Wheat microbiome bacteria can reduce virulence of a plant pathogenic fungus by altering histone acetylation.
ABSTRACT: Interactions between bacteria and fungi have great environmental, medical, and agricultural importance, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we study the interactions between the bacterium Pseudomonas piscium, from the wheat head microbiome, and the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. We show that a compound secreted by the bacteria (phenazine-1-carboxamide) directly affects the activity of fungal protein FgGcn5, a histone acetyltransferase of the SAGA complex. This leads to deregulation of histone acetylation at H2BK11, H3K14, H3K18, and H3K27 in F. graminearum, as well as suppression of fungal growth, virulence, and mycotoxin biosynthesis. Therefore, an antagonistic bacterium can inhibit growth and virulence of a plant pathogenic fungus by manipulating fungal histone modification.
Project description:Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs (FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3) in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. We replaced the genes and all mutant strains showed reduced growth of F. graminearum. The ?FgSAS3 and ?FgGCN5 mutant increased sensitivity to oxidative and osmotic stresses. Additionally, ?FgSAS3 showed reduced conidia sporulation and perithecium formation. Mutant ?FgGCN5 was unable to generate any conidia and lost its ability to form perithecia. Our data showed also that FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 are pathogenicity factors required for infecting wheat heads as well as tomato fruits. Importantly, almost no Deoxynivalenol (DON) was produced either in ?FgSAS3 or ?FgGCN5 mutants, which was consistent with a significant downregulation of TRI genes expression. Furthermore, we discovered for the first time that FgSAS3 is indispensable for the acetylation of histone site H3K4, while FgGCN5 is essential for the acetylation of H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27. H3K14 can be completely acetylated when FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 were both present. The RNA-seq analyses of the two mutant strains provide insight into their functions in development and metabolism. Results from this study clarify the functional divergence of HATs in F. graminearum, and may provide novel targeted strategies to control secondary metabolite expression and infections of F. graminearum.
Project description:Sequence analyses of fungal genomes have revealed that the potential of fungi to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. In fact, most gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of antibiotics, toxins, or pigments are silent under standard laboratory conditions. Hence, it is one of the major challenges in microbiology to uncover the mechanisms required for pathway activation. Recently, we discovered that intimate physical interaction of the important model fungus Aspergillus nidulans with the soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus specifically activated silent fungal secondary metabolism genes, resulting in the production of the archetypal polyketide orsellinic acid and its derivatives. Here, we report that the streptomycete triggers modification of fungal histones. Deletion analysis of 36 of 40 acetyltransferases, including histone acetyltransferases (HATs) of A. nidulans, demonstrated that the Saga/Ada complex containing the HAT GcnE and the AdaB protein is required for induction of the orsellinic acid gene cluster by the bacterium. We also showed that Saga/Ada plays a major role for specific induction of other biosynthesis gene clusters, such as sterigmatocystin, terrequinone, and penicillin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the Saga/Ada-dependent increase of histone 3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14 occurs during interaction of fungus and bacterium. Furthermore, the production of secondary metabolites in A. nidulans is accompanied by a global increase in H3K14 acetylation. Increased H3K9 acetylation, however, was only found within gene clusters. This report provides previously undescribed evidence of Saga/Ada dependent histone acetylation triggered by prokaryotes.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells repress global translation and selectively upregulate stress response proteins by altering multiple steps in gene expression. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cellular adaptation to thermal stress was performed on the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. The results revealed that profound alterations in gene expression were required for heat shock responses in F. graminearum. Among these proteins, heat shock protein 90 (FgHsp90) was revealed to play a central role in heat shock stress responses in this fungus. FgHsp90 was highly expressed and exclusively localised to nuclei in response to heat stress. Moreover, our comprehensive functional characterisation of FgHsp90 provides clear genetic evidence supporting its crucial roles in the vegetative growth, reproduction, and virulence of F. graminearum. In particular, FgHsp90 performs multiple functions as a transcriptional regulator of conidiation. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying adaptation to heat shock and the roles of Hsp90 in fungal development.
