The carbohydrate-binding module and linker of a modular lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase promote localized cellulose oxidation.
ABSTRACT: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin, a feature that makes them key tools in industrial biomass conversion processes. The catalytic domains of a considerable fraction of LPMOs and other carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are tethered to carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) by flexible linkers. These linkers preclude X-ray crystallographic studies, and the functional implications of these modular assemblies remain partly unknown. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy to characterize structural and dynamic features of full-length modular ScLPMO10C from Streptomyces coelicolor We observed that the linker is disordered and extended, creating distance between the CBM and the catalytic domain and allowing these domains to move independently of each other. Functional studies with cellulose nanofibrils revealed that most of the substrate-binding affinity of full-length ScLPMO10C resides in the CBM. Comparison of the catalytic performance of full-length ScLPMO10C and its isolated catalytic domain revealed that the CBM is beneficial for LPMO activity at lower substrate concentrations and promotes localized and repeated oxidation of the substrate. Taken together, these results provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the interplay between catalytic domains linked to CBMs in LPMOs and CAZymes in general.
Project description:Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable industrial substrate. Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to the degradation of lignocellulose and increase the efficiency of biofuel production. LPMOs can contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), but their role in the activity of these enzymes is poorly understood. Here we explored the importance of CBMs in LPMO function. The family 2a CBMs of two monooxygenases,CfLPMO10 andTbLPMO10 fromCellulomonas fimiandThermobispora bispora, respectively, were deleted and/or replaced with CBMs from other proteins. The data showed that the CBMs could potentiate and, surprisingly, inhibit LPMO activity, and that these effects were both enzyme-specific and substrate-specific. Removing the natural CBM or introducingCtCBM3a, from theClostridium thermocellumcellulosome scaffoldin CipA, almost abolished the catalytic activity of the LPMOs against the cellulosic substrates. The deleterious effect of CBM removal likely reflects the importance of prolonged presentation of the enzyme on the surface of the substrate for efficient catalytic activity, as only LPMOs appended to CBMs bound tightly to cellulose. The negative impact ofCtCBM3a is in sharp contrast with the capacity of this binding module to potentiate the activity of a range of glycoside hydrolases including cellulases. The deletion of the endogenous CBM fromCfLPMO10 or the introduction of a family 10 CBM fromCellvibrio japonicusLPMO10B intoTbLPMO10 influenced the quantity of non-oxidized products generated, demonstrating that CBMs can modulate the mode of action of LPMOs. This study demonstrates that engineered LPMO-CBM hybrids can display enhanced industrially relevant oxygenations.
Project description:Plant cell-wall polysaccharides represent a vast source of food in nature. To depolymerize polysaccharides to soluble sugars, many organisms use multifunctional enzyme mixtures consisting of glycoside hydrolases, lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases, polysaccharide lyases, and carbohydrate esterases, as well as accessory, redox-active enzymes for lignin depolymerization. Many of these enzymes that degrade lignocellulose are multimodular with carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and catalytic domains connected by flexible, glycosylated linkers. These linkers have long been thought to simply serve as a tether between structured domains or to act in an inchworm-like fashion during catalytic action. To examine linker function, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Trichoderma reesei Family 6 and Family 7 cellobiohydrolases (TrCel6A and TrCel7A, respectively) bound to cellulose. During these simulations, the glycosylated linkers bind directly to cellulose, suggesting a previously unknown role in enzyme action. The prediction from the MD simulations was examined experimentally by measuring the binding affinity of the Cel7A CBM and the natively glycosylated Cel7A CBM-linker. On crystalline cellulose, the glycosylated linker enhances the binding affinity over the CBM alone by an order of magnitude. The MD simulations before and after binding of the linker also suggest that the bound linker may affect enzyme action due to significant damping in the enzyme fluctuations. Together, these results suggest that glycosylated linkers in carbohydrate-active enzymes, which are intrinsically disordered proteins in solution, aid in dynamic binding during the enzymatic deconstruction of plant cell walls.
