Reliability of 3D Lower Extremity Movement Analysis by Means of Inertial Sensor Technology during Transitional Tasks.
ABSTRACT: This study assesses the reliability and agreement of trunk and lower limb joints' 3D kinematics, measured by inertial measurement units, during walking and more demanding movement tasks. For data analysis, tasks were divided in open and closed chain phases. Twenty healthy participants were included. On day one, measurements were conducted by "Operator 1" and "Operator 2" to determine between-operator reliability/agreement. On day two, the measurements were conducted by Operator 1, in order to determine within-session reliability/agreement. Furthermore, between-session reliability/agreement was assessed based on data from Operator 1, captured on day one and two. Within-session reliability/agreement was high, and better than between-session and between-operator results for all tasks. The results for walking were generally better than for other movement tasks, for all joint kinematics, and for both open and closed chain phases. Only for the ab/adduction and flexion/extension angles during forward and sideward lunge, reliability and agreement results were comparable to walking, for both the open and closed chain phases. The fact that lunges show similar reliability results than walking for open and closed chain phases, but require more motor control to perform, indicates that the performance of lunges might be interesting to use in further research aiming to identify kinematic differences between populations.
Project description:This study evaluates the reliability and agreement of the 3D range of motion (ROM) of trunk and lower limb joints, measured by inertial measurement units (MVN BIOMECH Awinda, Xsens Technologies), during a single leg squat (SLS) and sit to stand (STS) task. Furthermore, distinction was made between movement phases, to discuss the reliability and agreement for different phases of both movement tasks. Twenty healthy participants were measured on two testing days. On day one, measurements were conducted by two operators to determine the within-session and between-operator reliability and agreement. On day two, measurements were conducted by the same operator, to determine the between-session reliability and agreement. The SLS task had lower within-session reliability and agreement compared with between-session and between-operator reliability and agreement. The reliability and agreement of the hip, knee, and ankle ROM in the sagittal plane were good for both phases of the SLS task. For both phases of STS task, within-session reliability and agreement were good, and between-session and between-operator reliability and agreement were lower in all planes. As both tasks are physically demanding, differences may be explained by inconsistent movement strategies. These results show that inertial sensor systems show promise for use in further research to investigate (mal)adaptive movement strategies.
Project description:FreeBody is a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb used to calculate predictions of muscle and joint contact forces. The validation of FreeBody has been described in a number of publications; however, its reliability has yet to be established. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to establish the test-retest reliability of FreeBody in a population of healthy adults in order to add support to previous and future research using FreeBody that demonstrates differences between cohorts after an intervention. We hypothesized that test-retest estimations of knee contact forces from FreeBody would demonstrate a high intra-class correlation. Kinematic and kinetic data from nine older participants (4 men: mean age = 63 ± 11 years; 5 women: mean age = 49 ± 4 years) performing level walking and stair ascent was collected on consecutive days and then analyzed using FreeBody. There was a good level of intra-session agreement between the waveforms for the individual trials of each activity during testing session 1 (R = 0.79-0.97). Similarly, overall there was a good inter-session agreement within subjects (R = 0.69-0.97) although some subjects showed better agreement than others. There was a high level of agreement between the group mean waveforms of the two sessions for all variables (R = 0.882-0.997). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were very high for peak tibiofemoral joint contact forces (TFJ) and hamstring forces during gait, for peak patellofemoral joint contact forces and quadriceps forces during stair ascent and for peak lateral TFJ and the proportion of TFJ accounted for by the medial compartment during both tasks (ICC = 0.86-0.96). Minimal detectable change (MDC) of the peak knee forces during gait ranged between 0.43 and 1.53 × body weight (18-170% of the mean peak values). The smallest MDCs were found for medial TFJ share (4.1 and 5.8% for walking and stair ascent, respectively, or 4.8 and 6.7% of the mean peak values). In conclusion, the results of this study support the use of FreeBody to investigate the effect of interventions on muscle and joint contact forces at the cohort level, but care should be taken if using FreeBody at the subject level.
