Effects of Khat (Catha edulis) use on catalytic activities of major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes and implication of pharmacogenetic variations.
ABSTRACT: In a one-way cross-over study, we investigated the effect of Khat, a natural amphetamine-like psychostimulant plant, on catalytic activities of five major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. After a one-week Khat abstinence, 63 Ethiopian male volunteers were phenotyped using cocktail probe drugs (caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole). Phenotyping was repeated after a one-week daily use of 400?g fresh Khat leaves. Genotyping for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A5 were done. Urinary cathinone and phenylpropanolamine, and plasma probe drugs and metabolites concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Effect of Khat on enzyme activities was evaluated by comparing caffeine/paraxanthine (CYP1A2), losartan/losartan carboxylic acid (CYP2C9), omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan/dextrorphan (CYP2D6) and dextromethorphan/3-methoxymorphinan (CYP3A4) metabolic ratios (MR) before and after Khat use. Wilcoxon-matched-pair-test indicated a significant increase in median CYP2D6 MR (41%, p?
Project description:We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers.This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data using analysis of variance after RG administration versus before RG administration.Fourteen healthy male participants were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as poor CYP2C9, 2C19, and CYP2D6 metabolizers based on genotyping. Before and after RG administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.870 (0.805-0.940) for caffeine to paraxanthine (CYP1A2), 0.871 (0.800-0.947) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.027 (0.938-1.123) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.373 (0.864-2.180) for dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6), and 0.824 (0.658-1.032) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUClast) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 0.963 (0.845-1.098). Administration of concentrated RG for 2 wk weakly inhibited CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and weakly induced CYP2D6. However, no clinically significant drug interactions were observed between RG and CYP and P-gp probe substrates.RG has no relevant potential to cause CYP enzyme- or P-gp-related interactions. Clinical trial registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT02056743.
Project description:Osilodrostat (LCI699) is an adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitor currently in late-phase clinical development as a potential treatment for Cushing's disease. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of osilodrostat on the pharmacokinetics of probe substrates of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4.Healthy adult volunteers received single-dose cocktail probe substrates [caffeine (100 mg), omeprazole (20 mg), dextromethorphan (30 mg), and midazolam (2 mg)] followed by a 6-day washout. Subjects then received a single dose of osilodrostat 50 mg followed by a single dose of cocktail probe substrates.Nineteen of twenty subjects (ten were male) completed the study. Mean age, body weight, and body mass index were 41.8 years, 73.0 kg, and 24.4 kg/m2. Geometric mean ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measureable concentration and 90% confidence intervals of probe substrate exposure with osilodrostat were: caffeine (CYP1A2 probe substrate), 2.33 (2.10-2.59); omeprazole (CYP2C19), 1.91 (1.74-2.11); dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), 1.48 (1.34-1.63); and midazolam (CYP3A4/5), 1.50 (1.41-1.60). Corresponding values for geometric mean ratio of maximum plasma concentration (90% confidence interval) for the change in substrate exposure were 1.07 (0.988-1.15), 1.61 (1.40-1.84), 1.35 (1.21-1.50), and 1.47 (1.32-1.62).Osilodrostat is a moderate inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 and a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 and the most clinically important CYP enzyme, CYP3A4. Osilodrostat is unlikely to significantly increase the exposures of other medications cleared by CYP3A4. These findings are clinically relevant given that Cushing's disease is a chronic condition often requiring multiple medications and that most other therapies have significant drug interaction potential.
