A novel chronic nerve compression model in the rat.
ABSTRACT: Current animal models of chronic peripheral nerve compression are mainly silicone tube models. However, the cross section of the rat sciatic nerve is not a perfect circle, and there are differences in the diameter of the sciatic nerve due to individual differences. The use of a silicone tube with a uniform internal diameter may not provide a reliable and consistent model. We have established a chronic sciatic nerve compression model that can induce demyelination of the sciatic nerve and lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle. In 3-week-old pups and adult rats, the sciatic nerve of the right hind limb was exposed, and a piece of surgical latex glove was gently placed under the nerve. N-butyl-cyanoacrylate was then placed over the nerve, and after it had set, another piece of glove latex was placed on top of the target area and allowed to adhere to the first piece to form a sandwich-like complex. Thus, a chronic sciatic nerve compression model was produced. Control pups with latex or N-butyl-cyanoacrylate were also prepared. Functional changes to nerves were assessed using the hot plate test and electromyography. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy analyses of the nerves were performed to quantify the degree of neuropathological change. Masson staining was conducted to assess the degree of fibrosis in the gastrocnemius and intrinsic paw muscles. The pup group rats subjected to nerve compression displayed thermal hypoesthesia and a gradual decrease in nerve conduction velocity at 2 weeks after surgery. Neuropathological studies demonstrated that the model caused nerve demyelination and axonal irregularities and triggered collagen deposition in the epineurium and perineurium of the affected nerve at 8 weeks after surgery. The degree of fibrosis in the gastrocnemius and intrinsic paw muscles was significantly increased at 20 weeks after surgery. In conclusion, our novel model can reproduce the functional and histological changes of chronic nerve compression injury that occurs in humans and it will be a useful new tool for investigating the mechanisms underlying chronic nerve compression.
Project description:Peripheral nerves are often exposed to mechanical stress leading to compression neuropathies. The pathophysiology underlying nerve dysfunction by chronic compression is largely unknown.We analyzed molecular organization and fine structures at and near nodes of Ranvier in a compression neuropathy model in which a silastic tube was placed around the mouse sciatic nerve.Immunofluorescence study showed that clusters of cell adhesion complex forming paranodal axoglial junctions were dispersed and overlapped frequently with juxtaparanodal components. These paranodal changes occurred without internodal myelin damage. The distribution and pattern of paranodal disruption suggests that these changes are the direct result of mechanical stress. Electron microscopy confirmed loss of paranodal axoglial junctions.Our data show that chronic nerve compression disrupts paranodal junctions and axonal domains required for proper peripheral nerve function. These results provide important clues toward better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying nerve dysfunction in compression neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 55: 544-554, 2017.
Project description:The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.
Project description:Recent studies have shown the potential of artificially synthesized conduits in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Natural biopolymers have received much attention because of their biocompatibility. To investigate the effects of novel electrospun absorbable poly(ε-caprolactone)/type I collagen nanofiber conduits (biopolymer nanofiber conduits) on the repair of peripheral nerve injury, we bridged 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defects with electrospun absorbable biopolymer nanofiber conduits, poly(ε-caprolactone) or silicone conduits in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rat neurologica1 function was weekly evaluated using sciatic function index within 8 weeks after repair. Eight weeks after repair, sciatic nerve myelin sheaths and axon morphology were observed by osmium tetroxide staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy. S-100 (Schwann cell marker) and CD4 (inflammatory marker) immunoreactivities in sciatic nerve were detected by immunohistochemistry. In rats subjected to repair with electrospun absorbable biopolymer nanofiber conduits, no serious inflammatory reactions were observed in rat hind limbs, the morphology of myelin sheaths in the injured sciatic nerve was close to normal. CD4 immunoreactivity was obviously weaker in rats subjected to repair with electrospun absorbable biopolymer nanofiber conduits than in those subjected to repair with poly(ε-caprolactone) or silicone. Rats subjected to repair with electrospun absorbable biopolymer nanofiber conduits tended to have greater sciatic nerve function recovery than those receiving poly(ε-caprolactone) or silicone repair. These results suggest that electrospun absorbable poly(ε-caprolactone)/type I collagen nanofiber conduits have the potential of repairing sciatic nerve defects and exhibit good biocompatibility. All experimental procedures were approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Taichung Veteran General Hospital, Taiwan, China (La-1031218) on October 2, 2014.
