RGS10 shapes the hemostatic response to injury through its differential effects on intracellular signaling by platelet agonists.
ABSTRACT: Platelets express ?2 members of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family. Here, we have focused on the most abundant, RGS10, examining its impact on the hemostatic response in vivo and the mechanisms involved. We have previously shown that the hemostatic thrombi formed in response to penetrating injuries consist of a core of fully activated densely packed platelets overlaid by a shell of less-activated platelets responding to adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Hemostatic thrombi formed in RGS10-/- mice were larger than in controls, with the increase due to expansion of the shell but not the core. Clot retraction was slower, and average packing density was reduced. Deleting RGS10 had agonist-specific effects on signaling. There was a leftward shift in the dose/response curve for the thrombin receptor (PAR4) agonist peptide AYPGKF but no increase in the maximum response. This contrasted with ADP and TxA2, both of which evoked considerably greater maximum responses in RGS10-/- platelets with enhanced Gq- and Gi-mediated signaling. Shape change, which is G13-mediated, was unaffected. Finally, we found that free RGS10 levels in platelets are actively regulated. In resting platelets, RGS10 was bound to 2 scaffold proteins: spinophilin and 14-3-3?. Platelet activation caused an increase in free RGS10, as did the endothelium-derived platelet antagonist prostacyclin. Collectively, these observations show that RGS10 serves as an actively regulated node on the platelet signaling network, helping to produce smaller and more densely packed hemostatic thrombi with a greater proportion of fully activated platelets.
Project description:Essentials Methods were developed to image the hemostatic response in mouse femoral arteries in real time. Penetrating injuries produced thrombi consisting primarily of platelets. Similar to arterioles, a core-shell architecture of platelet activation occurs in the femoral artery. Differences from arterioles included slower platelet activation and reduced thrombin dependence.Background Intravital studies performed in the mouse microcirculation show that hemostatic thrombi formed after penetrating injuries develop a characteristic architecture in which a core of fully activated, densely packed platelets is overlaid with a shell of less activated platelets. Objective Large differences in hemodynamics and vessel wall biology distinguish arteries from arterioles. Here we asked whether these differences affect the hemostatic response and alter the impact of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Methods Approaches previously developed for intravital imaging in the mouse microcirculation were adapted to the femoral artery, enabling real-time fluorescence imaging despite the markedly thicker vessel wall. Results Arterial thrombi initiated by penetrating injuries developed the core-and-shell architecture previously observed in the microcirculation. However, although platelet accumulation was greater in arterial thrombi, the kinetics of platelet activation were slower. Inhibiting platelet ADP P2Y12 receptors destabilized the shell and reduced thrombus size without affecting the core. Inhibiting thrombin with hirudin suppressed fibrin accumulation, but had little impact on thrombus size. Removing the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI, had no effect. Conclusions These results (i) demonstrate the feasibility of performing high-speed fluorescence imaging in larger vessels and (ii) highlight differences as well as similarities in the hemostatic response in the macro- and microcirculation. Similarities include the overall core-and-shell architecture. Differences include the slower kinetics of platelet activation and a smaller contribution from thrombin, which may be due in part to the greater thickness of the arterial wall and the correspondingly greater separation of tissue factor from the vessel lumen.
