Evaluation of sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of barley leaves.
ABSTRACT: Sample preparation is a critical process for proteomic studies. Many efficient and reproducible sample preparation methods have been developed for mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human and animal tissues or cells, but no attempt has been made to evaluate these protocols for plants. We here present an LC-MS/MS-based proteomics study of barley leaf aimed at optimization of methods to achieve efficient and unbiased trypsin digestion of proteins prior to LC-MS/MS based sequencing and quantification of peptides. We evaluated two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols using either sodium dodecyl-sulphate or sodium deoxycholate (SDC), and three in-solution digestion (ISD) protocols using SDC or trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation.The proteomics workflow identified and quantified up to 1800 barley proteins based on sequencing of up to 6900 peptides per sample. The two spin filter-based protocols provided a 12-38% higher efficiency than the ISD protocols, including more proteins of low abundance. Among the ISD protocols, a simple one-step reduction and S-alkylation method (OP-ISD) was the most efficient for barley leaf sample preparation; it identified and quantified 1500 proteins and displayed higher peptide-to-protein inference ratio and higher average amino acid sequence coverage of proteins. The two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols are compatible with TMT labelling for quantitative proteomics studies. They exhibited complementary performance as about 30% of the proteins were identified by either one or the other protocol, but also demonstrated a positive bias for membrane proteins when using SDC as detergent.We provide detailed protocols for efficient plant protein sample preparation for LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies. Spin filter-based protocols are the most efficient for the preparation of leaf samples for MS-based proteomics. However, a simple protocol provides comparable results although with different peptide digestion profile.
Project description:Barley is an important cereal crop all over the world. Detailed molecular characterization of barley provides the basis for development of improved cultivars, stress and drought-resistant plants. We here present an LC-MS/MS-based proteomics study of barley leaf aimed at optimization of methods to achieve efficient and unbiased trypsin digestion of proteins prior to LC-MS/MS based sequencing and quantification of peptides. We evaluated two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols using either sodium dodecyl-sulphate (SDS) or sodium deoxycholate (SDC), and three in-solution digestion (ISD) protocols using SDC or trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation. The proteomics workflow identified up to 1800 barley proteins based on sequencing of up to 7700 peptides per sample. The two spin filter-based protocols provided a 17-38% higher efficiency than the ISD protocols, including more proteins of low abundance. Among the ISD protocols, a simple one-step reduction and S-alkylation method (OP-ISD) was the most efficient for barley leaf sample preparation; it identified and quantified 1500 proteins and displayed higher peptide-to-protein inference ratio and higher average amino acid sequence coverage of proteins. The two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols are compatible with TMT labeling for quantitative proteomics studies. They exhibited complementary performance as about 30% of the proteins were identified by either one or the other protocol, but also demonstrated a positive bias for membrane proteins when using SDC as detergent. We provide detailed protocols for efficient barley protein sample preparation for LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies. Spin filter-based protocols are the most efficient for the preparation of barley leaf samples for MS-based proteomics, however, a simple protocol provides comparable results although with different peptide digestion profile.
Project description:Filter aided sample preparation (FASP) is becoming a central method for proteomic sample cleanup and peptide generation prior to LC-MS analysis. We previously adapted this method to a 96-well filter plate, and applied to prepare protein digests from cell lysate and body fluid samples in a high throughput quantitative manner. While the 96FASP approach is scalable and can handle multiple samples simultaneously, two key advantages compared to single FASP, it is also time-consuming. The centrifugation-based liquid transfer on the filter plate takes 3-5 times longer than single filter. To address this limitation, we now present a quick 96FASP (named q96FASP) approach that, relying on the use of filter membranes with a large MWCO size (~30kDa), significantly reduces centrifugal times. We show that q96FASP allows the generation of protein digests derived from whole cell lysates and body fluids in a quality similar to that of the single FASP method. Processing a sample in multiple wells in parallel, we observed excellent experimental repeatability by label-free quantitation approach. We conclude that the q96FASP approach promises to be a promising cost- and time-effective method for shotgun proteomics and will be particularly useful in large scale biomarker discovery studies. SIGNIFICANCE:High throughput sample processing is of particular interests for quantitative proteomics. The previously developed 96FASP is high throughput and appealing, however it is time-consuming in the context of centrifugation-based liquid transfer (~1.5h per spin). This study presents a truly high throughput sample preparation method based on large cut-off 96-well filter plate, which shortens the spin time to ~20min. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-well method that is entirely comparable with conventional FASP. This study thoroughly examined two types of filter plates and performed side-by-side comparisons with single FASP. Two types of samples, whole cell lysate of a UTI (urinary tract infection)-associated Klebsiella pneumoniae cell and human urine, were tested which demonstrated its capability for quantitative proteomics. The q96FSAP approach makes the filter plate-based approach more appealing for protein biomarker discovery projects, and could be broadly applied to large scale proteomics analysis.
