Different Behaviors of a Substrate in P450 Decarboxylase and Hydroxylase Reveal Reactivity-Enabling Actors.
ABSTRACT: Biological routes to the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks hold significant promise in our efforts towards a sustainable future. The fatty acid decarboxylase enzyme (OleTJE) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts long and medium chain fatty acids to terminal alkenes and shares significant similarities in terms of structure, substrate scope and mechanism with the hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450BS?). Recent reports have demonstrated that catalytic pathways in these enzymes bifurcate when the heme is in its iron-hydroxo (compound II) state. In spite of significant similarities, the fundamental underpinnings of their different characteristic wild-type reactivities remain ambiguous. Here, we develop point charges, modified parameters and report molecular simulations of this crucial intermediate step. Water occupancies and substrate mobility at the active site are observed to be vital differentiating aspects between the two enzymes in the compound II state and corroborate recent experimental hypotheses. Apart from increased substrate mobility in the hydroxylase, which could have implications for enabling the rebound mechanism for hydroxylation, OleTJE is characterized by much stronger binding of the substrate carboxylate group to the active site arginine, implicating it as an important enabling actor for decarboxylation.
Project description:The production of hydrocarbons in nature has been documented for only a limited set of organisms, with many of the molecular components underpinning these processes only recently identified. There is an obvious scope for application of these catalysts and engineered variants thereof in the future production of biofuels. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structures of a cytochrome P450 fatty acid peroxygenase: the terminal alkene forming OleTJE (CYP152L1) from Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456. OleTJE is stabilized at high ionic strength, but aggregation and precipitation of OleTJE in low salt buffer can be turned to advantage for purification, because resolubilized OleTJE is fully active and extensively dissociated from lipids. OleTJE binds avidly to a range of long chain fatty acids, and structures of both ligand-free and arachidic acid-bound OleTJE reveal that the P450 active site is preformed for fatty acid binding. OleTJE heme iron has an unusually positive redox potential (-103 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode), which is not significantly affected by substrate binding, despite extensive conversion of the heme iron to a high spin ferric state. Terminal alkenes are produced from a range of saturated fatty acids (C12-C20), and stopped-flow spectroscopy indicates a rapid reaction between peroxide and fatty acid-bound OleTJE (167 s(-1) at 200 ?m H2O2). Surprisingly, the active site is highly similar in structure to the related P450BS?, which catalyzes hydroxylation of fatty acids as opposed to decarboxylation. Our data provide new insights into structural and mechanistic properties of a robust P450 with potential industrial applications.
Project description:The majority of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) predominantly operate as monooxygenases, but recently a class of P450 enzymes was discovered, that can act as peroxygenases (CYP152). These enzymes convert fatty acids through oxidative decarboxylation, yielding terminal alkenes, and through ?- and ?-hydroxylation to yield hydroxy-fatty acids. Bioderived olefins may serve as biofuels, and hence understanding the mechanism and substrate scope of this class of enzymes is important. In this work, we report on the substrate scope and catalytic promiscuity of CYP OleTJE and two of its orthologues from the CYP152 family, utilizing ?-monosubstituted branched carboxylic acids. We identify ?,?-desaturation as an unexpected dominant pathway for CYP OleTJE with 2-methylbutyric acid. To rationalize product distributions arising from ?/?-hydroxylation, oxidative decarboxylation, and desaturation depending on the substrate's structure and binding pattern, a computational study was performed based on an active site complex of CYP OleTJE containing the heme cofactor in the substrate binding pocket and 2-methylbutyric acid as substrate. It is shown that substrate positioning determines the accessibility of the oxidizing species (Compound I) to the substrate and hence the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reaction. Furthermore, the results show that, for 2-methylbutyric acid, ?,?-desaturation is favorable because of a rate-determining ?-hydrogen atom abstraction, which cannot proceed to decarboxylation. Moreover, substrate hydroxylation is energetically impeded due to the tight shape and size of the substrate binding pocket.
