Correlation between redefined optical coherence tomography parameters and best-corrected visual acuity in non-resolving central serous chorioretinopathy treated with half-dose photodynamic therapy.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To assess parameters on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and their correlation with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with non-resolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS:For 25 non-resolving CSC patients treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the thickness of retinal layers was assessed on the foveal spectral-domain (SD) OCT scan. Evaluated OCT parameters included the central retinal thickness (CRT), defined as the internal limiting membrane (ILM) to ellipsoid zone (EZ) distance, and the second band thickness (SBT), defined as the EZ to hyperreflective subretinal accumulation distance. Integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM) and the EZ bands was also determined. These parameters, along with BCVA and CRT measured automatically by SD-OCT device software were obtained before PDT, after PDT, and at final visit. After Bonferroni correction, a p-value <0.007 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Twenty-five patients could be included at last visit before PDT and first visit after PDT. At final visit, 24 patients could be included, since 1 patients was lost to follow-up. Mean CRT was 112 ?m at last visit before PDT, 118 ?m at first visit after PDT (p = 0.030), and 127 ?m at final visit (p<0.001compared to baseline). Mean SBT was 74 ?m, 26 ?m (p<0.001 compared to baseline), and 21 ?m (p<0.001 compared to baseline), respectively. Mean BCVA in Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters was 79 at baseline, 85 at first visit after PDT (p = 0.005 compared to baseline), and 87 at final visit (p = 0.001 compared to baseline). BCVA had an estimated correlation of ? = 0.103 (p = 0.114) with CRT, ? = -0.051 (p = 0.014) with SBT, ? = 0.615 (p = 0.600) with the integrity of the ELM, and ? = 4.917 with the integrity of the EZ (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In non-resolving CSC patients treated with half-dose PDT, the CRT increased at final visit in comparison to the last visit before PDT. The continuity of the EZ on SD-OCT was positively correlated with BCVA. We propose that the distance between ILM and EZ should be used as a reliable CRT measurement in non-resolving CSC patients treated with half-dose PDT.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate short-term markers of outcome in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods:Prospective interventional case series included 122 eyes of 122 patients with recently diagnosed DME. Eyes were treated with a 3-monthly loading dose of ranibizumab or aflibercept and pro re nata thereafter. Serial enhanced deep imaging SD-OCT high resolution scans were used to measure subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Anatomic (10% CRT decrease) and functional responses (best corrected visual acuity, BCVA gain ?5 letters) were assessed at 3 months and 6 months using univariate and multivariate analyses. Parameters tested were gender, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, hypertension, CRT, SFCT, BCVA, ellipsoid zone (EZ) status, subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND), anti-VEGF used and laser naivety. A logistic regression model was applied to find independent markers outcome. Results:BCVA increased, CRT and SFCT decreased at 3 months and 6 months. Good metabolic control (p =?0.003), intact baseline EZ (p =?0.030), EZ re-grading at 3 M (p <?0.001) and laser naivety (p =?0.001) were associated with better functional outcome. The multivariate linear regression model showed that baseline SND and CRT are predictors of anatomic response, while lower baseline BCVA and intact EZ are predictors of functional response. Conclusion:The presence of SND predicts anatomic response only, while an intact EZ is critical to achieve a good functional outcome in DME.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe treatment outcomes in a cohort of Caucasian patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS:Clinical charts from 48 eyes of 45 Caucasian patients with PCV were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were diagnosed with indocyanine green angiography. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging were analyzed at baseline and final follow-up. RESULTS:Eyes were treated with a combination of verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (n = 24), or PDT monotherapy (n = 9), or anti-VEGF monotherapy (n = 8), or no treatment (n = 7). Aflibercept was the anti-VEGF agent in 30 out of 32 eyes. Sixteen out of 24 eyes in the combination treatment group received initial PDT at diagnosis. All treatments led to stabilization of BCVA at final visit with a trend for better visual acuity in the anti-VEGF monotherapy group. There was a substantial reduction in central retinal thickness associated with resolution of subfoveal fluid and improvement in retinal pigment epithelial detachment in all treatment groups. BCVA and OCT findings remained stable in eyes which received no treatment. The use of PDT was associated with 0.5 fewer intravitreal injections per annum, which was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:In the largest series of Caucasian patients with PCV presented to date, anti-VEGF monotherapy, PDT, or their combination preserved visual acuity and improved subfoveal exudative changes. Combination treatment was not superior to anti-VEGF monotherapy.