Project description:For mass spectrometry-based proteomics, the selected sample preparation strategy is a key determinant for information that will be obtained. However, the corresponding selection is often not based on a fit-for-purpose evaluation. Here we report a comparison of in-gel (IGD), in-solution (ISD), on-filter (OFD), and on-pellet digestion (OPD) workflows on the basis of targeted (QconCAT-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for mitochondrial proteins) and discovery proteomics (data-dependent acquisition, DDA) analyses using three different human head and neck tissues (i.e., nasal polyps, parotid gland, and palatine tonsils). Our study reveals differences between the sample preparation methods, for example, with respect to protein and peptide losses, quantification variability, protocol-induced methionine oxidation, and asparagine/glutamine deamidation as well as identification of cysteine-containing peptides. However, none of the methods performed best for all types of tissues, which argues against the existence of a universal sample preparation method for proteome analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The growing field of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue proteomics holds promise for improving translational research. Direct tissue trypsinization (DT) and protein extraction followed by in solution digestion (ISD) or filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) are the most common workflows for shotgun analysis of FFPE samples, but a critical comparison of the different methods is currently lacking. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:DT, FASP and ISD workflows were compared by subjecting to the same label-free quantitative approach three independent technical replicates of each method applied to FFPE liver tissue. Data were evaluated in terms of method reproducibility and protein/peptide distribution according to localization, MW, pI and hydrophobicity. RESULTS:DT showed lower reproducibility, good preservation of high-MW proteins, a general bias towards hydrophilic and acidic proteins, much lower keratin contamination, as well as higher abundance of non-tryptic peptides. Conversely, FASP and ISD proteomes were depleted in high-MW proteins and enriched in hydrophobic and membrane proteins; FASP provided higher identification yields, while ISD exhibited higher reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS:These results highlight that diverse sample preparation strategies provide significantly different proteomic information, and present typical biases that should be taken into account when dealing with FFPE samples. When a sufficient amount of tissue is available, the complementary use of different methods is suggested to increase proteome coverage and depth.
Project description:The majority of mass spectrometry-based protein quantification studies uses peptide-centric analytical methods and thus strongly relies on efficient and unbiased protein digestion protocols for sample preparation. We present a novel objective approach to assess protein digestion efficiency using a combination of qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein fractions. We evaluated nine trypsin-based digestion protocols, based on standard in-solution or on spin filter-aided digestion, including new optimized protocols. We investigated various reagents for protein solubilization and denaturation (dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, urea), several trypsin digestion conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents before analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows for efficient, unbiased generation and recovery of peptides from all protein classes, including membrane proteins. This deoxycholate-assisted protocol was also optimal for spin filter-aided digestions as compared with existing methods.
Project description:The main challenge of bottom-up proteomic sample preparation is to extract proteomes in a manner that enables efficient protein digestion for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Today's sample preparation strategies are commonly conceptualized around the removal of detergents, which are essential for extraction but strongly interfere with digestion and LC-MS. These multi-step preparations contribute to a lack of reproducibility as they are prone to losses, biases and contaminations, while being time-consuming and labor-intensive. We report a detergent-free method, named Sample Preparation by Easy Extraction and Digestion (SPEED), which consists of three mandatory steps, acidification, neutralization and digestion. SPEED is a universal method for peptide generation from various sources and is easily applicable even for lysis-resistant sample types as pure trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is used for highly efficient protein extraction by complete sample dissolution. The protocol is highly reproducible, virtually loss-less, enables very rapid sample processing and is superior to the detergent/chaotropic agent-based methods FASP, ISD-Urea and SP3 for quantitative proteomics. SPEED holds the potential to dramatically simplify and standardize sample preparation while improving the depth of proteome coverage especially for challenging samples.
Project description:A major challenge in the field of proteomics is obtaining high-quality peptides for comprehensive proteome profiling by LC-MS. Here, evaluation and modification of a range of sample preparation methods using photosynthetically active Arabidopsis leaf tissue are done. It was found that inclusion of filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) based on filter digestion improves all protein extraction methods tested. Ultimately, a detergent-free urea-FASP approach that enables deep and robust quantification of leaf and root proteomes is shown. For example, from 4-day-old leaf tissue, up to 11 690 proteins were profiled from a single sample replicate. This method should be broadly applicable to researchers working with difficult to process plant samples.
