Validation of these 138 genes using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed 91 genes. We screened 89 genes for those involved in Sendai virus (SeV)-induced IFN-? promoter activation, and PIM1 was identified as one whose expression inhibited SeV-mediated IFN-? activation. We provide evidence indicating that PIM1 specifically inhibits RIG-I- and MDA5-mediated IFN-? signaling. Our results expand the ISG library and identify PIM1 as an ISG that participates in the regulation of virus-induced type I interferon production.
Project description:Interferons (IFNs) play a major role in controlling viral infections including HIV/SIV infections. Persistent up-regulation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) is associated with chronic immune activation and progression in SIV/HIV infections, but the respective contribution of different IFNs is unclear. We analyzed the expression of IFN genes and ISGs in tissues of SIV infected macaques to understand the respective roles of type I and type II IFNs. Both IFN types were induced in lymph nodes during early stage of primary infection and to some extent in rectal biopsies but not in PBMCs. Induction of Type II IFN expression persisted during the chronic phase, in contrast to undetectable induction of type I IFN expression. Global gene expression analysis with a major focus on ISGs revealed that at both acute and chronic infection phases most differentially expressed ISGs were inducible by both type I and type II IFNs and displayed the highest increases, indicating strong convergence and synergy between type I and type II IFNs. The analysis of functional signatures of ISG expression revealed temporal changes in IFN expression patterns identifying phase-specific ISGs. These results suggest that IFN-? strongly contribute to shape ISG upregulation in addition to type I IFN.
Project description:Whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces severe infantile pulmonary disease may depend on viral strain and expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs). These IFNs impact disease severity by inducing expression of many anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To investigate the impact of RSV strain on IFN and ISG expression, we stimulated human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) with either RSV A2 or Line 19 and measured expression of types I and III IFNs and ISGs. At 24h, A2 elicited higher ISG expression than Line 19. Both strains induced MDDCs to express genes for IFN-?, IFN-?1, IFN-?8, and IFN-?1-3, but only A2 induced IFN-?2, -?14 and -?21. We then show that IFN-?8 and IFN-?14 most potently induced MDDCs and bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) to express ISGs. Our findings demonstrate that RSV strain may impact patterns of types I and III IFN expression and the magnitude of the ISG response by DCs and BECs.
Project description:The interferon (IFN) system represents the first line of defense against a wide range of viruses. Virus infection rapidly triggers the transcriptional induction of IFN-? and IFN Stimulated Genes (ISGs), whose protein products act as viral restriction factors by interfering with specific stages of virus life cycle, such as entry, transcription, translation, genome replication, assembly and egress. Here, we report a new mode of action of an ISG, IFN-induced TDRD7 (tudor domain containing 7) inhibited paramyxovirus replication by inhibiting autophagy. TDRD7 was identified as an antiviral gene by a high throughput screen of an ISG shRNA library for blocking IFN's protective effect against Sendai virus (SeV) replication. The antiviral activity of TDRD7 against SeV, human parainfluenza virus 3 and respiratory syncytial virus was confirmed by its genetic ablation or ectopic expression in several types of mouse and human cells. TDRD7's antiviral action was mediated by its ability to inhibit autophagy, a cellular catabolic process which was robustly induced by SeV infection and required for its replication. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TDRD7 interfered with the activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), an enzyme required for initiating autophagy. AMPK activity was required for efficient replication of several paramyxoviruses, as demonstrated by its genetic ablation or inhibition of its activity by TDRD7 or chemical inhibitors. Therefore, our study has identified a new antiviral ISG with a new mode of action.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in primary liver cells is less robust than that in hepatoma cell lines, suggesting that innate antiviral mechanisms in primary cells may limit HCV replication or spread. Here we analyzed the expression of 47 genes associated with interferon (IFN) induction and signaling following HCV infection of primary human fetal liver cell (HFLC) cultures from 18 different donors. We report that cell culture-produced HCV (HCVcc) induced expression of Type III (?) IFNs and of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Little expression of Type I IFNs was detected. Levels of IFN? and ISG induction varied among donors and, often, between adapted and nonadapted HCV chimeric constructs. Higher levels of viral replication were associated with greater induction of ISGs and of ? IFNs. Gene induction was dependent on HCV replication, as ultraviolet light-inactivated virus was not stimulatory and an antiviral drug, 2'-C-methyladenosine, reduced induction of ? IFNs and ISGs. The level of IFN? protein induced was sufficient to inhibit HCVcc infection of naïve cultures. CONCLUSION:Together, these results indicate that despite its reported abilities to blunt the induction of an IFN response, HCV infection is capable of inducing antiviral cytokines and pathways in primary liver cell cultures. Induction of ISGs and ? IFNs may limit the growth and spread of HCV in primary cell cultures and in the infected liver. HCV infection of HFLC may provide a useful model for the study of gene induction by HCV in vivo.
Project description:IFNL4 is linked to hepatitis C virus treatment response and type III interferons (IFNs). We studied the functional associations among hepatic expressions of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and treatment response to peginterferon and ribavirin. Type I IFNs (IFNA1, IFNB1), type II (IFNG), type III (IFNL1, IFNL2/3), IFNL4 and ISG hepatic expressions were measured by qPCR from in 65 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients whose IFNL4-associated rs368234815 and IFNL3-associated rs12989760 genotype were determined. There was a robust correlation of hepatic expression within type I and type III IFNs and between type III IFNs and IFNL4 but no correlation between other IFN types. Expression of ISGs correlated with type III IFNs and IFNL4 but not with type I IFNs. Levels of ISGs and IFNL2/3 mRNAs were lower in IFNL3 rs12979860 CC patients compared with non-CC patients, and in treatment responders, compared with nonresponders. IFNL4-?G genotype was associated with high ISG levels and nonresponse. Hepatic levels of ISGs in CHC are associated with IFNL2/3 and IFNL4 expression, suggesting that IFNLs, not other types of IFNs, drive ISG expression. Hepatic IFNL2/3 expression is functionally linked to IFNL4 and IFNL3 polymorphisms, potentially explaining the tight association among ISG expression and treatment response.
