Changing dietary n-6:n-3 ratio using different oil sources affects performance, behavior, cytokines mRNA expression and meat fatty acid profile of broiler chickens.
ABSTRACT: Typical formulated broiler diets are deficient in n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) due to widening n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio which could greatly affect performance, immune system of birds and, more importantly, meat quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of modifying dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from plant and animal oil sources on performance, behavior, cytokine mRNA expression, antioxidative status and meat fatty acid profile of broiler chickens. Birds (n = 420) were fed 7 diets enriched with different dietary oil sources and ratios as follows: sunflower oil in control diet (C); fish oil (FO); 1:1 ratio of sunflower oil to FO (C1FO1); 3:1 ratio of sunflower oil to fish oil (C3FO1); linseed oil (LO); 1:1 ratio of sunflower oil to linseed oil (C1LO1); 3:1 ratio of sunflower oil to linseed oil (C3LO1), resulting in dietary n-6:n-3 ratios of approximately 40:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, 8:1, 1:1, 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. The best final body weight, feed conversion ratio as well as protein efficiency ratio of broilers were recorded in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Compared with the control group, the dressing percentage and breast and thigh yield were highest in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Narrowing the dietary n-6:n-3 ratio increased (P < 0.05) n-3 PUFA content of breast meat. Moreover, the breast meat contents of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary FO whereas ?-linolenic acid content was higher with LO supplementation. Also, enriching the diets with n-3 PUFA from FO and LO clearly decreased (P < 0.05) serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins and enhanced antioxidative status. The feeding frequency was decreased (P < 0.05) in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Likewise, n-3 PUFA-enriched diets enhanced the frequency of preening, wing flapping and flightiness. Animal oil source addition, compared to plant oil, to broiler diets enhanced the relative mRNA expression of interferon gamma, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 genes, especially at low n-6:n-3 ratios. This study has clearly shown that narrowing n-6:n-3 ratio through the addition of FO or LO improved performance and immune response of broilers and resulted in healthy chicken meat, enriched with long chain n-3 PUFA.
Project description:A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing ?-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers.In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks). Thereafter, subjects received diets enriched in study 1 with EO (5 g ALA + 2 g SDA; n = 59) or in study 2 with LO (5 g ALA; n =? 9) daily for 8 weeks. The smaller control groups received fish oil (FO; n = 19) or olive oil (OO; n = 18). Participants were instructed to restrict their dietary n-3 PUFA intake throughout the studies (e.g., no fish). To investigate the influence of age and BMI on the conversion of ALA and SDA as well as clinical markers, the subjects recruited for EO and LO treatment were divided into three subgroups (two age groups 20-35 y; 49-69 y with BMI 18-25 kg/m(2) and one group with older, overweight subjects (age 49-69 y; BMI >25 kg/m(2)).In plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were ~25 % higher following EO compared to LO. Comparing all treatments, the effectiveness of increasing EPA and DPA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC was on average 100:25:10:0 and 100:50:25:0 for FO:EO:LO:OO, respectively. EO led to a lower arachidonic acid/EPA-ratio compared to LO in plasma, RBC, and PBMC. Following EO, final DHA was not greater compared to LO. Higher BMI correlated negatively with increases in plasma EPA and DPA after EO supplementation, but not after LO supplementation. Decreasing effect on plasma LDL-C and serum insulin was greater with EO than with LO.Daily intake of SDA-containing EO is a better supplement than LO for increasing EPA and DPA in blood. However, neither EO nor LO maintained blood DHA status in the absence of fish/seafood consumption.ClinicalTrials.gov Reg No. NCT01856179; ClinicalTrials.gov Reg No. NCT01317290.
