Ceramide and Exosomes: A Novel Target in Cancer Biology and Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry micro RNAs and other factors to reprogram cancer cells and tissues affected by cancer. Exosomes are exchanged between cancer cells and other tissues, often to prepare a premetastatic niche, escape immune surveillance, or spread multidrug resistance. Only a few studies investigated the function of lipids in exosomes although their lipid composition is different from that of the secreting cells. Ceramide is one of the lipids critical for exosome formation, and it is also enriched in these EVs. New research suggests that lipids in the exosomal membrane may organize and transmit "mobile rafts" that turn exosomes into extracellular signalosomes spreading activation of cell signaling pathways in oncogenesis and metastasis. Ceramide may modulate the function of mobile rafts and their effect on these cell signaling pathways. The critical role of lipids and, in particular, ceramide for formation, secretion, and function of exosomes may lead to a radically new understanding of cancer biology and therapy.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, function in cell-to-cell communication through delivery of proteins, lipids and microRNAs to target cells via endocytosis and membrane fusion. These vesicles are enriched in ceramide, a sphingolipid associated with the promotion of cell senescence and apoptosis. We investigated the ceramide profile of serum exosomes from young (24?40 yrs.) and older (75?90 yrs.) women and young (6?10 yrs.) and older (25?30 yrs.) rhesus macaques to define the role of circulating ceramides in the aging process. EVs were isolated using size-exclusion chromatography. Proteomic analysis was used to validate known exosome markers from Exocarta and nanoparticle tracking analysis used to characterize particle size and concentration. Specific ceramide species were identified with lipidomic analysis. Results show a significant increase in the average amount of C24:1 ceramide in EVs from older women (15.4 pmol/sample) compared to those from younger women (3.8 pmol/sample). Results were similar in non-human primate serum samples with increased amounts of C24:1 ceramide (9.3 pmol/sample) in older monkeys compared to the younger monkeys (1.8 pmol/sample). In vitro studies showed that primary bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) readily endocytose serum EVs, and serum EVs loaded with C24:1 ceramide can induce BMSC senescence. Elevated ceramide levels have been associated with poor cardiovascular health and memory impairment in older adults. Our data suggest that circulating EVs carrying C24:1 ceramide may contribute directly to cell non-autonomous aging.
Project description:Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, play several important roles in cell biology and serve as potential biomarkers in various kidney diseases. Although they have differential biophysical properties, specific biomarkers are required to discriminate these EVs during isolation/purification. The present study aimed to define differential lipidome profiles of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes. Urine samples collected from eight healthy individuals were pooled and underwent lipid extraction using 2:1(v/v) chloroform/methanol. The recovered lipids were resolved by thin layer liquid chromatography (TLC) and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. From three and five TLC bands observed in microvesicles and exosomes, respectively, several fatty acids, glycerolipids and phospholipids were identified from both EVs without clear differential patterns. However, their sphingolipid profiles were unique. Ceramide phosphates (CerP), hexosyl sphingoid bases (HexSph), lactosyl ceramides (LacCer), mannosyl di-PI-ceramides (M(IP)2?C), sulfatides hexosyl ceramide (SHexCer) and sulfatides hexoxyl sphingoid bases (SHexSph) were detectable only in urinary exosomes, whereas phosphatidylinositol ceramides (PI-Cer) were detectable only in urinary microvesicles. The presence of CerP only in urinary exosomes was successfully validated by dot blot analysis. Our extensive lipidome analyses of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes provide potential lipidome markers to discriminate exosomes from microvesicles and may lead to better understanding of EVs biogenesis.
Project description:All cells expel a variety of nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, with composition reflecting the cells' biological state. Cancer pathology is dramatically mediated by EV trafficking via key proteins, lipids, metabolites, and microRNAs. Recent proteomics evidence suggests that tumor-associated exosomes exhibit distinct expression of certain membrane proteins, rendering those proteins as attractive targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application. Yet, it is not currently feasible to distinguish circulating EVs in complex biofluids according to their tissue of origin or state of disease. Here we demonstrate peptide binding to tumor-associated EVs via overexpressed membrane protein. We find that SKOV-3 ovarian tumor cells and their released EVs express ?3?1 integrin, which can be targeted by our in-house cyclic nonapeptide, LXY30. After measuring bulk SKOV-3 EV association with LXY30 by flow cytometry, Raman spectral analysis of laser-trapped single exosomes with LXY30-dialkyne conjugate enabled us to differentiate cancer-associated exosomes from non-cancer exosomes. Furthermore, we introduce the foundation for a highly specific detection platform for tumor-EVs in solution with biosensor surface-immobilized LXY30. LXY30 not only exhibits high specificity and affinity to ?3?1 integrin-expressing EVs, but also reduces EV uptake into SKOV-3 parent cells, demonstrating the possibility for therapeutic application.