Project description:Integrated exercises that mimic daily tasks are generally preferred for improving performance and the later stages of rehabilitation, but it is unknown whether integrated core exercises are better than isolated core exercises at improving muscle activation for hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity in rectus abdominis, oblique externus, and erector spinae while performing three conditions of integrated core exercises (lunges) with three isolated core exercises (prone bridge, side bridge and back extension). The three conditions of lunges were: on a stable surface, unstable surface and with external resistance to the trunk using an elastic band. The external resistance was measured with a force cell and peaked at 75N. After one familiarization session, all exercises were performed in one experimental session in randomized order. The isolated core exercises were performed in 20 seconds and the time performing the five repetitions with lunges was matched (20 seconds). Significantly greater peak normalized EMG activity were observed in the isolated core exercises compared to the three integrated core exercises (P<0.001) with two exceptions. For the oblique externus, the isolated core exercise was only greater than the stable lunge. Lunges with elastic bands only demonstrated greater peak erector spinae activation compared the other lunge conditions. Comparing the mean EMG activity between the isolated and three integrated exercises, greater muscle activations were observed performing the isolated exercises (P<0.001). Unstable lunges did not increase the peak or mean core muscle activations. In conclusion, mean and peak EMG activity performing the isolated exercises were in general greater than the three condition of lunges. Based on these results, we recommend using isolated core exercises when the primary goal is to improve muscle activation and elicit hypertrophy, but integrated exercises once adequate initial hypertrophy is achieved.
Project description:Biofeedback systems have been extensively used in walking exercises for gait improvement. Past research has focused on modulating the wearer's cadence, gait variability, or symmetry, but none of the previous works has addressed the problem of inducing a desired walking speed in the wearer. In this paper, we present a new, minimally obtrusive wearable biofeedback system (WBS) that uses closed-loop vibrotactile control to elicit desired changes in the wearer's walking speed, based on the predicted user response to anticipatory and delayed feedback. The performance of the proposed control was compared to conventional open-loop rhythmic vibrotactile stimulation with N = 10 healthy individuals who were asked to complete a set of walking tasks along an oval path. The closed-loop vibrotactile control consistently demonstrated better performance than the open-loop control in inducing desired changes in the wearer's walking speed, both with constant and with time-varying target walking speeds. Neither open-loop nor closed-loop stimuli affected natural gait significantly, when the target walking speed was set to the individual's preferred walking speed. Given the importance of walking speed as a summary indicator of health and physical performance, the closed-loop vibrotactile control can pave the way for new technology-enhanced protocols for gait rehabilitation.
Project description:The introduction of low cost optical 3D motion tracking sensors provides new options for effective quantification of motor dysfunction.The present study aimed to evaluate the Kinect V2 sensor against a gold standard motion capture system with respect to accuracy of tracked landmark movements and accuracy and repeatability of derived clinical parameters.Nineteen healthy subjects were concurrently recorded with a Kinect V2 sensor and an optical motion tracking system (Vicon). Six different movement tasks were recorded with 3D full-body kinematics from both systems. Tasks included walking in different conditions, balance and adaptive postural control. After temporal and spatial alignment, agreement of movements signals was described by Pearson's correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratios per dimension. From these movement signals, 45 clinical parameters were calculated, including ranges of motions, torso sway, movement velocities and cadence. Accuracy of parameters was described as absolute agreement, consistency agreement and limits of agreement. Intra-session reliability of 3 to 5 measurement repetitions was described as repeatability coefficient and standard error of measurement for each system.Accuracy of Kinect V2 landmark movements was moderate to excellent and depended on movement dimension, landmark location and performed task. Signal to noise ratio provided information about Kinect V2 landmark stability and indicated larger noise behaviour in feet and ankles. Most of the derived clinical parameters showed good to excellent absolute agreement (30 parameters showed ICC(3,1) > 0.7) and consistency (38 parameters showed r > 0.7) between both systems.Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to established marker- or wearable sensor based system. The Kinect V2 has the potential to be used as a reliable and valid clinical measurement tool.
Project description:Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a glenohumeral (GH) joint condition, characterized by decreased GH joint range of motion (ROM) and compensatory ROM in the elbow and scapulothoracic (ST) joint. To evaluate AC progression in clinical settings, objective movement analysis by available systems would be valuable. This study aimed to assess within-session and intra- and inter-operator reliability/agreement of such a motion capture system. The MVN-Awinda® system from Xsens Technologies (Enschede, The Netherlands) was used to assess ST, GH, and elbow ROM during four tasks (GH external rotation, combing hair, grasping a seatbelt, placing a cup on a shelf) in 10 AC patients (mean age = 54 (± 6), 7 females), on two test occasions (accompanied by different operators on second occasion). Standard error of measurements (SEMs) were below 1.5° for ST pro-retraction and 4.6° for GH in-external rotation during GH external rotation; below 6.6° for ST tilt, 6.4° for GH flexion-extension, 7.1° for elbow flexion-extension during combing hair; below 4.4° for GH ab-adduction, 13° for GH in-external rotation, 6.8° for elbow flexion-extension during grasping the seatbelt; below 11° for all ST and GH joint rotations during placing a cup on a shelf. Therefore, to evaluate AC progression, inertial sensors systems can be applied during the execution of functional tasks.
