Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Partial Nitritation and Conventional Nitrification Systems for Nitrogen Removal.
ABSTRACT: This work studied the microbial community in partial nitritation and complete nitrification processes, which were applied to treat the low Carbon Nitrogen ratio wastewater. The phospholipid fatty acid and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the sludge circulating ratio of 75% resulted in a good microbial growth and a higher abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria relative to the nitrite oxidizing bacteria. The Betaproteobacteria were observed to compose the most abundant sludge bacterial groups in the two processes, based on phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of both 16S rRNA and amoA gene indicated that the Nitrosomonas sp. were the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the partial nitritation process. The relative abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria, such as Nitrobacter sp. and Nitrospira sp., were significantly lower in the partial nitritation system over the complete nitrification system. The abundance of Planctomycetes was higher in the partial nitritation process, indicating the anammox reaction occurred in the partial nitritation system. These results suggested the nitrite accumulation rate of circulating ratios 75% was the highest, with an average of 92%,and a possibility to treat the low Carbon Nitrogen ratio wastewater using the partial nitritation/anammox process.
Project description:A metagenomic approach was used to investigate how the microbial community composition changes when an anammox-based granular sludge reactor is seeded with nitritation-anammox biomass from a wastewater treatment plant. In the seed sample, the abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was similar to Candidatus Jettenia caeni (12.63 vs. 11.68%). This biomass was typical in terms of microbial nitrogen conversion; both ammonia (Nitrosomonas sp.) and nitrite (Nitrospira sp.) oxidizing bacteria were detected. In the lab-scale reactor, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Jettenia caeni bacteria were also present in equal proportions (18.57 vs. 20.89%). On the contrary, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii bacteria were highly abundant in this reactor, but no known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected. In light of recent studies showing that Nitrospira sp. are capable of complete nitrification, the results presented here may well indicate that both stages of nitrification in the anammox-based granular sludge reactor were performed by this bacteria.
Project description:The combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been proposed as an ideal process for nitrogen removal from source-separated urine, while the high organic matters in urine cause instability of single-stage PN-anammox process. This study aims to remove the organic matters and partially nitrify the nitrogen in urine, producing an ammonium/nitrite solution suitable for anammox. The organic matters in stored urine were used as the electron donors to achieve 40% total nitrogen removal in nitritation-denitrification process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Granular aggregates were observed and high mixed liquor suspended solids (9.5 g/L) were maintained in the SBR. Around 70-75% ammonium was oxidized to nitrite under the volumetric loading rates of 3.23 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 d) and 1.86 kg N/(m3 d), respectively. The SBR produced an ammonium/nitrite solution free of biodegradable organic matters, with a NO2--N:NH4+-N of 1.24 ± 0.13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization images showed that Nitrosomonas-like ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, accounting for 7.2% of total bacteria, located in the outer layer (25 ?m), while heterotrophs distributed homogeneously throughout the granular aggregates. High concentrations of free ammonia and nitrous acids in the reactor severely inhibited the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, resulting in their absence in the granular sludge. The microbial diversity analysis indicated Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, in which Pseudomonas was the most abundant genus.
Project description:Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale sequencing batch reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, respectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high NH3-N (1.9-10 mg NH3-N/L) and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L) are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle. Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" type, able to grow in presence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS) gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus Nitrobacter was detected.
Project description:The nitritation-anammox process, which involves partial aerobic oxidation of the ammonium to nitrite and following oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to molecular nitrogen, is an efficient and cost-effective approach for biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. To characterize the microbial communities involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles in wastewater treatment bioreactors employing this process, we sequenced the metagenome of a sludge sample collected from the lab-scale nitritation-anammox sequencing-batch reactor. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most numerous groups. Anammox bacteria belonged to the genus Candidatus Brocadia. The obtained data will help to investigate the taxonomical and functional diversity the microbial communities involved in nitritation-anammox process, and will be used for genome-based analysis of uncultured bacterial lineages. The raw sequencing data is available from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRR9831403) database under the BioProject PRJN0A55627.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The metabolic capacities of anammox bacteria and associated microbial community interactions in partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) reactors have received considerable attention for their crucial roles in energy-efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, a comprehensive understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors shape bacterial community assembly in PNA reactors is not well reported.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we used integrated multi-omics (i.e., high-throughput 16S rRNA gene, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic sequencing) to reveal how abiotic and biotic factors shape the bacterial community assembly in a lab-scale one-stage PNA reactor treating synthetic wastewater. Analysis results of amplicon sequences (16S rRNA gene) from a time-series revealed distinct relative abundance patterns of the key autotrophic bacteria, i.e., anammox bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and the associated heterotrophic populations in the seed sludge and the sludge at the new stable state after deterioration. Using shotgun metagenomic sequences of anammox sludge, we recovered 58 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), including 3 MAGs of anammox bacteria and 3 MAGs of AOB. The integrated metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic data revealed that nitrogen metabolism is the most active process in the studied PNA reactor. The abundant heterotrophs contribute to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite/ammonium for autotrophic bacteria (anammox bacteria and AOB). Genomic and transcriptomic data revealed that the preference for electron donors of the dominant heterotrophs in different bacterial assemblages (seed and new stable state) varied along with the shift in anammox bacteria that have different metabolic features in terms of EPS composition. Notably, the most abundant heterotrophic bacteria in the reactor were more auxotrophic than the less abundant heterotrophs, regarding the syntheses of amino acids and vitamins. In addition, one of the abundant bacteria observed in the bacterial community exhibited highly transcribed secretion systems (type VI).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings provide the first insight that the bacterial communities in the PNA reactor are defined by not only abiotic factors (operating mode) but also metabolic interactions, such as nitrogen metabolism, exchange of electron donors, and auxotrophies.
