18F-FDG PET with or without CT in the diagnosis of extrahepatic metastases or local residual/recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to meta-analyze the literature on the diagnostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) in detecting extrahepatic metastases or local residual/recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Systematic review of literature in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted in March 2017, and relevant studies analyzing the diagnostic performance of F-FDG PET with or without CT were meta-analyzed.Meta-analysis was carried out on data from 11 studies involving 572 patients. F-FDG PET, with or without CT, showed pooled sensitivity of 64% and pooled specificity of 95%. Pooled sensitivity was similar with CT (74%) or without (52%; P?=?.279). Similarly, pooled specificity was comparable with CT (93%) or without 95% (P?=?.481).F-FDG PET, with or without CT, shows relatively low sensitivity but high specificity for diagnosing extrahepatic metastases or local residual/recurrent HCC. Adding CT to F-FDG PET may improve diagnostic performance, but the available evidence suggests that the improvement is not statistically significant.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in CRC patients. We pooled the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative Likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-) and Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 28 studies including 2283 CRC patients were analyzed. The pre-operative tumor detecting rate of PET-CT was 95.35%, which was superior to CT (P < 0.05). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of pre-operative T staging by PET-CT/PET was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Concerning pre-operative N staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.62 and 0.70, which the AUC and Q* were 0.76 and 0.70, respectively. As for M staging, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT/PET were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-0.96) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.98), which the AUC and Q* were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET had good performance in the pre-operative tumor detecting rate, T staging and M staging in patients with primary CRC, which might alter the therapeutic strategy. However, the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT/PET in pre-operative N staging in CRC patients was not ideal.
Project description:We performed this meta-analysis to determine the utilities of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in assessing the pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in the same cohort of patients with breast cancer.Two reviewers systematically searched on PubMed, Scopus, and Springer (from the beginning of 1992 to Aug. 1, 2015) for the eligible articles. Heterogeneity, pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were calculated to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MRI.A total of 6 studies including 382 pathologically confirmed patients were eligible. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.49-0.87), respectively. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45-0.80) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.75-0.95), respectively. The area under the SROC curve of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MRI was 0.88 and 0.84, respectively.Study indicated that (18)F-FDG PET/CT had a higher sensitivity and MRI had a higher specificity in assessing pCR in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the combined use of these two imaging modalities may have great potential to improve the diagnostic performance in assessing pCR after NAC.
Project description:This study compared the diagnostic test accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with that of (18)F-fluoro-2-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging in assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer.A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE (last updated in June 2015). Studies investigating the performance of MRI and FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT imaging during or after completion of NAC in patients with histologically proven breast cancer were eligible for inclusion. We considered only studies reporting a direct comparison between these imaging modalities to establish precise summary estimates in the same setting of patients. Pathologic response was considered as the reference standard. Two authors independently screened and selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted the data.A total of 10 studies were included. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity across all included studies were 0.71 and 0.77 for FDG-PET/CT (n = 535) and 0.88 and 0.55 for MRI (n = 492), respectively. Studies were subgrouped according to the time of therapy assessment. In the intra-NAC setting, FDG-PET/CT imaging outperformed MRI with fairly similar pooled sensitivity (0.91 vs. 0.89) and higher specificity (0.69 vs. 0.42). However, MRI appeared to have higher diagnostic accuracy than FDG-PET/CT imaging when performed after the completion of NAC, with significantly higher sensitivity (0.88 vs. 0.57).Analysis of the available studies of patients with breast cancer indicates that the timing of imaging for NAC-response assessment exerts a major influence on the estimates of diagnostic accuracy. FDG-PET/CT imaging outperformed MRI in intra-NAC assessment, whereas the overall performance of MRI was higher after completion of NAC, before surgery.The timing of therapy assessment imaging exerts a major influence on overall estimates of diagnostic accuracy. (18)F-fluoro-2-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging outperformed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in intra-neoadjuvant chemotherapy assessment with fairly similar pooled sensitivity and higher specificity. However, MRI appeared to be more accurate than FDG-PET/CT in predicting pathologic response when used in the post-therapy setting.