Project description:: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication and are considered a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of infectious diseases. These vesicles involve microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes and selectively transfer proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs from one cell to another. While MVs are formed by extrusion of the plasma membrane, exosomes are a population of vesicles of endosomal origin that are stored inside the multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) and are released when the MVBs fuse with the plasma membrane. Biogenesis of exosomes may be driven by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery or may be ESCRT independent, and it is still debated whether these are entirely separate pathways. In this manuscript, we report that the protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, although lacking a classical endo-lysosomal pathway, is able to produce and release exosome-like vesicles (ElV). By using a combination of biochemical and cell biology analyses, we found that the ElVs have the same size, shape, and protein and lipid composition as exosomes described for other eukaryotic cells. Moreover, we established that some endosome/lysosome peripheral vacuoles (PVs) contain ILV during the stationary phase. Our results indicate that ILV formation and ElV release depend on the ESCRT-associated AAA+-ATPase Vps4a, Rab11, and ceramide in this parasite. Interestingly, EIV biogenesis and release seems to occur in Giardia despite the fact that this parasite has lost most of the ESCRT machinery components during evolution and is unable to produce ceramide de novo. The differences in protozoa parasite EV composition, origin, and release may reveal functional and structural properties of EVs and, thus, may provide information on cell-to-cell communication and on survival mechanisms.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound vesicles released by cells that contain bioactive cargoes including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Multiple subpopulations of EVs have now been recognized and these include exosomes and microvesicles. EVs have been thought to facilitate intercellular and distal communication to bring about various processes that enable tumor progression and metastases. Here, we describe the current knowledge of the functional cargo contained within EVs, with a focus on tumor microvesicles, and review the emerging theory of how EVs support immune suppression in cancer.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous group of membranous structures shed by all kinds of cell types, which are released into the surrounding microenvironment or spread to distant sites through the circulation. Therefore, EVs are key mediators of the communication between tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment or the distant premetastatic niche due to their ability to transport lipids, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding regulatory RNAs, and proteins. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological neoplasm that mostly relies on the bone marrow (BM). The BM represents a highly supportive niche for myeloma establishment and diffusion during the formation of distant bone lesions typical of this disease. This review represents a survey of the most recent evidence published on the role played by EVs in supporting MM cells during the multiple steps of metastasis, including travel and uptake at distant premetastatic niches, MM cell engraftment as micrometastasis, and expansion to macrometastasis thanks to EV-induced angiogenesis, release of angiocrine factors, activation of osteolytic activity, and mesenchymal cell support. Finally, we illustrate the first evidence concerning the dual effect of MM-EVs in promoting both anti-tumor immunity and MM immune escape, and the possible modulation operated by pharmacological treatments.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, modulate multiple aspects of cancer biology. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) secrete EVs, but their molecular features and functions are poorly characterized. Here, we report methodology for the enrichment, quantification, and proteomic and lipidomic analysis of EVs released from mouse TAMs (TAM-EVs). Compared to source TAMs, TAM-EVs present molecular profiles associated with a Th1/M1 polarization signature, enhanced inflammation and immune response, and a more favorable patient prognosis. Accordingly, enriched TAM-EV preparations promote T cell proliferation and activation ex vivo. TAM-EVs also contain bioactive lipids and biosynthetic enzymes, which may alter pro-inflammatory signaling in the cancer cells. Thus, whereas TAMs are largely immunosuppressive, their EVs may have the potential to stimulate, rather than limit, anti-tumor immunity.
Project description:Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) with dimensions ranging from 100 to 1000 nm are continuously secreted from different cells in their extracellular environment. They are able to encapsulate and transfer various biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, that play an essential role in cell?cell communication, reflecting a novel method of extracellular cross-talk. Since EVs are present in large amounts in most bodily fluids, challengeable hypotheses are analyzed to unlock their potential roles. Here, we review EVs by discussing their specific characteristics (structure, formation, composition, and isolation methods), focusing on their key role in cell biology. Furthermore, this review will summarize the biomedical applications of EVs, in particular those between 30 and 150 nm (like exosomes), as next-generation diagnostic tools in liquid biopsy for cancer and as novel drug delivery vehicles.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) like exosomes and shed microvesicles are generated by many different cells. However, among all the cells, cancer cells are now recognized to secrete more EVs than healthy cells. Tumor-derived EVs can be isolated from biofluids such as blood, urine, ascitic fluid, and saliva. Their numerous components (nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids) possess many pleiotropic functions involved in cancer progression. The tumor-derived EVs generated under the influence of tumor microenvironment play distant roles and promote cellular communication by directly interacting with different cells. Moreover, they modulate extracellular matrix remodeling and tumor progression. Tumor-derived EVs are involved in pre-metastatic niche formation, dependent on the EV-associated protein receptors, and in cancer chemoresistance as they transfer drug-resistance-related genes to recipient cells. Recent advances in preclinical and clinical fields suggest their potential use as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as for drug delivery in cancer. In this Review, we discuss EV characteristics and pro-tumor capacities, and highlight the future crucial impact of tumor-derived EVs in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have recently revealed that almost every type of cells including tumor cells abundantly release small vesicles known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry a repertoire of biological molecules including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and transport their cargo between cells in the vicinity as well as distantly located cells and hence act as messengers of intercellular communication. In this review, we aimed to discuss the tumor-derived exosome biology and the pivotal roles of exosomes in cancer diagnosis and treatment. METHODS:In the present review study, the authors studied several articles over the past two decades published on the kinetics of EVs in tumor environment as well as on the application of these vesicles in cancer diagnosis and therapy. RESULTS:A growing body of evidence indicates that nucleic acids such as microRNAs (miRNAs) transferring by EVs participate to create a conducive tumor environment. As EV-associated miRNAs are tissue-specific and present in most biological fluids, they hold great potential for clinical application in cancer early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Furthermore, exosomes can serve as drug delivery vehicles transferring miRNAs as well as therapeutic agents to target cells. These nano-vesicles exhibit ideal properties in comparison with the synthetic carriers that attracted scientist's attention in the field of nanotechnology medicine. Scientists have employed different strategies to build exosomes-based drug delivery system. In general, two methods (direct engineering and indirect engineering) are being utilized to produce artificial exosomes. Para-clinical data have confirmed the beneficial effects of engineering exosomes in cancer therapy. CONCLUSION:Exosomal miRNAs hold great promise for clinical application in early diagnosis and treatment of cancers. In addition, in spite of enthusiastic results obtained by engineered exosomes, however, there is an increasing concern over the use of optimal methods for engineering exosomes and the safety of engineered exosomes in clinical trials is still unclear.