Project description:The use of autologous nerve grafts remains the gold standard for treating nerve defects, but current nerve repair techniques are limited by donor tissue availability and morbidity associated with tissue loss. Recently, the use of conduits in nerve injury repair, made possible by tissue engineering, has shown therapeutic potential. We manufactured a biodegradable, collagen-based nerve conduit containing decellularized sciatic nerve matrix and compared this with a silicone conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat model. The collagen-based conduit contains nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and laminin, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the collagen-based conduit had an outer wall to prevent scar tissue infiltration and a porous inner structure to allow axonal growth. Rats that were implanted with the collagen-based conduit to bridge a sciatic nerve defect experienced significantly improved motor and sensory nerve functions and greatly enhanced nerve regeneration compared with rats in the sham control group and the silicone conduit group. Our results suggest that the biodegradable collagen-based nerve conduit is more effective for peripheral nerve regeneration than the silicone conduit.
Project description:Magnesium (Mg) wire has been shown to be biodegradable and have anti-inflammatory properties. It can induce Schwann cells to secrete nerve growth factor and promote the regeneration of nerve axons after central nervous system injury. We hypothesized that biodegradable Mg wire may enhance compressed peripheral nerve regeneration. A rat acute sciatic nerve compression model was made, and AZ31 Mg wire (3 mm diameter; 8 mm length) bridged at both ends of the nerve. Our results demonstrate that sciatic functional index, nerve growth factor, p75 neurotrophin receptor, and tyrosine receptor kinase A mRNA expression are increased by Mg wire in Mg model. The numbers of cross section nerve fibers and regenerating axons were also increased. Sciatic nerve function was improved and the myelinated axon number was increased in injured sciatic nerve following Mg treatment. Immunofluorescence histopathology showed that there were increased vigorous axonal regeneration and myelin sheath coverage in injured sciatic nerve after Mg treatment. Our findings confirm that biodegradable Mg wire can promote the regeneration of acute compressed sciatic nerves.
Project description:Endometriosis is a common cause of pain including radicular pain. Ectopic endometrial tissue may directly affect peripheral nerves including the sciatic, which has not been modelled in animals.We developed a rat model for sciatic endometriosis by grafting a piece of autologous uterine tissue around the sciatic nerve. Control animals underwent a similar surgery but received a graft of pelvic fat tissue.The uterine grafts survived and developed fluid-filled cysts; the adjacent nerve showed signs of swelling and damage. Mechanical and cold hypersensitivity and allodynia of the ipsilateral hindpaw developed gradually over the first 2 weeks after the surgery, peaked at 2-5 weeks, and was almost resolved by 7 weeks. Control animals showed only minor changes in these pain behaviours. Histological signs of inflammation in the uterine graft and in the adjacent nerve were observed at 3 weeks but were resolving by 7 weeks. In vivo fibre recording showed increased spontaneous activity, especially of C-fibres, in sciatic nerve proximal to the uterine graft. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines including interluekin-18, VEGF, fractalkine, and MIP-1?, were elevated in the uterine graft plus sciatic nerve samples, compared to samples from normal nerve or nerve plus fat graft. Growth associated protein 43 (GAP43), a marker of regenerating nerve fibres, was observed in the adjacent sciatic nerve as well as in the uterine graft.This model shared many features with other rat models of endometriosis, but also had some unique features more closely related to neuropathic pain models.Some especially painful forms of endometriosis are essentially neuropathic, because peripheral nerves are directly affected by nearby ectopic endometrial tissue. We modelled endometriosis by implanting autologous uterine tissue around rat sciatic nerve. We observed mechanical and cold pain behaviours along with signs of inflammation and nerve damage and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the implant site. Pain behaviours correlated with signs of nerve inflammation and damage rather than with cyst survival.