Project description:Essentials Platelet packing density in a hemostatic plug limits molecular movement to diffusion. A diffusion-dependent steep thrombin gradient forms radiating outwards from the injury site. Clot retraction affects the steepness of the gradient by increasing platelet packing density. Together, these effects promote hemostatic plug core formation and inhibit unnecessary growth. SUMMARY:Background Hemostasis studies performed in vivo have shown that hemostatic plugs formed after penetrating injuries are characterized by a core of highly activated, densely packed platelets near the injury site, covered by a shell of less activated and loosely packed platelets. Thrombin production occurs near the injury site, further activating platelets and starting the process of platelet mass retraction. Tightening of interplatelet gaps may then prevent the escape and exchange of solutes. Objectives To reconstruct the hemostatic plug macro- and micro-architecture and examine how platelet mass contraction regulates solute transport and solute concentration in the gaps between platelets. Methods Our approach consisted of three parts. First, platelet aggregates formed in vitro under flow were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to extract data on porosity and gap size distribution. Second, a three-dimensional (3-D) model was constructed with features matching the platelet aggregates formed in vitro. Finally, the 3-D model was integrated with volume and morphology measurements of hemostatic plugs formed in vivo to determine how solutes move within the platelet plug microenvironment. Results The results show that the hemostatic mass is characterized by extremely narrow gaps, porosity values even smaller than previously estimated and stagnant plasma velocity. Importantly, the concentration of a chemical species released within the platelet mass increases as the gaps between platelets shrink. Conclusions Platelet mass retraction provides a physical mechanism to establish steep chemical concentration gradients that determine the extent of platelet activation and account for the core-and-shell architecture observed in vivo.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors are critical mediators of platelet activation whose signaling can be modulated by members of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family. The 2 most abundant RGS proteins in human and mouse platelets are RGS10 and RGS18. While each has been studied individually, critical questions remain about the overall impact of this mode of regulation in platelets. Here, we report that mice missing both proteins show reduced platelet survival and a 40% decrease in platelet count that can be partially reversed with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist. Their platelets have increased basal (TREM)-like transcript-1 expression, a leftward shift in the dose/response for a thrombin receptor-activating peptide, an increased maximum response to adenosine 5'-diphosphate and TxA2, and a greatly exaggerated response to penetrating injuries in vivo. Neither of the individual knockouts displays this constellation of findings. RGS10-/- platelets have an enhanced response to agonists in vitro, but platelet count and survival are normal. RGS18-/- mice have a 15% reduction in platelet count that is not affected by antiplatelet agents, nearly normal responses to platelet agonists, and normal platelet survival. Megakaryocyte number and ploidy are normal in all 3 mouse lines, but platelet recovery from severe acute thrombocytopenia is slower in RGS18-/- and RGS10-/-18-/- mice. Collectively, these results show that RGS10 and RGS18 have complementary roles in platelets. Removing both at the same time discloses the extent to which this regulatory mechanism normally controls platelet reactivity in vivo, modulates the hemostatic response to injury, promotes platelet production, and prolongs platelet survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Immune complexes (ICs) bind to and activate platelets via FcγRIIA, causing patients to experience thrombocytopenia, as well as an increased risk of forming occlusive thrombi. Although platelets have been shown to mediate IC-induced pathologies, the mechanisms involved have yet to be fully elucidated. We identified that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is present in both human and mouse platelets and potentiates many platelet functions.<h4>Objectives</h4>Here we set out to study ASK1's role in regulating IC-mediated platelet functions in vitro and IC-induced pathologies using an in vivo mouse model.<h4>Methods</h4>Using human platelets treated with an ASK1-specific inhibitor and platelets from FCGR2A/Ask1<sup>-/-</sup> transgenic mice, we examined various platelet functions induced by model ICs in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>We found that ASK1 was activated in human platelets following cross-linking of FcγRIIA using either anti-hCD9 or IV.3 + goat-anti-mouse. Although genetic deletion or inhibition of ASK1 significantly attenuated anti-CD9-induced platelet aggregation, activation of the canonical FcγRIIA signaling targets Syk and PLCγ2 was unaffected. We further found that anti-mCD9-induced cPla<sub>2</sub> phosphorylation and TxA<sub>2</sub> generation is delayed in Ask1 null transgenic mouse platelets leading to diminished δ-granule secretion. In vivo, absence of Ask1 protected FCGR2A transgenic mice from thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and systemic shock following injection of anti-mCD9. In whole blood microfluidics, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on fibrinogen was enhanced by Ask1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest that ASK1 inhibition may be a potential target for the treatment of IC-induced shock and other immune-mediated thrombotic disorders.