Project description:The Jeotgalicoccus sp. peroxygenase cytochrome P450 OleTJE (CYP152L1) is a hydrogen peroxide-driven oxidase that catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of fatty acids, producing terminal alkenes with applications as fine chemicals and biofuels. Understanding mechanisms that favor decarboxylation over fatty acid hydroxylation in OleTJE could enable protein engineering to improve catalysis or to introduce decarboxylation activity into P450s with different substrate preferences. In this manuscript, we have focused on OleTJE active site residues Phe79, His85, and Arg245 to interrogate their roles in substrate binding and catalytic activity. His85 is a potential proton donor to reactive iron-oxo species during substrate decarboxylation. The H85Q mutant substitutes a glutamine found in several peroxygenases that favor fatty acid hydroxylation. H85Q OleTJE still favors alkene production, suggesting alternative protonation mechanisms. However, the mutant undergoes only minor substrate binding-induced heme iron spin state shift toward high spin by comparison with WT OleTJE, indicating the key role of His85 in this process. Phe79 interacts with His85, and Phe79 mutants showed diminished affinity for shorter chain (C10-C16) fatty acids and weak substrate-induced high spin conversion. F79A OleTJE is least affected in substrate oxidation, whereas the F79W/Y mutants exhibit lower stability and cysteine thiolate protonation on reduction. Finally, Arg245 is crucial for binding the substrate carboxylate, and R245E/L mutations severely compromise activity and heme content, although alkene products are formed from some substrates, including stearic acid (C18:0). The results identify crucial roles for the active site amino acid trio in determining OleTJE catalytic efficiency in alkene production and in regulating protein stability, heme iron coordination, and spin state.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form ?-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic ?-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used as biofuels to replace fossil fuels, or for making lubricants, polymers and detergents, studies on OleTJE fatty acid decarboxylase are significant and may lead to commercial production of biogenic ?-alkenes in the future, which are renewable and more environmentally friendly than petroleum-derived equivalents. RESULTS: We report the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE for the first time. In the presence of NADPH and O2, this P450 enzyme efficiently decarboxylates long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C20) in vitro when partnering with either the fused P450 reductase domain RhFRED from Rhodococcus sp. or the separate flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. In vivo, expression of OleTJE or OleTJE-RhFRED in different E. coli strains overproducing free fatty acids resulted in production of variant levels of multiple ?-alkenes, with a highest total hydrocarbon titer of 97.6 mg·l-1. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE not only raises a number of fundamental questions on the monooxygenase-like mechanism of this peroxygenase, but also will direct the future metabolic engineering work toward improvement of O2/redox partner(s)/NADPH for overproduction of ?-alkenes by OleTJE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:P450 fatty acid decarboxylases represented by the unusual CYP152 peroxygenase family member OleTJE have been receiving great attention recently since these P450 enzymes are able to catalyze the simple and direct production of 1-alkenes for potential applications in biofuels and biomaterials. To gain more mechanistic insights, broader substrate spectra, and improved decarboxylative activities, it is demanded to discover and investigate more P450 fatty acid decarboxylases. RESULTS:Here, we describe for the first time the expression, purification, and in vitro biochemical characterization of two new CYP152 peroxygenases, CYP-Aa162 and CYP-Sm46?29, that are capable of decarboxylating straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Both enzymes were found to catalyze the decarboxylation and hydroxylation of a broad range of free fatty acids (C10-C20) with overlapping substrate specificity, yet distinct chemoselectivity. CYP-Sm46?29 works primarily as a fatty (lauric) acid decarboxylase (66.1 ± 3.9% 1-undecene production) while CYP-Aa162 more as a fatty (lauric) acid hydroxylase (72.2 ± 0.9% hydroxy lauric acid production). Notably, the optical spectroscopic analysis of functional CYP-Sm46?29 revealed no characteristic P450 band, suggesting a unique heme coordination environment. Active-site mutagenesis analysis showed that substitution with the proposed key decarboxylation-modulating residues, His85 and Ile170, enhanced the decarboxylation activity of CYP-Aa162 and P450BS?, emphasizing the importance of these residues in directing the decarboxylation pathway. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic analysis of CYP-Aa162 and CYP-Sm46?29 revealed both cooperative and substrate inhibition behaviors which are substrate carbon chain length dependent. CONCLUSIONS:Our data identify CYP-Sm46?29 as an efficient OleTJE-like fatty acid decarboxylase. Oxidative decarboxylation chemoselectivity of the CYP152 decarboxylases is largely dependent upon the carbon chain length of fatty acid substrates and their precise positioning in the enzyme active site. Finally, the kinetic mode analysis of the enzymes could provide important guidance for future process design.