Project description:The meat quality of chicken is an important factor affecting the consumer's health. It was hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) could be effectively deposited in chicken, by incorporating antioxidation of soybean isoflavone (SI), which led to improved quality of chicken meat for good health of human beings. Effects of partial or complete dietary substitution of lard (LA) with linseed oil (LO), with or without SI on growth performance, biochemical indicators, meat quality, fatty acid profiles, lipid-related health indicators and gene expression of breast muscle were examined in chickens. A total of 900 males were fed a corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 4% LA, 2% LA + 2% LO and 4% LO and the latter two including 30 mg SI/kg (2% LA + 2% LO + SI and 4% LO + SI) from 29 to 66 days of age; each of the five dietary treatments included six replicates of 30 birds. Compared with the 4% LA diet, dietary 4% LO significantly increased the feed efficiency and had no negative effect on objective indices related to meat quality; LO significantly decreased plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol (TCH); abdominal fat percentage was significantly decreased in birds fed the 4% LO and 4% LO + SI diets. Chickens with LO diets resulted in higher contents of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), EPA (C20:5n-3) and total n-3 PUFA, together with a lower content of palmitic acid (C16:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), saturated fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast muscle compared to 4% LA diet (P < 0.05); they also significantly decreased atherogenic index, thrombogenic index and increased the hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic ratio. Adding SI to the LO diets enhanced the contents of EPA and DHA (C22:6n-3), plasma total superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione and muscle GSH content, while decreased plasma total triglyceride and TCH and malondialdehyde content in plasma and breast muscle compared to its absence (P < 0.05). Expression in breast muscle of fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), FADS2, elongase 2 (ELOVL2) and ELOVL5 genes were significantly higher with the LO diets including SI than with the 4% LA diet. Significant interactions existed between LO level and inclusion of SI on EPA and TCH contents. These findings indicate that diet supplemented with LO combined with SI is an effective alternative when optimizing the nutritional value of chicken meat for human consumers.
Project description:Fish oil supplies worldwide have declined sharply over the years. To reduce the use of fish oil in aquaculture, many studies have explored the effects of fish oil substitutions on aquatic animals. To illustrate the effects of dietary lipids on Chinese mitten crab and to improve the use of vegetable oils in the diet of the crabs, 60 male juvenile Chinese mitten crabs were fed one of five diets for 116 days: fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), FO + SO (1:1, FSO), and FO + LO (1:1, FLO). Changes in the crab hepatopancreas transcriptome were analyzed using RNA sequencing. There were a total 55,167 unigenes obtained from the transcriptome, of which the expression of 3030 was significantly altered in the FLO vs. FO groups, but the expression of only 412 unigenes was altered in the FSO vs. FO groups. The diets significantly altered the expression of many enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, such as pancreatic lipase, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and fatty acyl ?9-desaturase. The dietary lipids also affected the Toll-like receptor and Janus activated kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways. Our results indicate that substituting fish oil with vegetable oils in the diet of Chinese mitten crabs might decrease the digestion and absorption of dietary lipids, fatty acids biosynthesis, and immunologic viral defense, and increase ?-oxidation by altering the expression of the relevant genes. Our results lay the foundation for further understanding of lipid nutrition in Chinese mitten crab.
Project description:An 8-weeks feeding trial with swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, was conducted to investigate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on the lipid classes, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial energy metabolism relevant genes expression. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), palm oil (PO), rapeseed oil (RO), soybean oil (SO), and linseed oil (LO), respectively. A total of 270 swimming crab juveniles (initial weight 5.43 ± 0.03 g) were randomly divided into six diets with three replications, each consisted of 45 juvenile crabs. The results revealed that crabs fed KO had highest lipid content in hepatopancreas and free fatty acids in serum among all diets. The anabolic pathway relevant genes: fas and acc were up-regulated in KO diet. The catabolic pathway relevant genes, hsl, was up-regulated in LO diet, while cpt1 was up-regulated in KO diet. Whereas, the genes involved in the transport and uptake of fatty acids such as fabp1 and fatp4 were down-regulated in crab fed PO and RO diets. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of transcription factors: srebp-1 and hnf4? in KO and SO diets were the highest among all diets. FO and KO diets had significantly higher unsaturation index of mitochondrial membrane than others. The genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as Atpase6, sirt1, and sirt3 were significantly up-regulated in KO and SO diets. In summary, dietary KO and SO supplementation could improve the lipid metabolism, promote energy production for juvenile swimming crab and improve physiological process and function including molting. These findings could contribute to deepen the understanding of the physiological metabolism of dietary fatty acids for swimming crab.