Project description:Understanding the pathways involved in the formation and stability of the core and shell regions of a platelet-rich arterial thrombus may result in new ways to treat arterial thrombosis. The distinguishing feature between these two regions is the absence of fibrin in the shell which indicates that in vitro flow-based assays over thrombogenic surfaces, in the absence of coagulation, can be used to resemble this region. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of Syk tyrosine kinase in the stability of platelet aggregates (or thrombi) formed on collagen or atherosclerotic plaque homogenate at arterial shear (1000 s<sup>-1</sup>). We show that post-perfusion of the Syk inhibitor PRT-060318 over preformed thrombi on both surfaces enhances thrombus breakdown and platelet detachment. The resulting loss of thrombus stability led to a reduction in thrombus contractile score which could be detected as early as 3 min after perfusion of the Syk inhibitor. A similar loss of thrombus stability was observed with ticagrelor and indomethacin, inhibitors of platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor and thromboxane A<sub>2</sub> (TxA<sub>2</sub>), respectively, and in the presence of the Src inhibitor, dasatinib. In contrast, the Btk inhibitor, ibrutinib, causes only a minor decrease in thrombus contractile score. Weak thrombus breakdown is also seen with the blocking GPVI nanobody, Nb21, which indicates, at best, a minor contribution of collagen to the stability of the platelet aggregate. These results show that Syk regulates thrombus stability in the absence of fibrin in human platelets under flow and provide evidence that this involves pathways additional to activation of GPVI by collagen.
Project description:C3G is a GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) for Rap GTPases, among which the isoform Rap1b is an essential protein in platelet biology. Using transgenic mouse models with platelet-specific overexpression of C3G or mutant C3G?Cat, we have unveiled a new function of C3G in regulating the hemostatic function of platelets through its participation in the thrombin-PKC-Rap1b pathway. C3G also plays important roles in angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis through its regulation of the platelet secretome. In addition, C3G contributes to megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. Here, we used a platelet-specific C3G-KO mouse model to further support the role of C3G in hemostasis. C3G-KO platelets showed a significant delay in platelet activation and aggregation as a consequence of the defective activation of Rap1, which resulted in decreased thrombus formation in vivo. Additionally, we explored the contribution of C3G-Rap1b to platelet signaling pathways triggered by thrombin, PMA or ADP, in the referenced transgenic mouse model, through the use of a battery of specific inhibitors. We found that platelet C3G is phosphorylated at Tyr504 by a mechanism involving PKC-Src. This phosphorylation was shown to be positively regulated by ERKs through their inhibition of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. Moreover, C3G participates in the ADP-P2Y12-PI3K-Rap1b pathway and is a mediator of thrombin-TXA<sub>2</sub> activities. However, it inhibits the synthesis of TXA<sub>2</sub> through cPLA<sub>2</sub> regulation. Taken together, our data reveal the critical role of C3G in the main pathways leading to platelet activation and aggregation through the regulation of Rap1b.
Project description:Blood flows through vessels as a segregated suspension. Erythrocytes distribute closer to the vessel axis, whereas platelets accumulate near vessel walls. Directed platelet migration to the vessel walls promotes their hemostatic function. The mechanisms underlying this migration remain poorly understood, although various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon (e.g., the available volume model and the drift-flux model). To study this issue, we constructed a mathematical model that predicts the platelet distribution profile across the flow in the presence of erythrocytes. This model considers platelet and erythrocyte dimensions and assumes an even platelet distribution between erythrocytes. The model predictions agree with available experimental data for near-wall layer margination using platelets and platelet-modeling particles and the lateral migration rate for these particles. Our analysis shows that the strong expulsion of the platelets from the core to the periphery of the blood vessel may mainly arise from the finite size of the platelets, which impedes their positioning in between the densely packed erythrocytes in the core. This result provides what we believe is a new insight into the rheological control of platelet hemostasis by erythrocytes.
