All-trans retinoic-acid inhibits heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7-stimulated osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity.
ABSTRACT: Background:Bone regenerative heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) enhances but all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of ATRA on physiological and/or BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis in still unclear. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of combined treatment of BMP2/7 and ATRA on osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Results:All-trans retinoic acid (1 µM)?±?BMP2/7 (5 or 50 ng/ml) was added in murine pre-osteoclasts cell line RAW264.7 or mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) cultures. Osteoclast marker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity were analyzed. BMP2/7 robustly enhanced osteoclast maker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Interestingly, ATRA completely inhibited osteoclast formation in presence or absence of BMP2/7. Pan-antagonist of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and antagonist of RAR?, ? or ? failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of ATRA on osteoclastogenesis. ATRA strongly inhibited Rank and Nfatc1 expression. Conclusions:All-trans retinoic acid inhibits BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity possibly via RANKL-RANK pathway. Our findings from previous and current study suggest that combination of ATRA and BMP2/7 could be a novel approach to treat hyperactive osteoclast-induced bone loss such as in inflammation-induced severe osteoporosis and bone loss caused by cancer metastasis to bone.
Project description:Increased vitamin A (retinol) intake has been suggested to increase bone fragility. In the present study, we investigated effects of retinoids on bone resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and their interaction with glucocorticoids (GC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), retinol, retinalaldehyde, and 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated release of (45)Ca from calvarial bones. The resorptive effect of ATRA was characterized by mRNA expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, enhanced osteoclast number, and bone matrix degradation. In addition, the RANKL/OPG ratio was increased by ATRA, release of (45)Ca stimulated by ATRA was blocked by exogenous OPG, and mRNA expression of genes associated with bone formation was decreased by ATRA. All retinoid acid receptors (RAR?/?/?) were expressed in calvarial bones. Agonists with affinity to all receptor subtypes or specifically to RAR? enhanced the release of (45)Ca and mRNA expression of Rankl, whereas agonists with affinity to RAR?/? or RAR? had no effects. Stimulation of Rankl mRNA by ATRA was competitively inhibited by the RAR? antagonist GR110. Exposure of calvarial bones to GC inhibited the stimulatory effects of ATRA on (45)Ca release and Rankl mRNA and protein expression. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU 486. Increased Rankl mRNA stimulated by ATRA was also blocked by GC in calvarial bones from mice with a GR mutation that blocks dimerization (GR(dim) mice). The data suggest that ATRA enhances periosteal bone resorption by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio via RAR? receptors, a response that can be inhibited by monomeric GR.
Project description:It is known that multiple myeloma (MM) cells express CD38 and that a recently developed human anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody Daratumumab mediates myeloma killing. However, the expression of CD38 and other functionally related ectoenzymes within the MM bone niche and the potential effects of Daratumumab on bone cells are still unknown. This study firstly defines by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry the expression of CD38 by bone marrow cells in a cohort of patients with MM and indolent monoclonal gammopathies. Results indicate that only plasma cells expressed CD38 at high level within the bone niche. In addition, the flow cytometry analysis shows that CD38 was also expressed by monocytes and early osteoclast progenitors but not by osteoblasts and mature osteoclasts. Indeed, CD38 was lost during in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, we found that Daratumumab reacted with CD38 expressed on monocytes and its binding inhibited in vitro osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity from bone marrow total mononuclear cells of MM patients, targeting early osteoclast progenitors. The inhibitory effect was not observed from purified CD14+ cells, suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect of Daratumumab. Interestingly, all-trans retinoic acid treatment increased the inhibitory effect of Daratumumab on osteoclast formation. These observations provide a rationale for the use of an anti-CD38 antibody-based approach as treatment for multiple myeloma-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:Introduction:Alcoholism can lead to low mineral density, compromised regenerative bone capacity and delayed osteointegration of dental implants. This may be partially attributed to the inhibitive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a metabolite of alcohol, on osteoblastogenesis. Our previous studies demonstrated that heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) was a more potent BMP than homodimeric BMP2 or BMP7, and could antagonize the inhibitive effect of ATRA to rescue osteoblastogenesis. Materials and methods:In this study, we compared the effectiveness of BMP2/7, BMP2 and BMP7 in restoring osteoblastogenesis of murine preosteoblasts upon inhibition with 1 µM ATRA, and we further analyzed the potential mechanisms. We measured the following parameters: cell viability, ALP, OCN, mineralization, the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes (Collagen I, ALP and OCN) and the expression of BMP signaling key genes (Dlx5, Runx2, Osterix and Smad1). Results:BMP2/7 treatment alone induced significantly higher osteoblastogenesis compared to BMP2 and BMP7. When cells were treated by ATRA, BMP2/7 was superior only in rescuing cell viability and ALP activity, compared to BMP2 or BMP7. However, BMP2/7 was not superior to BMP2 or BMP7 in restoring OCN expression and extracellular mineralized nodules, or in rescuing expression of two key osteogenic genes, Dlx5 and Runx2. Irrespective of their dimeric types or potency, the selected BMPs could antagonize the inhibitory effect of ATRA on osteoblastogenesis. Conclusion:The presence of ATRA, BMP2/7 still induced significantly higher cell viability and early differentiation than the homodimers. However, ATRA significantly attenuated the advantages of BMP2/7 in inducing late and final osteoblastogenic differentiation over the homodimers.