Project description:Stable nitritation is a critical bottleneck for achieving autotrophic nitrogen removal using the energy-saving mainstream deammonification process. Herein we report a new strategy to wash out both the Nitrospira sp. and Nitrobacter sp. from the treatment of domestic-strength wastewater. The strategy combines sludge treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA) with dissolved oxygen (DO) control in the nitritation reactor. Initially, the nitrifying reactor achieved full conversion of NH4(+) to NO3(-). Then, nitrite accumulation at ~60% was achieved in the reactor when 1/4 of the sludge was treated daily with FNA at 1.82?mg N/L in a side-stream unit for 24?h. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) revealed FNA treatment substantially reduced the abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (from 23.0?±?4.3 to 5.3?±?1.9%), especially that of Nitrospira sp. (from 15.7?±?3.9 to 0.4?±?0.1%). Nitrite accumulation increased to ~80% when the DO concentration in the mainstream reactor was reduced from 2.5-3.0 to 0.3-0.8?mg/L. FISH revealed the DO limitation further reduced the abundance of NOB (to 2.1?±?1.0%), especially that of Nitrobacter sp. (from 4.9?±?1.2 to 1.8?±?0.8%). The strategy developed removes a major barrier for deammonification in low-strength domestic wastewater.
Project description:A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43?kg N/d/m(3). During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225?um in nitritation SBR and from 327-183?um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5-0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity.
Project description:Conventional biological nitrogen removal (BNR), comprised of nitrification and denitrification, is traditionally employed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to prevent eutrophication in receiving water bodies. More recently, the combination of selective ammonia to nitrite oxidation (nitritation) and autotrophic anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), collectively termed deammonification, has also emerged as a possible energy- and cost-effective BNR alternative. Herein, we analyzed microbial diversity and functional potential within 13 BNR processes in the United States, Denmark, and Singapore operated with varying reactor configuration, design, and operational parameters. Using next-generation sequencing and metagenomics, gene-coding regions were aligned against a custom protein database expanded to include all published aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AMX), and complete ammonia oxidizing bacteria (CMX). Overall contributions of these N-cycle bacteria to the total functional potential of each reactor was determined, as well as that of several organisms associated with denitrification and/or structural integrity of microbial aggregates (biofilm or granules). The potential for these engineered processes to foster a broad spectrum of microbial catabolic, anabolic, and carbon assimilation transformations was elucidated. Seeded sidestream DEMON® deammonification systems and single-stage nitritation-anammox moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and a mainstream Cleargreen reactor designed to enrich in AOB and AMX showed lower enrichment in AMX functionality than an enriched two-stage nitritation-anammox MBBR system treating mainstream wastewater. Conventional BNR systems in Singapore and the United States had distinct metagenomes, especially relating to AOB. A hydrocyclone process designed to recycle biomass granules for mainstream BNR contained almost identical structural and functional characteristics in the overflow, underflow, and inflow of mixed liquor (ALT) rather than the expected selective enrichment of specific nitrifying or AMX organisms. Inoculum used to seed a sidestream deammonification process unexpectedly contained <10% of total coding regions assigned to AMX. These results suggest the operating conditions of engineered bioprocesses shape the resident microbial structure and function far more than the bioprocess configuration itself. We also highlight the advantage of a systems- and metagenomics-based interrogation of both the microbial structure and potential function therein over targeting of individual populations or specific genes.
Project description:Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions.
Project description:Partial nitrification of ammonium to nitrite under oxic conditions (nitritation) is a critical process for the effective use of alternative nitrogen removal technologies from wastewater. Here we investigated the conditions which promote establishment of a suitable microbial community for performing nitritation when starting from regular sewage sludge. Reactors were operated in duplicate under different conditions (pH, temperature, and dilution rate) and were fed with 50 mM ammonium either as synthetic medium or as sludge digester supernatant. In all cases, stable nitritation could be achieved within 10 to 20 days after inoculation. Quantitative in situ hybridization analysis with group-specific fluorescent rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides (FISH) in the different reactors showed that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira were only active directly after inoculation with sewage sludge (up to 4 days and detectable up to 10 days). As demonstrated by quantitative FISH and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the amoA gene (encoding the active-site subunit of the ammonium monooxygenase), the community of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria changed within the first 15 to 20 days from a more diverse set of populations consisting of members of the Nitrosomonas communis and Nitrosomonas oligotropha sublineages and the Nitrosomonas europaea-Nitrosomonas eutropha subgroup in the inoculated sludge to a smaller subset in the reactors. Reactors operated at 30 degrees C and pH 7.5 contained reproducibly homogeneous communities dominated by one amoA RFLP type from the N. europaea-N. eutropha group. Duplicate reactors at pH 7.0 developed into diverse communities and showed transient population changes even within the ammonia oxidizer community. Reactors at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C formed communities that were indistinguishable by the applied FISH probes but differing in amoA RFLP types. Communities in reactors fed with sludge digester supernatant exhibited a higher diversity and were constantly reinoculated with ammonium oxidizers from the supernatant. Therefore, such systems could be maintained at a higher dilution rate (0.75 day(-1) compared to 0.2 day(-1) for the synthetic wastewater reactors). Despite similar reactor performance with respect to chemical parameters, the underlying community structures were different, which may have an influence on stability during perturbations.