Project description:Background:The CYP152 family member OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 has been well-known to catalyze the unusual one-step decarboxylation of free fatty acids towards the formation of terminal alkenes. Efforts to tune up its decarboxylation activity for better production of biological alkenes have been extensively explored via approaches such as site-directed mutagenesis and electron source engineering, but with limited success. To gain more insights into the decarboxylation mechanism and reaction bifurcation (decarboxylation versus hydroxylation), we turned to an alternative approach to explore the natural CYP152 resources for a better variety of enzyme candidates. Results:We biochemically characterized three new P450 fatty acid decarboxylases including OleTJH, OleTSQ and OleTSA, with respect to their substrate specificity, steady-state kinetics, and salt effects. These enzymes all act as an OleTJE-like fatty acid decarboxylase being able to decarboxylate a range of straight-chain saturated fatty acids (C8-C20) to various degrees. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis to the lower activity P450 enzyme OleTSA revealed a number of key amino acid residues within the substrate-binding pocket (T47F, I177L, V319A and L405I) that are important for delicate substrate positioning of different chain-length fatty acids and thus the decarboxylation versus hydroxylation chemoselectivity, in particular for the mid-chain fatty acids (C8-C12). In addition, the three new decarboxylases exhibited optimal catalytic activity and stability at a salt concentration of 0.5 M, and were thus classified as moderate halophilic enzymes. Conclusion:The P450 fatty acid decarboxylases OleTJE, OleTJH, OleTSQ and OleTSA belong to a novel group of moderate halophilic P450 enzymes. OleTJH from Jeotgalicoccus halophilus shows the decarboxylation activity, kinetic parameters, as well as salt tolerance and stability that are comparable to OleTJE. Site-directed mutagenesis of several key amino acid residues near substrate-binding pocket provides important guidance for further engineering of these P450 fatty acid decarboxylases that hold promising application potential for production of ?-olefin biohydrocarbons.
Project description:The cytochrome P450 enzyme OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 is capable of converting free long-chain fatty acids into α-alkenes via one-step oxidative decarboxylation in presence of H2O2 as cofactor or using redox partner systems. This enzyme has attracted much attention due to its intriguing but unclear catalytic mechanism and potential application in biofuel production. Here, we investigated the functionality of a select group of residues (Arg245, Cys365, His85, and Ile170) in the active site of OleTJE through extensive mutagenesis analysis. The key roles of these residues for catalytic activity and reaction type selectivity were identified. In addition, a range of heterologous redox partners were found to be able to efficiently support the decarboxylation activity of OleTJE. The best combination turned out to be SeFdx-6 (ferredoxin) from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and CgFdR-2 (ferredoxin reductase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, which gave the highest myristic acid conversion rate of 94.4%. Moreover, Michaelis-Menton kinetic parameters of OleTJE towards myristic acid were determined.