Project description:Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical approach mainly chosen for complex rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair with highly variable functional results. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of preoperative factors and postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular findings on the functional outcome of patients undergoing primary PPV for RRD. A retrospective analysis was performed on 88 eyes of 88 patients with complex RRD managed by PPV. A swept source OCT was used to obtain images at the postoperative visit at least 6 months after PPV. Hierarchical linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of preoperative factors related to patient, ocular clinical and postoperative OCT macular findings on functional outcomes of PPV for RRD. Duration of symptoms (p = 0.031) and discontinuity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) on OCT (p = 0.024) showed statistically significant negative correlation, while preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; p < 0.001) showed statistically significant positive correlation to postoperative BCVA. Preoperative BCVA and duration of symptoms can be used as prognostic factors for visual outcome in patients undergoing PPV for RRD. Discontinuity of the EZ was the only postoperative OCT variable related to worse postoperative visual outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the one-year visual and anatomical outcomes of combination therapy with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS:This was a retrospective case-series study, including 30 eyes from 30 patients with treatment-naïve PCV treated by combination therapy with IVA and PDT. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), complete polyp regression rate, and dry macula rate were recorded every 3 months during 12-month follow-up. Clinical factors associated with final visual outcome and retreatment were investigated. RESULTS:The mean LogMAR BCVA was significantly improved from 0.73 ± 0.65 at baseline to 0.51 ± 0.60 (p = 0.01), and the mean CRT was also significantly improved from 339 ± 96 μm at baseline to 244 ± 43 μm at 12-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Complete regression of polypoidal lesions was 76.7%, and dry macula rate was 100% at 12 months. Better final BCVA was associated with younger age and better baseline BCVA (p = 0.02 and p < 0 001). The patients without complete polyp regression at 3-month follow-up were associated with retreatment (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION:In this study, combination therapy with IVA and PDT had significant visual and anatomical improvements to PCV patients during one-year follow-up. Better baseline BCVA and younger age were found to be associated with better visual outcome.
Project description:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and factors involved in the recurrence and persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this retrospective observational case series, 79 eyes (73 patients) with chronic CSC were treated with half-dose PDT and followed up for at least 3 years. They were divided into successful (64 eyes) and unsuccessful (15 eyes) groups based on SRF absorption and disease recurrence after one PDT session. Age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness, neuroretinal thickness, height of SRF, subfoveal choroidal thickness, window defect area detected by fluorescein angiography, and PDT spot area were compared between the groups. Factors associated with PDT success and BCVA at 3 years were investigated.LogMAR BCVA improved from 0.21±0.24 to 0.08±0.16 (P<0.001) at 3 years after PDT. Compared with the unsuccessful group, the successful group had a significantly younger mean age (50.5±9.7 vs. 56.5±9.1 years, P = 0.032) and better baseline BCVA (0.18±0.23 vs. 0.32±0.25, P = 0.034). Other parameters were not significantly different. Multivariate analyses showed that unsuccessful PDT was significantly associated with lower baseline BCVA (P = 0.026) and older age (P = 0.029) and that BCVA at 3 years after PDT was positively associated with baseline BCVA (P<0.001).Half-dose PDT has a long-term efficacy in chronic CSC. Relatively early PDT may improve anatomic and functional outcomes of chronic CSC.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this prospective interventional case series, patients with chronic CSC were treated with spironolactone (25 mg daily) for at least 6 weeks. If the subretinal fluid (SRF) had not completely resolved by this time, treatment was continued, and the dosage was increased to 25 mg twice daily. Primary outcome measure was the change in maximum SRF height at the final follow-up visit, as detected by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT).Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with chronic CSC were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 6.4 ± 4.3 months. Baseline BCVA was 0.54 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (log MAR), which improved to 0.42 ± 0.43 log MAR at the final visit (P = 0.04). Mean CMT decreased from 282.69 ± 103.23 μm at baseline to 236.75 ± 90.10 μm at final visit (P = 0.11), and the mean of maximum SRF height decreased from 155.63 ± 95.27 μm at baseline to 77.19 ± 95.68 μm at the final visit (P = 0.04). SRF resolved completely in seven eyes (43.75%).In eyes with persistent SRF due to CSC, spironolactone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in maximum SRF height, as well as an improvement in BCVA.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and injection frequency of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors as used in clinical practice for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. METHODS:Multicenter (10 sites), retrospective chart review in patients (n=156) who received ?3 anti-VEGF injections. Data collected for ?6 months after the first injection included Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) by time-domain or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT or SD-OCT). RESULTS:Mean number of anti-VEGF injections (627 bevacizumab, 594 ranibizumab, 1 aflibercept) was 5.8 (year 1), 5.0 (year 2), and 3.4 (year 3). Percentage of patients with BCVA of 20/40 or better and CRT ?250 ?m on TD-OCT or ?300 ?m on SD-OCT at the same visit (primary endpoint) ranged from 16.4% to 38.9% after the first 10 injections; 51.9%-62.3% achieved ?20/40 BCVA and 26.2%-48.0% met CRT criteria. Therapy was well tolerated with 19 treatment-related adverse events (all ocular) reported. CONCLUSION:Anti-VEGF injections were administered less frequently and were less effective than those in the ranibizumab registration trials. After each of the first 9 injections, <25% of patients achieved both BCVA of 20/40 or better and a dry macula. A substantial proportion of patients are suboptimal responders to anti-VEGF therapy; these patients may be candidates for other therapies, including intravitreal corticosteroid and laser therapy.