Project description:Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of cancers, so called when a biopsy from a patient reveals malignancy without giving a clue to where in the body the primary tumor is located. Whole-body 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is widely used for diagnosis and staging of most cancers. We hypothesized that 18F-FDG PET/CT-especially if used early-is suitable for the detection of the primary tumor in patients with CUP.To assess the ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT to detect the primary tumor in adult CUP patients.PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Science.Studies on CUP from extracervical metastases in which every patient had received an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and at least one 18F-FDG PET/CT-positive finding was confirmed by biopsy or clinical follow-up.PRISMA and QUADAS-2 were applied.The pooled detection rate (DR) of 18F-FDG PET/CT was assessed with a fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I-squared statistic.A total of 2953 articles were identified from which N?=?82 were assessed by full text and N?=?20, comprising 1942 adult patients, were included in the study. Median (range) number of patients and DR was N?=?72 (21-316) and 36.3% (9.8%-75.3%), respectively. Two-thirds of included studies were retrospective, and the pooled DR was 40.93% (95% confidence interval: 38.99%-42.87%). There was large heterogeneity between studies (I-squared?=?95.9%), randomization was not applied, CUP diagnosis was not standardized, and workup (if described) was characterized by multiple testing procedures resulting in a highly selected, challenging patient group.Despite great heterogeneity in diagnostic workup and in studies in general, an overall DR of 40.93% suggests that upfront application of 18F-FDG PET/CT may have a role in CUP by obviating a great many futile diagnostic procedures. To what degree 18F-FDG PET/CT used early in the course of disease may improve the detection rate could not be deducted from selected articles. A large, prospective, preferably randomized, study on the potential benefit of using 18F-FDG PET/CT up front in CUP patients is warranted to judge if and when 18F-FDG PET/CT should be applied in these patients.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the diagnostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and conventional CT regarding the ability to detect the primary tumor site in patients with extracervical metastases from carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site.From January 2006 to December 2010, 136 newly diagnosed CUP patients with extracervical metastases underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT. A standard of reference (SR) was established by a multidisciplinary team to ensure that the same set of criteria were used for classification of patients, that is, either as CUP patients or patients with a suggested primary tumor site. The independently obtained suggestions of primary tumor sites using PET/CT and CT were correlated with the SR to reach a consensus regarding true-positive (TP), true-negative, false-negative, and false-positive results.SR identified a primary tumor site in 66 CUP patients (48.9%). PET/CT identified 38 TP primary tumor sites and CT identified 43 TP primary tumor sites. No statistically significant differences were observed between (18)F-FDG PET/CT and CT alone in regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.In the general CUP population with multiple extracervical metastases (18)F-FDG PET/CT does not represent a clear diagnostic advantage over CT alone regarding the ability to detect the primary tumor site.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To provide a systematic review regarding the diagnostic performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) compared to 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) focused on nodal and distant staging in breast cancer patients. METHODS:The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant publications until April 2020. Two independent reviewers searched for eligible articles based on predefined in- and exclusion criteria, assessed quality and extracted data. RESULTS:Eleven eligible studies were selected from 561 publications identified by the search. In seven studies, PET/CT was compared with PET/MRI, and in five, PET/CT with DWI. Significantly higher sensitivity for PET/MRI compared to PET/CT in a lesion-based analysis was reported for all lesions together (77% versus 89%) in one study, osseous metastases (69-99% versus 92-98%) in two studies and hepatic metastases (70-75% versus 80-100%) in one study. Moreover, PET/MRI revealed a significantly higher amount of osseous metastases (90 versus 141) than PET/CT. PET/CT is associated with a statistically higher specificity than PET/MRI in the lesion detection of all lesions together (98% versus 96%) and of osseous metastases (100% versus 95%), both in one study. None of the reviewed studies reported significant differences between PET/CT and DWI for any of the evaluated sites. There is a trend toward higher specificity for PET/CT. CONCLUSION:In general, there is a trend toward higher sensitivity and lower specificity of PET/MRI when compared to PET/CT. Results on the diagnostic performance of DWI are conflicting. Rather than evaluating it separate, it seems to have complementary value when combined with other MR sequences.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We describe a systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹?F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting metastasis in ovarian cancer. METHODS:MEDLINE and Embase were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies that used ¹?F-FDG PET or PET/CT for pre-treatment staging, using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sensitivities and specificities were pooled and plotted in a hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic plot. Potential causes of heterogeneity were explored through sensitivity analyses. RESULTS:Eight studies with 594 patients were included. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for metastasis were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.61-0.81) and 0.93 (95% CI=0.85-0.97), respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity in sensitivity (I²=97.57%) and specificity (I²=96.74%). In sensitivity analyses, studies that used laparotomy as the reference standard showed significantly higher sensitivity and specificity (0.77; 95% CI=0.67-0.87 and 0.96; 95% CI=0.92-0.99, respectively) than those including diagnostic laparoscopy (0.62; 95% CI=0.46-0.77 and 0.84; 95% CI=0.69-0.99, respectively). Higher specificity was shown in studies that confirmed surgical findings by pathologic evaluation (0.95; 95% CI=0.90-0.99) than in a study without pathologic confirmation (0.69; 95% CI=0.24-1.00). Studies with a lower prevalence of the FDG-avid subtype showed higher specificity (0.97; 95% CI=0.94-1.00) than those with a greater prevalence (0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.97). CONCLUSION:Pre-treatment ¹?F-FDG PET/CT shows moderate sensitivity and high specificity for detecting metastasis in ovarian cancer. With its low false-positive rate, it can help select surgical approaches or alternative treatment options.