Project description:A central feature in the biosynthesis of Taxol is oxygenation at multiple positions of the taxane core structure, reactions that are considered to be mediated by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. A PCR-based differential display-cloning approach, using Taxus (yew) cells induced for Taxol production, yielded a family of related cytochrome P450 genes, one of which was assigned as a taxane 10 beta-hydroxylase by functional expression in yeast. The acquired clones that did not function in yeast were heterologously expressed by using the Spodoptera fugiperda-baculovirus-based system and were screened for catalytic capability by using taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5 alpha-ol and its acetate ester as test substrates. This approach allowed identification of one of the cytochrome P450 clones (which bore 63% deduced sequence identity to the aforementioned taxane 10 beta-hydroxylase) as a taxane 13 alpha-hydroxylase by chromatographic and spectrometric characterization of the corresponding recombinant enzyme product. The demonstration of a second relevant hydroxylase from the induced family of cytochrome P450 genes validates this strategy for elucidating the oxygenation steps of taxane diterpenoid (taxoid) metabolism. Additionally, substrate specificity studies with the available cytochrome P450 hydroxylases now indicate that there is likely more than one biosynthetic route to Taxol in yew species.
Project description:Alkanes have been hypothesized to act as universal inducers of bacterial cytochrome P450 gene expression. We tested this hypothesis on an unusual P450 gene (cyp110) found on a conserved 11 kilobase episomal DNA element of unknown function found in filamentous cyanobacteria. We also monitored the binding of potential substrates to the P450 protein and explored the distribution of P450 protein in vegetative cells and nitrogen-fixing heterocysts using immuno-electron microscopy.Hexadecane treatments resulted in a two-fold increase in mRNA, and a four-fold increase in P450 protein levels relative to control cultures. Hexane, octane and dodecane were toxic and induced substantial changes in membrane morphology. Long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were shown to bind the CYP110 protein using a spectroscopic spin-shift assay, but alkanes did not bind. CYP110 protein was detected in vegetative cells but not in differentiated heterocysts where nitrogen fixation occurs.Hexadecane treatment was an effective inducer of CYP110 expression in cyanobacteria. Based on substrate binding profiles and amino acid sequence similarities it is hypothesized that CYP110 is a fatty acid omega-hydroxylase in photosynthetic cells. CYP110 was found associated with membrane fractions unlike other soluble microbial P450 proteins, and in this regard CYP110 more closely resembles eukarytotic P450s. Substrate stabilization is an unlikely mechanism for alkane induction because alkanes did not bind to purified CYP110 protein.
Project description:The membrane heme protein cytochrome b5 (b5) can enhance, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 (P450) catalysis, depending on the specific P450, substrate, and reaction conditions, but the structural basis remains unclear. Here the interactions between the soluble domain of microsomal b5 and the catalytic domain of the bifunctional steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) were investigated. CYP17A1 performs both steroid hydroxylation, which is unaffected by b5, and an androgen-forming lyase reaction that is facilitated 10-fold by b5. NMR chemical shift mapping of b5 titrations with CYP17A1 indicates that the interaction occurs in an intermediate exchange regime and identifies charged surface residues involved in the protein/protein interface. The role of these residues is confirmed by disruption of the complex upon mutagenesis of either the anionic b5 residues (Glu-48 or Glu-49) or the corresponding cationic CYP17A1 residues (Arg-347, Arg-358, or Arg-449). Cytochrome b5 binding to CYP17A1 is also mutually exclusive with binding of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. To probe the differential effects of b5 on the two CYP17A1-mediated reactions and, thus, communication between the superficial b5 binding site and the buried CYP17A1 active site, CYP17A1/b5 complex formation was characterized with either hydroxylase or lyase substrates bound to CYP17A1. Significantly, the CYP17A1/b5 interaction is stronger when the hydroxylase substrate pregnenolone is present in the CYP17A1 active site than when the lyase substrate 17?-hydroxypregnenolone is in the active site. These findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of this important interaction by directly measuring the reversible binding of the two proteins, providing evidence of communication between the CYP17A1 active site and the superficial proximal b5 binding site.