Project description:The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.
Project description:It has been shown that high vitamin A intake is associated with bone fragility and fractures in both animals and humans. However, the mechanism by which vitamin A affects bones is unclear. In the present study, the direct effects of retinoic acid (RA) on human and murine osteoclastogenesis were evaluated using cultured peripheral blood CD14(+) monocytes and RAW264.7 cells. Both the activity of the osteoclast marker tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in culture supernatant and the expression of the genes involved in osteoclast differentiation together with bone resorption were measured. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the effects of RA on human osteoclast progenitors and mature osteoclasts have been studied in vitro. RA stimulated proliferation of osteoclast progenitors both from humans and mice. In contrast, RA inhibited differentiation of the receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis of human and murine osteoclast progenitors via retinoic acid receptors (RARs). We also show that the mRNA levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B (RANK), the key initiating factor and osteoclast associated receptor for RANKL, were potently suppressed by RA in osteoclast progenitors. More importantly, RA abolished the RANK protein in osteoclast progenitors. This inhibition could be partially reversed by a RAR pan-antagonist. Furthermore, RA treatment suppressed the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and increased the expression of interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) in osteoclast progenitors via RARs. Also, RA demonstrated differential effects depending on the material supporting the cell culture. RA did not affect TRAP activity in the culture supernatant in the bone slice culture system, but inhibited the release of TRAP activity if cells were cultured on plastic. In conclusion, our results suggest that retinoic acid increases proliferation of human osteoclast progenitors and that it inhibits RANK-stimulated osteoclast differentiation by suppressing RANK.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family, which acts as an alarmin. Several studies suggested that IL-33 inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is considered a direct inducer of osteoclastogenesis. However, there has been no report regarding the effect of IL-33 on TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of IL-33 on TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In an in vitro analysis of osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast precursors, which were derived from bone marrow cells, were treated with or without IL-33 in the presence of TNF-?. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining solution was used to assess osteoclast formation. In an in vivo analysis of mouse calvariae, TNF-? with or without IL-33 was subcutaneously administrated into the supracalvarial region of mice daily for 5 days. Histological sections were stained for TRAP, and osteoclast numbers were determined. Using micro-CT reconstruction images, the ratio of bone destruction area on the calvariae was evaluated. The number of TRAP-positive cells induced by TNF-? was significantly decreased with IL-33 in vitro and in vivo. Bone resorption was also reduced. IL-33 inhibited I?B phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. These results suggest that IL-33 inhibited TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Hypervitaminosis A and alcoholism can result in a low mineral density and compromised regenerative capacity of bone, thus delaying implant osteointegration. The inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on osteoblastogenesis is considered to be one of the mechanisms. We hypothesized that heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 could antagonize all-trans retinoic acid and enhance osteoblastogenesis, with an aim to accelerate and enhance bone regeneration and implant osteointegration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied 5 ng/ml or 50 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 to restore the osteoblastogenesis of pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cell line) that was inhibited by 1 µM all-trans retinoic acid. We evaluated the efficacy by assessing cell numbers (proliferation), alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker for early differentiation), osteocalcin (a marker for late differentiation), calcium deposition (a marker for final mineralization) and the expression of osteoblastogenic genes (such as Runx2, Collagen Ia, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) at different time points. RESULTS: All-trans retinoic acid significantly inhibited the expression of all the tested osteoblastogenic genes and proteins except alkaline phosphatase activity. In the presence of ATRA, 50 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 not only completely restored but also significantly enhanced all the osteoblastogenic genes and proteins. On the 28(th) day, mineralization was completely inhibited by all-trans retinoic acid. In contrast, 50 ng/ml BMP-2/7 could antagonize ATRA and significantly enhance the mineralization about 2.5 folds in comparison with the control treatment (no ATRA, no BMP2/7). CONCLUSIONS: Heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 bears a promising application potential to significantly promote bone regeneration and implant osteointegration for the patients with hypervitaminosis A and alcoholism.