Project description:Proper sample preparation protocols represent a critical step for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomic study designs and influence the speed, performance and automation of high-throughput data acquisition. The main objective of this study was to compare two commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based sample preparation protocols (comprising SOLAµTM HRP SPE spin plates from Thermo Fisher Scientific and ZIPTIP® C18 pipette tips from Merck Millipore) for analytical performance, reproducibility, and analysis speed. The house swine represents a promising animal model for studying human eye diseases including glaucoma and provides excellent requirements for the qualitative and quantitative MS-based comparison in terms of ocular proteomics. In total six technical replicates of two protein fractions [extracted with 0.1% dodecyl-ß-maltoside (DDM) or 1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)] of porcine retinal tissues were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and purified with both SPE-based workflows (N = 3) prior to LC-MS analysis. On average, 550 ± 70 proteins (1512 ± 199 peptides) and 305 ± 48 proteins (806 ± 144 peptides) were identified from DDM and TFA protein fractions, respectively, after ZIPTIP® C18 purification, and SOLAµTM workflow resulted in the detection of 513 ± 55 proteins (1347 ± 180 peptides) and 300 ± 33 proteins (722 ± 87 peptides), respectively (FDR < 1%). Venn diagram analysis revealed an average overlap of 65 ± 2% (DDM fraction) and 69 ± 4% (TFA fraction) in protein identifications between both SPE-based methods. Quantitative analysis of 25 glaucoma-related protein markers also showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) regarding protein recovery between both SPE methods. However, only glaucoma-associated marker MECP2 showed a significant (P = 0.02) higher abundance in ZIPTIP®-purified replicates in comparison to SOLAµTM-treated study samples. Nevertheless, this result was not confirmed in the verification experiment using in-gel trypsin digestion of recombinant MECP2 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, both SPE-based purification methods worked equally well in terms of analytical performance and reproducibility, whereas the analysis speed and the semi-automation of the SOLAµTM spin plates workflow is much more convenient in comparison to the ZIPTIP® C18 method.
Project description:Protein glycosylation is a common protein post-translational modification (PTM) in living organisms and has been shown to associate with multiple diseases, and thus may potentially be a biomarker of such diseases. Efficient protein/glycoprotein extraction is a key step in the preparation of N-glycans derived from glycoproteins prior to LC-MS analysis. Convenient, efficient and unbiased sample preparation protocols are needed. Herein, we evaluated the use of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) acidic labile detergent to release N-glycans of glycoproteins derived from biological samples such as cancer cell lines. Compared to the filter aided sample preparation approach, the sodium deoxycholate (SDC) assisted approach was determined to be more efficient and unbiased. SDC removal was determined to be more efficient when using acidic precipitation rather than ethyl acetate phase transfer. Efficient extraction of proteins/glycoproteins from biological samples was achieved by combining SDC lysis buffer and beads beating cell disruption. This was suggested by a significant overall increase in the intensities of N-glycans released from cancer cell lines. Additionally, the use of SDC approach was also shown to be more reproducible than those methods that do not use SDC.
Project description:Comprehensive determination of primary sequence and identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key elements in protein structural analysis. Various mass spectrometry (MS) based fragmentation techniques are powerful approaches for mapping both the amino acid sequence and PTMs; one of these techniques is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), combined with in-source decay (ISD) fragmentation and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS. MALDI-ISD MS protein analysis involves only minimal sample preparation and does not require spectral deconvolution. The resulting MALDI-ISD MS data is complementary to electrospray ionization-based MS/MS sequencing readouts, providing knowledge on the types of fragment ions is available. In this study, we evaluate the isotopic distributions of z' ions in protein top-down MALDI-ISD FT-ICR mass spectra and show why these distributions can deviate from theoretical profiles as a result of co-occurring and isomeric z and y-NH3 ions. Two synthetic peptides, containing either normal or deuterated alanine residues, were used to confirm the presence and unravel the identity of isomeric z and y-NH3 fragment ions ("twins"). Furthermore, two reducing MALDI matrices, namely 1,5-diaminonaphthalene and N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine were applied that yield ISD mass spectra with different fragment ion distributions. This study demonstrates that the relative abundance of isomeric z and y-NH3 ions requires consideration for accurate and confident assignments of z' ions in MALDI-ISD FT-ICR mass spectra.