Project description:This open-label, randomized, two-period drug interaction study assessed lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme (CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A) activity.Thirty healthy volunteers were administered the Cooperstown cocktail (CYP1A2 [caffeine 200 mg], CYP2D6 [dextromethorphan 30 mg], CYP2C19 [omeprazole 40 mg], and CYP3A [midazolam 0.025 mg/kg] substrates) or Cooperstown cocktail + oral LDX 70 mg. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected pre-dose and serially for 72 h post-dose. Treatment differences in the primary endpoints, maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC0-?), were assessed using geometric mean ratios with 90 % CIs.Geometric least squares (LS) means (without versus with LDX) for C max (ng/mL) were 5370 versus 5246 for caffeine, 2.43 versus 2.87 for dextromethorphan, 35.23 versus 35.11 for midazolam, and 677.9 versus 466.9 for omeprazole; and for AUC0-? (ng · h/mL) were 56,207 versus 56,688 for caffeine, 34.85 versus 37.27 for dextromethorphan, 92.07 versus 93.04 for midazolam, and 1428 versus 1499 for omeprazole. Geometric LS mean ratios were within the standard bioequivalence testing range, except for omeprazole and dextromethorphan C max. Parent/metabolite C max and AUC0-? ratios were similar between treatments except for dextromethorphan/dextrorphan AUC0-? ratio, which was lower with LDX. No serious or severe treatment-emergent adverse events were reported.LDX did not alter CYP1A2, CYP2D6, or CYP3A activity. A small C max reduction for omeprazole and its metabolite was observed, possibly reflecting an effect either on the activity of CYP2C19 or omeprazole absorption.
Project description:ASP8477 (molecular weight 325.36 g/mol) is a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor intended for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Results from in vitro studies indicated that ASP8477 is a direct inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 enzymes at expected efficacious concentrations, with the strongest effect on CYP2C19; a phase 1 study confirmed ASP8477 to be a CYP2C19 inhibitor. To further evaluate the interaction potential of ASP8477, a cocktail interaction study was performed using the probe substrates of the validated Inje cocktail containing losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4). Because ASP8477 shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics, 3 doses (20, 60, and 100 mg) were evaluated. This study revealed changes in exposure (area under the concentration-time curve) of the probe substrates after treatment with 20, 60, and 100 mg ASP8477, respectively, compared with substrates alone with geometric mean ratios of: midazolam, 119%, 151%, and 158%; losartan, 107%, 144%, and 190%; omeprazole, 213%, 456%, and 610%; and dextromethorphan, 138%, 340%, and 555% (with increasing doses, respectively). Overall, ASP8477 was a weak inhibitor for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, a moderate to strong inhibitor for CYP2C19, and a weak to strong inhibitor for CYP2D6, with doses from 20 to 100 mg. This study confirmed that the Inje cocktail approach was able to detect relevant drug-drug interactions impacting further development of ASP8477 and future therapeutic use. With the approach used here, the inhibiting effect of a perpetrator drug on different CYP enzymes can be evaluated, and at different doses, thereby supporting dose recommendations for potential interactions.
Project description:AIMS:We assessed the drug interaction profile of fermented red ginseng with respect to the activity of major cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes and of a drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in healthy volunteers. METHODS:This study was an open-label crossover study. The CYP probe cocktail drugs caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam and fexofenadine were administered before and after 2 weeks of fermented red ginseng administration. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data. Values were compared between before and after fermented red ginseng administration using analysis of variance (anova). RESULTS:Fifteen healthy male subjects were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as a poor CYP2C9, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 metabolizer based on genotyping. Before and after fermented red ginseng administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.901 (0.830-0.979) for caffeine (CYP1A2) to paraxanthine, 0.774 (0.720-0.831) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.052 (0.925-1.197) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.150 (0.860-1.538) for dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) to dextrorphan, and 0.816 (0.673-0.990) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUClast ) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 1.322 (1.112-1.571). CONCLUSION:No significantly different drug interactions were observed between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates following the two-week administration of concentrated fermented red ginseng. However, the inhibition of P-gp was significantly different between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates. The use of fermented red ginseng requires close attention due to the potential for increased systemic exposure when it is used in combination with P-gp substrate drugs.