Project description:Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test-retest reliability, 4-6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, heel and toe-walking, step ascending and descending. Results showed that the reliability was good for NW, with the exception of trunk curves, pelvic tilt and EMG profiles (moderate reliability), and trunk ROM in sagittal/transverse plane (poor reliability). Comparing our results with literature, CMT patients did not present a greater variability during NW than healthy subjects or patients with diseases of CNS. Additional locomotor tasks showed a slight reduction of reliability, although the moderate-to-good level shown in NW was almost never reduced to poor. Most of SEM values (absolute measurement errors) were smaller than 5°, a clinically acceptable threshold. In particular THS, an ankle joint related parameter computed across heel and toe-walking tasks, showed an optimal reliability (ICC=0.95, SEM=2.7°) and correlation with CMT clinical scores. Toe and heel-walking and step ascending tasks maximised the number of parameters with a moderate-to-good correlation with patients' clinical status. We concluded that, in addition to natural walking, more challenging locomotor tasks are good candidates to provide reliable and sensitive outcome measures for CMT patients.
Project description:Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a fast tremor (13-18 Hz) in the lower extremities during stance. Patients with OT typically complain of instability while standing/walking. However, due to the geographical limitation, the standing instability or gait problems in patients with OT cannot be assessed and monitored frequently. The increasing popularity of using smartphone-based accelerometers could be a solution to eliminate this limitation. This study examined the feasibility of using smartphone-based accelerometers to identify the changes in body movement in different standing and locomotor tasks. Twenty patients with OT and seven healthy controls were consented to participate in this study. Subjects stood with eyes open or eyes closed for 20 seconds. They also performed four different locomotor tasks (normal walking, tandem walk, walking on an elevated surface, and obstacle negotiation). When performed different locomotor tasks, patients with OT had a larger acceleration of body movement than controls in the medial-lateral direction (tandem walk: p = 0.026, walking on an elevated surface: p = 0.002, and stepping over the obstacle: p = 0.028). Patients with OT had smaller acceleration of body movement than controls while standing with eyes open in the vertical direction (p = 0.012), in the anterior-posterior direction (p = 0.013) and in the medial-lateral direction (p = 0.011). This study provides objective evidence of balance instability in patients with OT not only while standing but also during different challenging locomotor tasks by using smartphone-based accelerometers.
Project description:The Finnish neurological function testing battery for dogs (FINFUN) was developed to meet the increasing demand for objective outcome measures in veterinary physiotherapy. The testing battery should provide consistent, reproducible results and have established face and content validity. Internal consistency and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the FINFUN were also investigated.The FINFUN comprised 11 tasks: lying, standing up from lying, sitting, standing up from sitting, standing, proprioceptive positioning, starting to walk, walking, trotting, walking turns and walking stairs. A score from 0 to 4, (0: unable to perform task, 4: performing task with normal motor function) was given for each task, the maximum score being 44. Twenty-six dogs were filmed when performing the FINFUN. Seven observers scored the performances from the video recordings. The FINFUN was considered to have appropriate face and content validity based on a pilot study, clinical experience and critical reflection of the development process. Its internal consistency was excellent, with no Cronbach's alpha values below 0.922. The intra-rater reliability for total score of experienced observers was almost perfect: 0.999 (observer 1) and 0.994 (observer 2). The inter-rater reliability for both experienced and novice observers' total scores was also almost perfect (0.919-0.993). Analysis of each individual task showed substantial intra-rater and inter-rater agreement for the tasks "lying" and "sitting".The FINFUN is an objective, valid and reliable tool with standardized scoring criteria for evaluation of motor function in dogs recovering from spinal cord injury.
Project description:Anatomists and radiologists use the Zaidi-Dayal and Richards-Jabbour scales to study the shape of the foramen magnum. Our aim is to measure the interrater and intrarater agreement and reliability of ratings made using the two scales. We invited 16 radiology residents to attend two sessions, four weeks apart. During each session, we asked the residents to classify the shape of the foramen magnum in 35 images using both scales. We used Fleiss' ? to measure interrater reliability and Cohen's ? to measure intrarater reliability. The interrater reliability of ratings made using the Zaidi-Dayal scale was 0.34 (0.26-0.46) for session one and 0.30 (0.24-0.39) for session two, and the intrarater reliability was 0.39 (0.34-0.44). The interrater reliability of ratings made using the Richards-Jabbour scale was 0.14 (0.10-0.19) for session one and 0.12 (0.09-0.17) for session two, and the intrarater reliability was 0.11 (0.07-0.15). In conclusion, the interrater and intrarater agreement and reliability of ratings made using the Zaidi-Dayal and Richards-Jabbour scales are inadequate. We recommend an objective method by Zdilla et al. to researchers interested in studying the shape of the foramen magnum.