Project description:Arsenite-resistance protein 2 (Ars2) is an important nuclear protein involved in various RNA metabolisms in animals and plants, but no Ars2 ortholog has been studied in filamentous fungi. Although it is an essential gene in most model eukaryotes, FgARS2 null mutants were viable in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. The deletion of FgARS2 resulted in pleiotropic defects in various fungal developmental processes. Fgars2 mutants were irregular in nuclear division, and conidial germination was significantly retarded, causing the fungus to manifest its hypersensitive phenotypes under DNA damage stress. While FgARS2 deletion caused abnormal morphologies of ascospores and defective ascospore discharge, our data revealed that FgARS2 was not closely involved in small-non-coding RNA production in F. graminearum. The dominant nuclear localization of FgArs2-green fluorescent proteins (GFP) and abnormal nuclear division in FgARS2 deletion mutant implicated that FgArs2 functions in the nucleus. Intriguingly, we found that FgArs2 established a robust physical interaction with the cap binding complex (CBC) to form a tertiary complex CBC-Ars2 (CBCA), and disruption of any CBCA complex subunit drastically attenuated the virulence of F. graminearum. The results of the study indicate that Ars2 regulates fungal development, stress response, and pathogenesis via interaction with CBC in F. graminearum and provide a novel insight into understanding of the biological functions of Ars2 in filamentous fungi.
Project description:The cereal infecting fungus Fusarium graminearum is predicted to possess a single homologue of plant RALF (rapid alkalinisation factor) peptides. Fusarium mutant strains lacking FgRALF were generated and found to exhibit wildtype virulence on wheat and Arabidopsis floral tissue. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing FgRALF exhibited no obvious change in susceptibility to F. graminearum leaf infection. In contrast transient virus-mediated over-expression (VOX) of FgRALF in wheat prior to F. graminearum infection, slightly increased the rate of fungal colonisation of floral tissue. Ten putative Feronia (FER) receptors of RALF peptide were identified bioinformatically in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). Transient silencing of two wheat FER homoeologous genes prior to F. graminearum inoculation did not alter the subsequent interaction outcome. Collectively, our VOX results show that the fungal RALF peptide may be a minor contributor in F. graminearum virulence but results from fungal gene deletion experiments indicate potential functional redundancy within the F. graminearum genome. We demonstrate that virus-mediated over-expression is a useful tool to provide novel information about gene/protein function when results from gene deletion/disruption experimentation were uninformative.
Project description:Cell cycle regulation and the maintenance of genome integrity are crucial for the development and virulence of the pathogenic plant fungus Fusarium graminearum. To identify transcription factors (TFs) related to these processes, four DNA-damaging agents were applied to screen a F. graminearum TF mutant library. Sixteen TFs were identified to be likely involved in DNA damage responses. Fhs1 is a fungal specific Zn(II)2Cys6 TF that localises exclusively to nuclei. fhs1 deletion mutants were hypersensitive to hydroxyurea and defective in mitotic cell division. Moreover, deletion of FHS1 resulted in defects in perithecia production and virulence and led to the accumulation of DNA damage. Our genetic evidence demonstrated that the FHS1-associated signalling pathway for DNA damage response is independent of the ATM or ATR pathways. This study identified sixteen genes involved in the DNA damage response and is the first to characterise the novel transcription factor gene FHS1, which is involved in the DNA damage response. The results provide new insights into mechanisms underlying DNA damage responses in fungi, including F. graminearum.