Project description:Background:Effective enzymatic degradation of crystalline polysaccharides requires a synergistic cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes tailored to the wide-ranging degree of substrate crystallinity. To accomplish this type of targeted carbohydrate recognition, nature produces multi-modular enzymes, having at least one catalytic domain appended to one or more carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The Type B CBM categorization encompasses several families (i.e., protein folds) of CBMs that are generally thought to selectively bind oligomeric polysaccharides; however, a subset of cellulose-specific CBM families (17 and 28) appear to bind non-crystalline cellulose more tightly than oligomers and in a manner that discriminates between surface topology. Results:To provide insight into this unexplained phenomenon, we investigated the molecular-level origins of oligomeric and non-crystalline carbohydrate recognition in cellulose-specific Type B CBMs using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and free energy calculations. Examining two CBMs from three different families (4, 17, and 28), we describe how protein-ligand dynamics contribute to observed variations in binding affinity of oligomers within the same CBM family. Comparisons across the three CBM families identified factors leading to modified functionality prohibiting competitive binding, despite similarity in sequence and specificity. Using free energy perturbation with Hamiltonian replica exchange MD, we also examined the hypothesis that the open topology of the binding grooves in families 17 and 28 necessitates tight binding of an oligomer, while the more confined family 4 binding groove does not require the same degree of tight binding. Finally, we elucidated the mechanisms of non-crystalline carbohydrate recognition by modeling CBMs complexed with a partially decrystallized cellulose substrate. Molecular simulation provided structural and dynamic data for direct comparison to oligomeric modes of carbohydrate recognition, and umbrella sampling MD was used to determine ligand binding free energy. Comparing both protein-carbohydrate interactions and ligand binding free energies, which were in good agreement with experimental values, we confirmed the hypothesis that family 17 and 28 CBMs bind non-crystalline cellulose and oligomers with different affinities (i.e., high and low). Conclusions:Our study provides an unprecedented level of insight into the complex solid and soluble carbohydrate substrate recognition mechanisms of Type B CBMs, the findings of which hold considerable promise for enhancing lignocellulosic biomass conversion technology and development of plant cell wall probes.
Project description:A novel Eubacterium cellulosolvens 5 gene encoding an endoglucanase (Cel5A) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its enzymatic properties were characterized. The cel5A gene consists of a 3,444-bp open reading frame and encodes a 1,148-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 127,047 Da. Cel5A is a modular enzyme consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide, two glycosyl hydrolase family 5 catalytic modules, two novel carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), two linker sequences, and a C-terminal sequence with an unknown function. The amino acid sequences of the two catalytic modules and the two CBMs are 94% and 73% identical to each other, respectively. Two regions that consisted of one CBM and one catalytic module were tandemly connected via a linker sequence. The CBMs did not exhibit significant sequence similarity with any other CBMs. Analyses of the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant Cel5A (rCel5A) comprising the CBMs and the catalytic modules showed that the enzyme is an endoglucanase with activities with carboxymethyl cellulose, lichenan, acid-swollen cellulose, and oat spelt xylan. To investigate the functions of the CBMs and the catalytic modules, truncated derivatives of rCel5A were constructed and characterized. There were no differences in the hydrolytic activities with various polysaccharides or in the hydrolytic products obtained from cellooligosaccharides between the two catalytic modules. Both CBMs had the same substrate affinity with intact rCel5A. Removal of the CBMs from rCel5A reduced the catalytic activities with various polysaccharides remarkably. These observations show that CBMs play an important role in the catalytic function of the enzyme.
Project description:Structural carbohydrates comprise an extraordinary source of energy that remains poorly utilized by the biofuel sector as enzymes have restricted access to their substrates within the intricacy of plant cell walls. Carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZYmes) that target recalcitrant polysaccharides are modular enzymes containing noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that direct enzymes to their cognate substrate, thus potentiating catalysis. In general, CBMs are functionally and structurally autonomous from their associated catalytic domains from which they are separated through flexible linker sequences. Here, we show that a C-terminal CBM46 derived from BhCel5B, a Bacillus halodurans endoglucanase, does not interact with ?-glucans independently but, uniquely, acts cooperatively with the catalytic domain of the enzyme in substrate recognition. The structure of BhCBM46 revealed a ?-sandwich fold that abuts onto the region of the substrate binding cleft upstream of the active site. BhCBM46 as a discrete entity is unable to bind to ?-glucans. Removal of BhCBM46 from BhCel5B, however, abrogates binding to ?-1,3-1,4-glucans while substantially decreasing the affinity for decorated ?-1,4-glucan homopolymers such as xyloglucan. The CBM46 was shown to contribute to xyloglucan hydrolysis only in the context of intact plant cell walls, but it potentiates enzymatic activity against purified ?-1,3-1,4-glucans in solution or within the cell wall. This report reveals the mechanism by which a CBM can promote enzyme activity through direct interaction with the substrate or by targeting regions of the plant cell wall where the target glucan is abundant.