Project description:The studies described in this paper for the first time characterize the acute and chronic performance of optically transparent thin-film micro-electrocorticography (?ECoG) grids implanted on a thinned skull as both an electrophysiological complement to existing thinned skull preparation for optical recordings/manipulations, and a less invasive alternative to epidural or subdurally placed ?ECoG arrays. In a longitudinal chronic study, ?ECoG grids placed on top of a thinned skull maintain impedances comparable to epidurally placed ?ECoG grids that are stable for periods of at least 1 month. Optogenetic activation of cortex is also reliably demonstrated through the optically transparent ?ECoG grids acutely placed on the thinned skull. Finally, spatially distinct electrophysiological recordings were evident on ?ECoG electrodes placed on a thinned skull separated by 500-750 ?m, as assessed by stimulation evoked responses using optogenetic activation of cortex as well as invasive and epidermal stimulation of the sciatic and median nerve at chronic time points. Neural signals were collected through a thinned skull in mice and rats, demonstrating potential utility in neuroscience research applications such as in vivo imaging and optogenetics.
Project description:Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness.
Project description:Introduction: Surgical gloves are used to prevent contamination of the patient and the hospital staff with pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the actual effectiveness of gloves by examining the damage (perforations, tears) to latex gloves during surgery in the case of primary hip and knee prosthesis implantation. Materials and methods: Latex surgical gloves used by surgeons for primary hip and knee replacement surgeries were collected directly after the surgery and tested using the watertightness test according to ISO EN 455-1:2000. Results: 540 gloves were collected from 104 surgeries. In 32.7% of surgeries at least one glove was damaged. Of all the gloves collected, 10.9% were damaged, mainly on the index finger. The size of the perforations ranged from ≤1 mm to over 5 mm. The surgeon's glove size was the only factor that significantly influenced the occurrence of glove damage. Surgeon training level, procedure duration, and the use of bone cement had no significant influence. Conclusions: Our results highlight the high failure rate of surgical gloves. This has acute implications for glove production, surgical practice, and hygiene guidelines. Further studies are needed to detect the surgical steps, surface structures, and instruments that pose an increased risk for glove damage.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate in the Wistar rat the efficacy of various autologous nerve conduits with various forms of blood supply in reconstructing a 10-mm-long gap in the median nerve (MN) under conditions of local ischemia. A 10-mm-long median nerve defect was created in the right arm. A loose silicone tube was placed around the nerve gap zone, in order to simulate a local ischemic environment. Rats were divided in the following experimental groups (each with 20 rats): the nerve Graft (NG) group, in which the excised MN segment was reattached; the conventional nerve flap (CNF) and the arterialized neurovenous flap (ANVF) groups in which the gap was bridged with homonymous median nerve flaps; the prefabricated nerve flap (PNF) group in which the gap was reconstructed with a fabricated flap created by leaving an arteriovenous fistula in contact with the sciatic nerve for 5 weeks; and the two control groups, Sham and Excision groups. In the latter group, the proximal stump of the MN nerve was ligated and no repair was performed. The rats were followed for 100 days. During this time, they did physiotherapy. Functional, electroneuromyographic and histological studies were performed. The CNF and ANVF groups presented better results than the NG group in the following assessments: grasping test, nociception, motor stimulation threshold, muscle weight, and histomorphometric evaluation. Radial deviation of the operated forepaw was more common in rats that presented worse results in the other outcome variables. Overall, CNFs and ANVFs produced a faster and more complete recovery than NGs in the reconstruction of a 10-mm-long median nerve gap in an ischemic environment in the Wistar rat. Although, results obtained with CNFs were in most cases were better than ANVFs, these differences were not statistically significant for most of the outcome variables.