Project description:Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca(2+)/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Chondrocytes express RANKL, but their role in osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We report that hypertrophic chondrocytes induce osteoclast formation through RANKL production stimulated by BMP2 and Runx2/Smad1 and thus they may regulate resorption of calcified matrix by osteoclasts at growth plates.Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and Runx2 regulate chondrogenesis during bone development and fracture repair and RANKL expression by osteoblast/stromal cells. Chondrocytes express RANKL, and this expression is stimulated by vitamin D3, but it is not known if chondrocytes directly support osteoclast formation or if BMPs or Runx2 is involved in this potential regulation of osteoclastogenesis.The chondrocyte cell line, ATDC5, primary mouse sternal chondrocytes, and chick sternal chondrocytes were used. Cells were treated with BMP2, and expression of RANKL and chondrocyte marker genes was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Chondrocytes and spleen-derived osteoclast precursors +/- BMP2 were co-cultured to examine the effect of chondrocyte-produced RANKL on osteoclast formation. A reporter assay was used to determine whether BMP2-induced RANKL production is through transcriptional regulation of the RANKL promoter and whether it is mediated by Runx2.BMP2 significantly increased expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in all three types of chondrocytes, particularly by Col X-expressing and upper sternal chondrocytes. Chondrocytes constitutively induced osteoclast formation. This effect was increased significantly by BMP2 and prevented by RANK:Fc. BMP2 significantly increased luciferase activity of the RANKL-luc reporter, and Smad1 increased this effect. Deletion or mutation of Runx2 binding sites within the RANKL promoter or overexpression of a dominant negative Runx2 abolished BMP2- and Smad1-mediated activation of RANKL promoter activity.Hypertrophic chondrocytes may regulate osteoclastogenesis at growth plates to remove calcified matrix through BMP-induced RANKL expression.
Project description:Bone homeostasis is maintained as a delicate balance between bone-resorption and bone-formation, which are coupled to maintain appropriate bone mass. A critical question is how bone-resorption is terminated to allow bone-formation to occur. Here, we show that TGF?s inhibit osteoclastogenesis and maintain bone-mass through Smad4 activity in osteoclasts. We found that latent-TGF?1 was activated by osteoclasts to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclast-specific Smad4 conditional knockout mice (Smad4-cKO) exhibited significantly reduced bone-mass and elevated osteoclast formation relative to controls. TGF?1-activation induced expression of Irf8 and Bcl6, both of which encode factors inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, by blocking their negative regulator, Prdm1, in osteoclasts in a Smad4-dependent manner. Reduced bone-mass and accelerated osteoclastogenesis seen in Smad4-cKO were abrogated by Prdm1 deletion. Administration of latent-TGF?1-Fc to wild-type mice antagonized LPS-induced bone destruction in a model of activated osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. Thus, latent-TGF?1-Fc could serve as a promising new therapeutic agent in bone diseases marked by excessive resorption.