Project description:Cellulases catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the major constituent of plant biomass and the most abundant organic polymer on earth. Cellulases are modular enzymes containing catalytic domains connected, via linker sequences, to noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). A putative modular endo-?-1,4-glucanase (BhCel5B) is encoded at locus BH0603 in the genome of Bacillus halodurans. It is composed of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 5 catalytic module (GH5) followed by an immunoglobulin-like module and a C-terminal family 46 CBM (BhCBM46). Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the trimodular BhCel5B are reported. The crystals of BhCel5B belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2121 2 and data were processed to a resolution of 1.64?Å. A molecular-replacement solution has been found.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The gene encoding an atypical multi-modular glycoside hydrolase family 45 endoglucanase bearing five different family 1 carbohydrate binding modules (CBM1), designated PpCel45A, was identified in the Pichia pastoris GS115 genome. RESULTS: PpCel45A (full-length open reading frame), and three derived constructs comprising (i) the catalytic module with its proximal CBM1, (ii) the catalytic module only, and (iii) the five CBM1 modules without catalytic module, were successfully expressed to high yields (up to 2 grams per litre of culture) in P. pastoris X33. Although the constructs containing the catalytic module displayed similar activities towards a range of glucans, comparison of their biochemical characteristics revealed striking differences. We observed a high thermostability of PpCel45A (Half life time of 6 h at 80°C), which decreased with the removal of CBMs and glycosylated linkers. However, both binding to crystalline cellulose and hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and cellohexaose were substantially boosted by the presence of one CBM rather than five. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has revealed the specific features of the first characterized endo ?-1,4 glucanase from yeast, whose thermostability is promising for biotechnological applications related to the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass such as consolidated bioprocessing.
Project description:Cellulase enzymes deconstruct cellulose to glucose, and are often comprised of glycosylated linkers connecting glycoside hydrolases (GHs) to carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Although linker modifications can alter cellulase activity, the functional role of linkers beyond domain connectivity remains unknown. Here we investigate cellulase linkers connecting GH Family 6 or 7 catalytic domains to Family 1 or 2 CBMs, from both bacterial and eukaryotic cellulases to identify conserved characteristics potentially related to function. Sequence analysis suggests that the linker lengths between structured domains are optimized based on the GH domain and CBM type, such that linker length may be important for activity. Longer linkers are observed in eukaryotic GH Family 6 cellulases compared to GH Family 7 cellulases. Bacterial GH Family 6 cellulases are found with structured domains in either N to C terminal order, and similar linker lengths suggest there is no effect of domain order on length. O-glycosylation is uniformly distributed across linkers, suggesting that glycans are required along entire linker lengths for proteolysis protection and, as suggested by simulation, for extension. Sequence comparisons show that proline content for bacterial linkers is more than double that observed in eukaryotic linkers, but with fewer putative O-glycan sites, suggesting alternative methods for extension. Conversely, near linker termini where linkers connect to structured domains, O-glycosylation sites are observed less frequently, whereas glycines are more prevalent, suggesting the need for flexibility to achieve proper domain orientations. Putative N-glycosylation sites are quite rare in cellulase linkers, while an N-P motif, which strongly disfavors the attachment of N-glycans, is commonly observed. These results suggest that linkers exhibit features that are likely tailored for optimal function, despite possessing low sequence identity. This study suggests that cellulase linkers may exhibit function in enzyme action, and highlights the need for additional studies to elucidate cellulase linker functions.
Project description:The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO?-limiting conditions. Publications of genomes/transcriptomes of the colonial microalgae, Gonium pectorale (Gp) and Volvox carteri (Vc), between 2010?2016 prompted us to look for cellulase genes in these algae and to compare them to cellulases from bacteria, fungi, lower/higher plants, and invertebrate metazoans. Interestingly, algal catalytic domains (CDs), belonging to the family GH9, clustered separately and showed the highest (33?42%) and lowest (17?36%) sequence identity with respect to cellulases from invertebrate metazoans and bacteria, respectively, whereas the identity with cellulases from plants was only 27?33%. Based on comparative multiple alignments and homology models, the domain arrangement and active-site architecture of algal cellulases are described in detail. It was found that all algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and proline/serine-(PS) rich linkers. Two genes were found to encode a protein with a putative Ig-like domain and a cellulase with an unknown domain, respectively. A feature observed in one cellulase homolog from Gp and shared by a spinach cellulase is the existence of two CDs separated by linkers and with a C-terminal CBM. Dockerin and Fn-3-like domains, typically found in bacterial cellulases, are absent in algal enzymes. The targeted gene expression analysis shows that two Gp cellulases consisting, respectively, of a single and two CDs were upregulated upon filter paper addition to the medium.
Project description:Components of modular cellulases, type-A cellulose-binding modules (CBMs) bind to crystalline cellulose and enhance enzyme effectiveness, but structural details of the interaction are uncertain. We analyzed cellulose binding by EXLX1, a bacterial expansin with ability to loosen plant cell walls and whose domain D2 has type-A CBM characteristics. EXLX1 strongly binds to crystalline cellulose via D2, whereas its affinity for soluble cellooligosaccharides is weak. Calorimetry indicated cellulose binding was largely entropically driven. We solved the crystal structures of EXLX1 complexed with cellulose-like oligosaccharides to find that EXLX1 binds the ligands through hydrophobic interactions of three linearly arranged aromatic residues in D2. The crystal structures revealed a unique form of ligand-mediated dimerization, with the oligosaccharide sandwiched between two D2 domains in opposite polarity. This report clarifies the molecular target of expansin and the specific molecular interactions of a type-A CBM with cellulose.