Project description:The therapeutic approach of gastric cancer strictly depends on TNM staging mainly provided by CT and PET/CT. However, the lymph node size criterion as detected by MDCT causes a poor differential diagnosis between reactive and metastatic enlarged lymph nodes with low specificity values. Our study aims to compare 320-row CT Net enhancement and fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) SUV for N staging of gastric cancer.45 patients with histologically proven gastric cancer underwent CT and F-FDG PET/CT. Two radiologists in consensus evaluated all images and calculated the CT Net enhancement and F-FDG PET/CT SUV for N staging, having the histological findings as the reference standard. CT and F-FDG PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were evaluated and compared by using the Mc Nemar test.The histological examination revealed nodal metastases in 29/45 cases (64%). CT Net enhancement obtained sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 90%, 81%, 87%, 90% and 81%, respectively. F-FDG PET/CT SUV obtained sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 66%, 88%, 73%, 90% and 58%, respectively. No statistically significant difference between the two imaging modalities was found (p = 0.1).CT Net enhancement represents an accurate tool for N staging of gastric cancer and could be considered as the CT corresponding quantitative parameter of F-FDG PET/CT SUV. It could be applied in the clinical practice for differentiating reactive lymph nodes from metastatic ones improving accuracy and specificity of CT.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET/MRI with PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases.32 patients with solid malignancies underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT and subsequent PET/MRI of the liver. Two readers assessed both datasets regarding lesion characterization (benign, indeterminate, malignant), conspicuity and diagnostic confidence. An imaging follow-up (mean interval: 185±92 days) and/-or histopathological specimen served as standards of reference. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both modalities. Accuracy was determined by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Values of conspicuity and diagnostic confidence were compared using Wilcoxon-signed-rank test.The standard of reference revealed 113 liver lesions in 26 patients (malignant: n = 45; benign: n = 68). For PET/MRI a higher accuracy (PET/CT: 82.4%; PET/MRI: 96.1%; p<0.001) as well as sensitivity (67.8% vs. 92.2%, p<0.01) and NPV (82.0% vs. 95.1%, p<0.05) were observed. PET/MRI offered higher lesion conspicuity (PET/CT: 2.0±1.1 [median: 2; range 0-3]; PET/MRI: 2.8±0.5 [median: 3; range 0-3]; p<0.001) and diagnostic confidence (PET/CT: 2.0±0.8 [median: 2; range: 1-3]; PET/MRI 2.6±0.6 [median: 3; range: 1-3]; p<0.001). Furthermore, PET/MRI enabled the detection of additional PET-negative metastases (reader 1: 10; reader 2: 12).PET/MRI offers higher diagnostic accuracy compared to PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI tumor markers for prediction of lymph node metastases (LNM) and aggressive disease in endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS:Preoperative whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT and pelvic MRI were performed in 215 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed EC. PET/CT-based tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and PET-positive lymph nodes (LNs) (SUVmax >?2.5) were analyzed together with the MRI-based tumor volume (VMRI), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean), and MRI-positive LN (maximum short-axis diameter ??10 mm). Imaging parameters were explored in relation to surgicopathological stage and tumor grade. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated yielding optimal cutoff values for imaging parameters, and regression analyses were used to assess their diagnostic performance for prediction of LNM and progression-free survival. RESULTS:For prediction of LNM, MTV yielded the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) (AUC?=?0.80), whereas VMRI had lower AUC (AUC?=?0.72) (p?=?0.03). Furthermore, MTV >?27 ml yielded significantly higher specificity (74%, p?<?0.001) and accuracy (75%, p?<?0.001) and also higher odds ratio (12.2) for predicting LNM, compared with VMRI >?10 ml (58%, 62%, and 9.7, respectively). MTV >?27 ml also tended to yield higher sensitivity than PET-positive LN (81% vs 50%, p?=?0.13). Both VMRI >?10 ml and MTV >?27 ml were significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS:Tumor markers from 18F-FDG PET/CT outperform MRI markers for the prediction of LNM. MTV >?27 ml yields a high diagnostic performance for predicting aggressive disease and represents a promising supplement to conventional PET/CT reading in EC. KEY POINTS:• Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) outperforms other 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI markers for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastases (LNM) in endometrial cancer patients. • Using cutoff values for tumor volume for prediction of LNM, MTV >?27 ml yielded higher specificity and accuracy than VMRI>?10 ml. • MTV represents a promising supplement to conventional PET/CT reading for predicting aggressive disease in EC.