Project description:Currently used hepatocyte cell systems for in vitro assessment of drug metabolism include hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocyte (PHH) cultures. We investigated the suitability of the validated in vivo Basel phenotyping cocktail (caffeine [CYP1A2], efavirenz [CYP2B6], losartan [CYP2C9], omeprazole [CYP2C19], metoprolol [CYP2D6], midazolam [CYP3A4]) in vitro and characterized four hepatocyte cell systems (HepG2 cells, HepaRG cells, and primary cryopreserved human hepatocytes in 2-dimensional [2D] culture or in 3D-spheroid co-culture) regarding basal metabolism and CYP inducibility. Under non-induced conditions, all CYP activities could be determined in 3D-PHH, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in 2D-PHH and HepaRG, and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells. The highest non-induced CYP activities were observed in 3D-PHH and HepaRG cells. mRNA expression was at least four-fold higher for all CYPs in 3D-PHH compared to the other cell systems. After treatment with 20 ?M rifampicin, mRNA increased 3- to 50-fold for all CYPs except CYP1A2 and 2D6 for HepaRG and 3D-PHH, 4-fold (CYP2B6) and 17-fold (CYP3A4) for 2D-PHH and four-fold (CYP3A4) for HepG2. In 3D-PHH at least a two-fold increase in CYP activity was observed for all inducible CYP isoforms while CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activity did not increase in 2D-PHH and HepaRG. CYP inducibility assessed in vivo using the same phenotyping probes was also best reflected by the 3D-PHH model. Our studies show that 3D-PHH and (with some limitations) HepaRG are suitable cell systems for assessing drug metabolism and CYP induction in vitro. HepG2 cells are less suited to assess CYP induction of the 2C and 3A family. The Basel phenotyping cocktail is suitable for the assessment of CYP activity and induction also in vitro.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of upadacitinib, a Janus kinase 1 inhibitor, on in vivo activity of different cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes using a cocktail approach. Healthy subjects (n = 20) received single oral doses of the modified Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail drugs (midazolam [CYP3A], caffeine [CYP1A2], warfarin + vitamin K [CYP2C9], omeprazole [CYP2C19], and dextromethorphan [CYP2D6]) without upadacitinib and on day 11 (midazolam) or 12 (all other probes) of a 15-day regimen of upadacitinib 30 mg once daily (extended-release formulation). Serial blood samples and 12-hour urine samples were collected for assays of the probe substrates and select metabolites. The ratio (90%CI) of area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf ) central values when the cocktail drugs were administered with upadacitinib relative to when administered alone were 0.74 (0.68-0.80) for midazolam, 1.22 (1.15-1.29) for caffeine, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) for S-warfarin, 1.07 (0.95-1.22) for dextromethorphan, and 0.82 (0.72-0.94) for omeprazole. The ratio (90%CI) was 1.09 (1.00-1.19) for 5-hydroxy-omeprazole to omeprazole AUCinf ratio and 1.17 (0.97-1.41) for dextromethorphan to dextrorphan 12-hour molar urinary ratio. Upadacitinib 30 mg once daily (a dose that is twice the optimal dose in rheumatoid arthritis based on phase 3 results) has a limited effect on CYP3A activity (26% decrease in exposure of midazolam, a sensitive CYP3A substrate) and no relevant effects on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2D6 activity in vivo. No clinically relevant changes in plasma exposures are expected for drugs that are substrates for the evaluated CYP enzymes when coadministered with upadacitinib.
Project description:This report describes phase 1 clinical trials performed to assess interactions of oral isavuconazole at the clinically targeted dose (200 mg, administered as isavuconazonium sulfate 372 mg, 3 times a day for 2 days; 200 mg once daily [QD] thereafter) with single oral doses of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates: bupropion hydrochloride (CYP2B6; 100 mg; n = 24), repaglinide (CYP2C8/CYP3A4; 0.5 mg; n = 24), caffeine (CYP1A2; 200 mg; n = 24), dextromethorphan hydrobromide (CYP2D6/CYP3A4; 30 mg; n = 24), and methadone (CYP2B6/CYP2C19/CYP3A4; 10 mg; n = 23). Compared with each drug alone, coadministration with isavuconazole changed the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC? ) and maximum concentrations (Cmax ) as follows: bupropion, AUC? reduced 42%, Cmax reduced 31%; repaglinide, AUC? reduced 8%, Cmax reduced 14%; caffeine, AUC? increased 4%, Cmax reduced 1%; dextromethorphan, AUC? increased 18%, Cmax increased 17%; R-methadone, AUC? reduced 10%, Cmax increased 3%; S-methadone, AUC? reduced 35%, Cmax increased 1%. In all studies, there were no deaths, 1 serious adverse event (dextromethorphan study; perioral numbness, numbness of right arm and leg), and adverse events leading to study discontinuation were rare. Thus, isavuconazole is a mild inducer of CYP2B6 but does not appear to affect CYP1A2-, CYP2C8-, or CYP2D6-mediated metabolism.