Project description:There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils.Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic beta-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA.This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels.
Project description:The finite marine resources make it difficult for us to obtain enough fish oil (FO) used in aquatic feeds. Another sustainable ingredients should be found to substitute FO. The effects of replacing FO with vegetable oil have been studied in a variety of crustaceans, but most studies have focused on the phenotypic effects. Little is known about the mechanisms of the effects.To understand the molecular responses during the replacement of FO in Eriocheir sinensis, we investigated the effects of feeding FO or linseed oil (LO) on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, fatty acid composition and protein expression in E. sinensis. Twenty-four juvenile crabs were fed diets containing FO or LO for 112 days. Weight, carapace length and width were recorded. Fatty acid composition of the diets and the hepatopancreas and protein expression in the hepatopancreas were analyzed.Growth performance and molting interval were unchanged by diet. Crabs fed FO and LO had same activity of lipase and amylase, but comparing with crabs fed LO, crabs fed FO had higher trypsin activity and lower pepsin activity. Hepatopancreas fatty acid composition changed to reflect the fatty acid composition of the diets. In total, 194 proteins were differentially expressed in the hepatopancreas between the diets. Expression of heat shock proteins was higher in crabs fed LO. Expression of fatty acid synthase, long-chain fatty acid transport protein 4, acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase, and fatty acid-binding protein 1, was higher in crabs fed FO.The substitution of FO with LO didn't have any effects on the growth and molting of mitten crab, but could significantly decrease the ability of mitten crab to cope with stress. The high content of HUFAs in the hepatopancreas of mitten crab fed FO is due to the high abundance of the proteins relative to the transport of the HUFAs. These findings provide a reason of the high content of EPA and DHA in crabs fed with FO, and provide new information for the replacement of FO in diets of mitten crab.
Project description:A growth experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO) replaced by linseed oil (LO) on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, hepatic lipid metabolism, and expression of inflammatory genes in large yellow croaker (<i>Larimichthys crocea</i>). Fish (initial weight: 15.88 ± 0.14 g) were fed four experimental diets with 0% (the control), 33.3%, 66.7%, and 100% of FO replaced by LO. Each diet was randomly attributed to triplicate seawater floating cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 2.0 m) with 60 fish in each cage. Results showed that the growth performance of fish fed the diet with 100% LO was markedly decreased compared with the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05), while no remarkable difference was observed in the growth performance of fish fed diets within 66.7% LO (<i>P</i> > 0.05). The percentage of 18:3n-3 was the highest in the liver and muscle of fish fed the diet with 100% LO among the four treatments. When dietary FO was entirely replaced by LO, fish had a markedly higher total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and alanine transaminase activity in the serum than the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). The concentration of malondialdehyde was markedly higher, while the activity of catalase was markedly lower in fish fed the diet with 100% LO than the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). When dietary FO was entirely replaced by LO, hepatic lipid content, transcriptional levels of <i>fatp1</i> and <i>cd36</i>, and CD36 protein expression were significantly higher, while transcriptional level of <i>cpt-1</i> and CPT-1 protein expression were significantly lower than the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). As for the gene expression of cytokines, fish fed the diet with 100% LO had markedly higher transcriptional levels of <i>il-1</i>?, <i>tnf</i>?, and <i>il-6</i> than the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). In conclusion, the substitution of 66.7% FO with LO had no significant effects on the growth performance of fish, while 100% LO decreased the growth performance and increased the inflammation and hepatic lipid content of fish. The increase of hepatic lipid content was probably due to the increased fatty acid uptake and decreased fatty acid oxidation in fish.