Project description:The tyrosine kinase JAK2 is a critical component of intracellular JAK/STAT cytokine signaling cascades that is prevalent in hematopoietic cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes (MKs). Individuals expressing the somatic JAK2 V617F mutation commonly develop myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) associated with venous and arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of mortality. The role of JAK2 in hemostasis remains unclear. We investigated the role of JAK2 in platelet hemostatic function using Jak2fl/fl Pf4-Cre (Jak2Plt-/-) mice lacking JAK2 in platelets and MKs. Jak2Plt-/- mice developed MK hyperplasia and splenomegaly associated with severe thrombocytosis and bleeding. This notion was supported by failure to occlude in a ferric chloride carotid artery injury model and by a cremaster muscle laser-induced injury assay, in which Jak2Plt-/- platelets failed to form stable thrombi. Jak2Plt-/- platelets formed thrombi poorly after adhesion to type 1 collagen under arterial shear rates. Jak2Plt-/- platelets spread poorly on collagen under static conditions or on fibrinogen in response to the collagen receptor GPVI-specific agonist, collagen-related peptide (CRP). After activation with collagen, CRP, or the CLEC-2 agonist rhodocytin, Jak2Plt-/- platelets displayed decreased α-granule secretion and integrin αIIbβ3 activation or aggregation, but showed normal responses to thrombin. Jak2Plt-/- platelets had impaired intracellular signaling when activated via GPVI, as assessed by tyrosine phosphorylation. Together, the results show that JAK2 deletion impairs platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling and hemostatic function in mice and suggest that aberrant JAK2 signaling in patients with MPNs affects GPVI signaling, leading to hemostatic platelet function.
Project description:Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha) catalyzes release of arachidonic acid from glycerophospholipids, leading to thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) production. Some platelet agonists stimulate cPLA(2)alpha, but others require fibrinogen binding to alphaIIbbeta3 to elicit TxA(2). Therefore, relationships between cPLA(2)alpha and alphaIIbbeta3 were examined. cPLA(2)alpha and a cPLA(2)alpha binding partner, vimentin, coimmunoprecipitated with alphaIIbbeta3 from platelets, independent of fibrinogen binding. Studies with purified proteins and with recombinant proteins expressed in CHO cells determined that the interaction between cPLA(2)alpha and alphaIIbbeta3 was indirect and was dependent on the alphaIIb and beta3 cytoplasmic tails. Fibrinogen binding to alphaIIbbeta3 caused an increase in integrin-associated cPLA(2)alpha activity in normal platelets, but not in cPLA(2)alpha-deficient mouse platelets or in human platelets treated with pyrrophenone, a cPLA(2)alpha inhibitor. cPLA(2)alpha activation downstream of alphaIIbbeta3 had functional consequences for platelets in that it was required for fibrinogen-dependent recruitment of activated protein kinase Cbeta to the alphaIIbbeta3 complex and for platelet spreading. Thus, cPLA(2)alpha and alphaIIbbeta3 interact to reinforce each other's functions during alphaIIbbeta3 signaling. This provides a plausible explanation for the role of alphaIIbbeta3 in TxA(2) formation and in the defective hemostatic function of mouse or human platelets deficient in cPLA(2)alpha.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Platelet-derived protein disulfide isomerase 1 (PDIA1) regulates thrombus formation, but its role in the regulation of platelet function is not fully understood.<h4>Aims</h4>The aim of this study was to characterize the role of PDIA1 in human platelets.<h4>Methods</h4>Proteomic analysis of PDI isoforms in platelets was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectometry, and the expression of PDIs on platelets in response to collagen, TRAP-14, or ADP was measured with flow cytometry. The effects of bepristat, a selective PDIA1 inhibitor, on platelet aggregation, expression of platelet surface activation markers, thromboxane A<sub>2</sub> (TxA<sub>2</sub> ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were evaluated by optical aggregometry, flow cytometry, ELISA, and dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescent assay, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>PDIA1 was less abundant compared with PDIA3 in resting platelets and platelets stimulated with TRAP-14, collagen, or ADP. Collagen, but not ADP, induced a significant increase in PDIA1 expression. Bepristat potently inhibited the aggregation of washed platelets induced by collagen or convulxin, but only weakly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by TRAP-14 or thrombin, and had the negligible effect on platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. Inhibition of PDIA1 by bepristat resulted in the reduction of TxA<sub>2</sub> and ROS production in collagen- or thrombin-stimulated platelets. Furthermore, bepristat reduced the activation of αIIbβ3 integrin and expression of P-selectin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PDIA1 acts as an intraplatelet regulator of the ROS-TxA<sub>2</sub> pathway in collagen-GP VI receptor-mediated platelet activation that is a mechanistically distinct pathway from extracellular regulation of αIIbβ3 integrin by PDIA3.