Project description:The human interferon (IFN) response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs), are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV). In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.
Project description:Interferons (IFNs) exert their anti-viral effects by inducing the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The activity of known ISGs is insufficient to account for the antiretroviral effects of IFN, suggesting that ISGs with antiretroviral activity are yet to be described. We constructed an arrayed library of ISGs from rhesus macaques and tested the ability of hundreds of individual macaque and human ISGs to inhibit early and late replication steps for 11 members of the retroviridae from various host species. These screens uncovered numerous ISGs with antiretroviral activity at both the early and late stages of virus replication. Detailed analyses of two antiretroviral ISGs indicate that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) can inhibit retroviral replication by metabolite depletion while tripartite motif-56 (TRIM56) accentuates ISG induction by IFN? and inhibits the expression of late HIV-1 genes. Overall, these studies reveal numerous host proteins that mediate the antiretroviral activity of IFNs.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPV) establish persistent infections in keratinocytes, which can lead to cancer of the anogenital tract. Interferons (IFNs) are a family of secreted cytokines that induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of which display antiviral activities. Transcriptome studies have indicated that established hr-HPV-positive cell lines display a reduced expression of ISGs, which correlates with decreased levels of interferon kappa (IFN-?), a type I IFN constitutively expressed in keratinocytes. Prior studies have also suggested that IFN-? has anti-hr-HPV activity but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The downregulation of IFN-? by hr-HPV raises the possibility that IFN-? has anti-HPV activity. Using doxycycline-inducible IFN-? expression in CIN612-9E cells, which maintain extrachromosomally replicating HPV31 genomes, we demonstrated that IFN-? inhibits the growth of these cells and reduces viral transcription and replication. Interestingly, the initiation of viral early transcription was already inhibited at 4 to 6 h after IFN-? expression. This was also observed with recombinant IFN-?, suggesting a common mechanism of IFNs. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis identified 1,367 IFN-?-regulated genes, of which 221 were modulated >2-fold. The majority of those (71%) matched known ISGs, confirming that IFN-? acts as a bona fide type I IFN in hr-HPV-positive keratinocytes. RNA interference (RNAi) and cotransfection experiments indicated that the inhibition of viral transcription is mainly due to the induction of Sp100 proteins by IFN-?. Consistent with published data showing that Sp100 acts as a restriction factor for HPV18 infection, our results suggest that hr-HPV target IFN-? to prevent Sp100 expression and identify Sp100 as an ISG with anti-HPV activity.High-risk HPV can establish persistent infections which may progress to anogenital cancers. hr-HPV interfere with the expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), which is due to reduced levels of IFN-?, an IFN that is constitutively expressed in human keratinocytes. This study reveals that IFN-? rapidly inhibits HPV transcription and that this is due to the induction of Sp100 proteins. Thus, Sp100 represents an ISG for hr-HPV.
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe economic losses through severe morbidity and mortality and poses a significant threat to the global poultry industry. Significant efforts have been made to develop novel vaccines and therapeutics; however, the interaction of NDV with the host is not yet fully understood. Interferons (IFNs), an integral component of innate immune signaling, act as the first line of defense against invading viruses. Compared with the mammalian repertoire of IFNs, limited information is available on the antiviral potential of IFNs in chickens. Here, we expressed chicken IFN-? (chIFN-?) using a baculovirus expression vector system, characterized its antiviral potential against NDV, and determined its antiviral potential. Priming of chicken embryo fibroblasts with chIFN-? elicited an antiviral environment in primary cells, which was mainly due to interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). A genome-wide transcriptomics approach was used to elucidate the possible signaling pathways associated with IFN-?-induced immune responses. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed significant induction of ISG-associated pathways, activated temporal expression of ISGs, antiviral mediators, and transcriptional regulators in a cascade of antiviral responses. Collectively, we found that IFN-? significantly elicited an antiviral response against NDV infection. These data provide a foundation for chIFN-?-mediated antiviral responses and underpin functional annotation of these important chIFN-?-induced antiviral influencers.
Project description:One of the most important innate host defense mechanisms against viral infection is the induction of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Immediately upon entry, viruses activate interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), as well as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which transactivate a subset of ISGs, proinflammatory genes, as well as IFN genes. Most large DNA viruses exhibit countermeasures against induction of this response. However, whereas human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) inhibits IFN-dependent induction of ISGs, IFN-independent induction of ISGs is observed both in the presence and, even moreso, in the absence of viral gene expression. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) is an emerging animal model for HCMV sharing important similarities in primary structure, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. To determine whether RhCMV would similarly induce ISGs, we performed DNA microarray and quantitative PCR analysis of ISG expression in rhesus fibroblasts infected with RhCMV or HCMV. In contrast to HCMV, however, RhCMV did not induce expression of ISGs or proinflammatory genes at any time after infection. Moreover, dimerization and nuclear accumulation of IRF3, readily observed in HCMV-infected cells, was absent from RhCMV-infected cells, whereas neither virus seemed to activate NFkappaB. RhCMV also blocked IRF3 activation by live or UV-inactivated HCMV, suggesting that RhCMV inhibits viral IRF3 activation and the resultant ISG induction with extraordinary efficiency. Since infection during inhibition of protein expression by cycloheximide or inactivation of viral gene expression by UV treatment did not trigger IRF3 activation or ISG expression by RhCMV, we conclude that RhCMV virions contain a novel inhibitor of IFN-independent viral induction of ISG expression by IRF3.