Project description:Diabetes affects more than 9% of the adult population worldwide. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show variable responses to some drugs which may be due, in part, to variability in the functional activity of drug-metabolising enzymes including cytochromes P450 (CYP450s). CYP450 is a superfamily of enzymes responsible for xenobiotic metabolism. Knowledge must be gained on the impact of T2DM and related inflammatory processes on drug metabolism and its consequences on drug response. The aim of this study is to characterise the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4/5 in T2DM versus non-T2DM subjects following the administration of a cocktail of probe drug substrates.This single-centre clinical study proposes the first detailed characterisation of T2DM impacts on major CYP450 drug-metabolising enzyme activities. We intend to recruit 42 patients with controlled T2DM (A1C?7%), 42 patients with uncontrolled T2DM (A1C>7%) and 42 non-diabetic control subjects. The primary objective is to determine and compare major CYP450 activities in patients with T2DM versus non-diabetic subjects by dosing in plasma and urine probe drug substrates and metabolites following the oral administration of a drug cocktail: caffeine (CYP1A2), bupropion (CYP2B6), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and midazolam (CYP3A4/5). Secondary objectives will evaluate the influence of variables such as glycaemia, insulinaemia, genetic polymorphisms and inflammation. The value of an endogenous biomarker of CYP3A activity is also evaluated. The first patient was recruited in May 2015 and patients will be enrolled up to completion of study groups.Approval was obtained from the ethic review board of the CHUM research centre (Montreal, Canada).NCT02291666.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A fixed-dose combination of daclatasvir (DCV; hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor), asunaprevir (ASV; non-structural protein 3 inhibitor), and beclabuvir (BCV; non-structural protein 5B inhibitor) is approved in Japan for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to assess the combination's drug-drug interaction potential in vivo using a validated cocktail of eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and transporter probes. METHODS:We conducted an open-label single-sequence study in healthy adults (n = 20) given single-dose caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate), metoprolol (CYP2D6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), montelukast (CYP2C8), omeprazole (CYP2C19), midazolam (CYP3A4), digoxin (P-glycoprotein), and pravastatin (organic anion-transporting polypeptide), alone or with steady-state twice-daily DCV/ASV/BCV 30/200/75 mg (with or without additional BCV 75 mg to adjust for higher exposure in hepatitis C virus infection). RESULTS:Daclatasvir/asunaprevir/beclabuvir did not affect CYP1A2, CYP2C8, or CYP2C9; the probe maximum observed concentration and area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinite time geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were all within the 0.8-1.25 bioequivalence range. Beclabuvir showed moderate dose-dependent CYP2C19 induction; omeprazole maximum observed concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration were lower with additional BCV [geometric mean ratio 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.23-0.55) and 0.34 (0.25-0.46), respectively] than without [0.57 (0.42-0.78), 0.48 (0.39-0.59)]. Weak-to-moderate CYP3A4 induction was observed, plus weak CYP2D6, P-glycoprotein, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide inhibition [maximum observed concentration and area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinite time without additional BCV: midazolam 0.57 (0.50-0.65), 0.53 (0.47-0.60); metoprolol 1.40 (1.20-1.64), 1.71 (1.49-1.97); digoxin 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 1.23 (1.17-1.29); pravastatin 2.01 (1.63-2.47), 1.68 (1.43-1.97)]. CONCLUSIONS:No dose adjustments with DCV/ASV/BCV are indicated for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, or P-glycoprotein substrates. CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and OATP substrates should be co-administered with caution. Co-administration with agents solely metabolized by CYP2C19 is not recommended.