Project description:Fusarium graminearum, the main pathogenic fungus causing Fusarium head blight (FHB), produces deoxynivalenol (DON), a key virulence factor, which is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sey1/atlastin, a dynamin-like GTPase protein, is known to be required for homotypic fusion of ER membranes, but the functions of this protein are unknown in pathogenic fungi. Here, we characterized Sey1/atlastin homologue FgSey1 in F. graminearum Like Sey1/atlastin, FgSey1 is located in the ER. The FgSEY1 deletion mutant exhibited significantly reduced vegetative growth, asexual development, DON biosynthesis, and virulence. Moreover, the ?Fgsey1 mutant was impaired in the formation of normal lipid droplets (LDs) and toxisomes, both of which participate in DON biosynthesis. The GTPase, helix bundle (HB), transmembrane segment (TM), and cytosolic tail (CT) domains of FgSey1 are essential for its function, but only the TM domain is responsible for its localization. Furthermore, the mutants FgSey1K63A and FgSey1T87A lacked GTPase activity and failed to rescue the defects of the ?Fgsey1 mutant. Collectively, our data suggest that the dynamin-like GTPase protein FgSey1 affects the generation of LDs and toxisomes and is required for DON biosynthesis and pathogenesis in F. graminearum IMPORTANCE Fusarium graminearum is a major plant pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheats worldwide. In addition to reducing the plant yield, F. graminearum infection of wheats also results in the production of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins, which are harmful to humans and animals and therefore cause great economic losses through pollution of food products and animal feed. At present, effective strategies for controlling FHB are not available. Therefore, understanding the regulation mechanisms of fungal development, pathogenesis, and DON biosynthesis is important for the development of effective control strategies of this disease. In this study, we demonstrated that a dynamin-like GTPase protein Sey1/atlastin homologue, FgSey1, is required for vegetative growth, DON production, and pathogenicity in F. graminearum Our results provide novel information on critical roles of FgSey1 in fungal pathogenicity; therefore, FgSey1 could be a potential target for effective control of the disease caused by F. graminearum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21) is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. RESULTS: Using a 3'-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together, our data aid in the understanding of how FgV1-DK21 regulates the transcriptional reprogramming of F. graminearum.
Project description:Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1), which is phylogenetically related to Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), is a virus in the family Hypoviridae that infects the plant pathogenic fungus F. graminearum. Although hypovirus FgHV1 infection does not attenuate the virulence of the host (hypovirulence), it results in defects in mycelial growth and spore production. We now report that the vertical transmission rate of FgHV1 through asexual spores reached 100%. Using RNA deep sequencing, we performed genome-wide expression analysis to reveal phenotype-related genes with expression changes in response to FgHV1 infection. A total of 378 genes were differentially expressed, suggesting that hypovirus infection causes a significant alteration of fungal gene expression. Nearly two times as many genes were up-regulated as were down-regulated. A differentially expressed gene enrichment analysis identified a number of important pathways. Metabolic processes, the ubiquitination system, and especially cellular redox regulation were the most affected categories in F. graminearum challenged with FgHV1. The p20, encoded by FgHV1 could induce H?O? accumulation and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Moreover, hypovirus FgHV1 may regulate transcription factors and trigger the RNA silencing pathway in F. graminearum.
Project description:There is a tremendous need for novel strategies aimed at directly assessing activities of histone modifiers to probe epigenetic determinants associated with disease progression. Here, we developed a high-throughput peptide microarray assay to identify altered histone lysine (de)acetylation activity in prostate cancer (PCa). This microarray-based activity assay revealed up-regulated histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity against specific histone H3 sites in a castrate-resistant (CR) PCa cell line compared to its hormone-sensitive (HS) isogenic counterpart. NAD+-dependent deacetylation assays revealed down-regulated sirtuin activity in validated CR lines. Levels of acetyltransferases GCN5, PCAF, CBP, and p300 were unchanged between matched HS and CR cell lines. However, autoacetylation of p300 at K1499, a modification known to enhance HAT activity and a target of deacetylation by SIRT2, was highly elevated in CR cells, while SIRT2 protein level was reduced in CR cells. Interrogation of HS and matched CR xenograft lines reveals that H3K18 hyperacetylation, increased p300 activity, and decreased SIRT2 expression are associated with progression to CR in 8/12 (66%). Tissue microarray analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of H3K18 is a feature of CRPC. Inhibition of p300 results in lower H3K18ac levels and increased expression of androgen receptors. Thus, a novel histone array identifies altered enzyme activities during the progression to CRPC and may be utilized in a personalized medicine approach. Reduced SIRT2 expression and increased p300 activity lead to a concerted mechanism of hyperacetylation at specific histone lysine sites (H3K9, H3K14, and H3K18) in CRPC.