Project description:Dietary recommendations by health authorities have been advising of the importance of diminishing saturated fatty acids (SFA) consumption and replacing them by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly omega-3. Therefore, there have been efforts to enhance food fatty acid profiles, helping them to meet human nutritional recommendations. Ruminant meat is the major dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) source, but it also contains SFA at relatively high proportions, deriving from ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. Additionally, lipid metabolism in ruminants may differ from other species. Recent research has aimed to modify the fatty acid profile of meat, and other animal products. This review summarizes dietary strategies based on the n-3 PUFA supplementation of ruminant diets and their effects on meat fatty acid composition. Additionally, the role of n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue (AT) development and in the expression of key genes involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism is discussed. It has been demonstrated that linseed supplementation leads to an increase in ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whilst fish oil and algae increase DHA content. Dietary PUFA can alter AT adiposity and modulate lipid metabolism genes expression, although further research is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.
Project description:In vitro studies have suggested that isolated gut bacteria are able to metabolize PUFA into CLA (conjugated linoleic acids) and CLnA (conjugated linolenic acids). However, the bioavailability of fatty acid metabolites produced in vivo by the gut microbes remains to be studied. Therefore, we measured intestinal concentration and plasma accumulation of bacterial metabolites produced from dietary PUFA in mice, first injected with a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, then force-fed with either sunflower oil (200 µl) rich in n-6 PUFA or linseed oil (200 µl) rich in n-3 PUFA. The greatest production of bacterial metabolites was observed in the caecum and colon, and at a much lesser extent in the jejunum and ileum. In the caecal content, CLA proportions were higher in sunflower oil force-fed mice whereas CLnA proportions were higher in linseed oil force-fed mice. The accumulation of the main metabolites (CLA cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and CLnA cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3) in the caecal tissue was not associated with their increase in the plasma, therefore suggesting that, if endogenously produced CLA and CLnA have any biological role in host metabolism regulation, their effect would be confined at the intestinal level, where the microbiota is abundant.
Project description:Infections of the genital tract can perturb the fertility in humans and animals. Pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity onset through the pattern recognition receptor activation, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators. TLR4 is expressed both on leukocytes and nonimmune cells. Rabbit TLR4 shows great similarity to its human counterpart. Moreover, the TLR4 signalling pathway could be modulated by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the expression levels of TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines in the reproductive hypothalamic-gonadal axis of the male rabbit and (ii) to evaluate if the n-3 PUFA-enriched diets can modify their expression levels in the tissues and LC-PUFA profiles in seminal plasma. Fifteen rabbit bucks (n = 5/experimental group) were fed with different diets: commercial standard (group C), rich in extruded linseed (10%, group L), and in fish oil (3%, group FO) for 110 days. TLR4, TNF-?, and IL-1? mRNA were ubiquitously expressed throughout the hypothalamic-gonadal axis. However, TLR4 mRNA expression was lower in the hypothalamus than the epididymis (P < 0.01), seminal vesicles (P < 0.01), and pituitary gland (P < 0.05). Dietary enrichment in PUFA did not modify the gene expression profile nor the histological characteristics of the tissues. Conversely in seminal plasma, rabbits fed with L and FO had lower n-6 (P < 0.05), LC-PUFA n-6 (P < 0.05), and n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.05) but higher n-3 (P < 0.001) and LC-PUFA n-3 (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. Our study builds a map of the gene expression of TRL4 and proinflammatory cytokines in the reproductive hypothalamic-gonadal axis of the male rabbit, fundamental step for understanding the immune defence mechanisms. Diets enriched in LC-PUFA did not affect basal gene expression but modulated sperm fatty acid composition. Finally, rabbit may be an excellent animal model to study the relationship between inflammation and infertility, and the nutritional modulation of immune functions.