Project description:Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive alternative to fluorescein angiography that allows for the study of the retinal and choroidal vasculatures. In this retrospective cohort study of 28 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we used OCT-A to quantify changes in perfusion density, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and choriocapillaris blood flow over time and correlated these variables with ellipsoid zone (EZ) line width and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Perfusion density decreased by 2.42?±?0.62% per year at the superior capillary plexus (SCP) (P?=?0.001) and 2.41?±?0.76% per year at the deep capillary plexus (DCP) (P?=?0.004). FAZ area increased by 0.078?±?0.021 mm2 per year (P?=?0.001) at the SCP and 0.152?±?0.039 mm2 per year (P?=?0.001) at the DCP. No changes were observed in the choriocapillaris blood flow. EZ line width had the strongest correlation to perfusion density at the SCP (r?=?0.660 and 0.635, first and second visit, respectively, P?=?0.001), while BCVA most strongly correlated with FAZ area at the SCP (r?=?0.679 and 0.548, P?=?0.001 and 0.003). Our results suggest that OCT-A is a useful tool for monitoring RP disease progression and may be used to measure retinal vascular parameters as outcomes in clinical trials.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the multimodal morphological features in the different stages of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) in subjects harboring mutations in the BEST1 gene, and their changes during the progression of the disease. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study performed between January 2007 and December 2012, 21 patients (42 eyes) with Best VMD from eight families with the BEST1 mutation were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) were evaluated at study entry and at last visit. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 26.3±17.4 years. Seven new missense mutations in BEST1 were identified. Mean follow-up was 41.1±18.5 months. Mean BCVA was 0.34±0.34 LogMAR at study entry and 0.32±0.33 LogMAR at last follow-up visit (p = 0.2). The overall lesion area on FAF increased from 6.62±4.9 mm² to 7.34±6.1 mm² (p = 0.05). At study entry, on SD-OCT, photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid portion (ellipsoid zone, EZ) was normal in 15 eyes, disrupted in 14 eyes, and absent in 13 eyes. In two eyes, EZ changed from normal to disrupted during follow-up. Three eyes of three patients showing pseudohypopyon lesions at study entry progressed to vitelliruptive lesions at the last follow-up visit. Three eyes of three patients showing vitelliruptive lesion at study entry reverted to pseudohypopyon lesion with overall enlargement of the lesion size. CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal analysis allowed documenting a continuous material accumulation and reabsorption in Best VMD progression. Blue FAF and SD-OCT could represent noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor Best VMD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To analyze multiple imaging modalities in patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) and to investigate which factors from these modalities are associated with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA).<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective study, 40 eyes from 22 patients with BCD were included and were separated into group 1 (BCVA ?20/200) and group 2 (BCVA >?20/200). Data including BCVA and characteristic findings from near-infrared reflectance (NIR) imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and spectral domain-optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed and compared. The outcome measures of multimodal imaging were evaluated for correlation with BCVA.<h4>Results</h4>NIR is a good diagnostic tool for detecting either crystalline or sclerotic vessels in BCD. Patients in group 1 tended to have a thinner choroid (P?=?0.047) with ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption (P?=?0.011). Calculation of the area under the curve indicated that EZ disruption detected on SD-OCT could be a good predictor of legal blindness in BCD.<h4>Conclusion</h4>For the diagnosis of BCD, NIR could be a good diagnostic tool. Of the studied imaging modalities, we found that EZ disruption at the fovea were strongly associated with legal blindness, which could be easily assessed by SD-OCT.