The utility of weight loss medications after bariatric surgery for weight regain or inadequate weight loss: A multi-center study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. OBJECTIVES:We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. SETTING:Two academic medical centers. METHODS:We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. RESULTS:A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost?5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing?10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and?15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose?5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. CONCLUSIONS:Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of bariatric surgery among Medicaid beneficiaries, a population with a disproportionately high burden of obesity, remains unclear. We sought to determine if weight loss and regain following bariatric surgery differed in Medicaid patients compared to commercial insurance. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a ten-site observational cohort of adults undergoing bariatric surgery (2006-2009) were examined for patients who underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Laparoscopic Adjustable Band (LAGB), or Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG). Using piecewise spline linear mixed-effect models, weight change over 5 years was modeled as a function of insurance type (Medicaid, N?=?190; commercially insured, N?=?1448), time, procedure type, and sociodemographic characteristics; additionally, interactions between all time, insurance, and procedure type indicators allowed time- and procedure-specific associations with insurance type. For each time-spline, mean (kg) difference in weight change in commercially insured versus Medicaid patients was calculated. RESULTS:Medicaid patients had higher mean weight at baseline (138.3?kg vs. 131.2?kg). From 0 to 1 year post-operatively, Medicaid patients lost similar amounts of weight to commercial patients following all procedure types (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: -0.9 [-3.2, 1.4]; LAGB: -1.5 [-6.7, 3.8]; SG: 5.1 [-4.0, 14.2]). From 1 to 3 years post-operatively Medicaid and commercial patients continued to experience minimal weight loss or began to slowly regain weight (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 0.9 [0.0, 2.0]; LAGB: -2.1 [-4.2, 0.1]; SG: 0.7 [-3.0, 4.3]). From 3 to 5 years post-operatively, the rate of regain tended to be faster among commercial patients compared to Medicaid patients (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 1.1 [0.1, 2.0]; LAGB: 1.5 [-0.5, 3.5]; SG: 1.0 [-2.5, 4.5]). CONCLUSIONS:Although Medicaid patients had a higher baseline weight, they achieved similar amounts of weight loss and tended to regain weight at a slower rate than commercial patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Weight regain following primary bariatric surgery is attributed to anatomical, behavioural and hormonal factors. Dilation of the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a possible cause of weight regain after roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, surgical revision has significant risks with limited benefits. Endoluminal procedures have been suggested to manage weight regain post-surgery. This systematic review aims to assess efficacy of endoluminal procedures. METHODS:Studies where endoluminal procedures were performed following primary bariatric surgery were identified. Main outcome measures were mean weight loss pre- and post-procedure, excess weight loss, recurrence rates, success rates and post-procedure complications. RESULTS:Twenty-six studies were included in this review. Procedures identified were (i) endoluminal plication devices (ii) other techniques e.g. sclerotherapy, mucosal ablation, and Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) and (iii) combination therapy involving sclerotherapy/mucosal ablation/APC and endoscopic OverStitch device. Endoluminal plication devices show greatest initial weight loss within 12 months post-procedure, but not sustained at 18 months. Only one study utilising sclerotherapy showed greater sustained weight loss with peak EWL (19.9%) at 18 months follow-up. Combination therapy showed the greatest sustained EWL (36.4%) at 18 months. Endoluminal plication devices were more successfully performed in 91.8% of patients and had lower recurrence rates (5.02%) compared to sclerotherapy and APC, with 46.8% success and 21.5% recurrence rates. Both procedures demonstrate no major complications and low rates of moderate complications. Only mild complications were noted for combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS:The paucity of good quality data limits our ability to demonstrate and support the long-term efficacy of endoluminal techniques in the management of weight regain following primary bariatric surgery. Future work is necessary to not only clarify the role of endoluminal plication devices, but also combination therapy in the management of weight regain following primary bariatric surgery.
Project description:Importance:Estimates of weight regain following bariatric surgery vary widely. Objective:To describe weight regain after reaching nadir weight following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and compare weight regain measures for association with outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Prospective cohort study of 2458 adults who underwent bariatric surgery at 10 hospitals in 6 US cities between March 2006 and April 2009. Assessments were conducted within 30 days' presurgery, at 6 months' postsurgery, and then annually until January 2015. Of the 1703 participants who underwent RYGB surgery, 1406 (83%) were followed up for 5 years or longer and had 5 or more weight measurements (excluding those who died or underwent surgical reversal). Exposures:Weight regain assessed by 5 continuous measures (weight in kilograms, body mass index [BMI], percentage of presurgery weight, percentage of nadir weight, and percentage of maximum weight lost) and 8 dichotomous measures (per established thresholds) were compared in relation to clinical outcomes based on statistical significance, magnitude of association, and model fit. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension and declines in physical and mental health-related quality of life and satisfaction with surgery. Results:Among the 1406 participants who underwent RYGB surgery, the median age was 47 years (25th-75th percentile, 38-55 years) and the median BMI was 46.3 (25th-75th percentile, 42.3-51.8) prior to surgery. Most participants were female (80.3%) and white (85.6%). The median follow-up was 6.6 years (25th-75th percentile, 5.9-7.0 years). The median percentage of maximum weight loss was 37.4% (25th-75th percentile, 31.6%-43.3%) of presurgery weight and occurred a median of 2.0 years after RYGB surgery (25th-75th percentile, 1.0-3.2 years). The rate of weight regain was highest during the first year after reaching nadir weight, but weight regain continued to increase throughout follow-up (range, a median of 9.5% of maximum weight lost [25th-75th percentile, 4.7%-17.2%] to 26.8% of maximum weight lost [25th-75th percentile, 16.7%-41.5%] 1 to 5 years after reaching nadir weight). The percentage of participants who regained weight depended on threshold (eg, 5 years after nadir weight, 43.6% regained ?5 BMI points; 50.2% regained ?15% of nadir weight; and 67.3% regained ?20% of maximum weight lost). Compared with other continuous weight regain measures, the percentage of maximum weight lost had the strongest association and best model fit for all outcomes except hyperlipidemia, which had a slightly stronger association with BMI. Of the dichotomous measures, 20% or greater of maximum weight lost performed better or similarly with most of the outcomes, and was the second best measure for hyperlipidemia (after ?10 kg of weight) and hypertension (after ?10% of maximum weight lost). Conclusions and Relevance:Among a large cohort of adults who underwent RYGB surgery, weight regain quantified as percentage of maximum weight lost performed better for association with most clinical outcomes than the alternatives examined. These findings may inform standardizing the measurement of weight regain in studies of bariatric surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study examines the course of eating pathology and its associations with change in weight and health-related quality of life following bariatric surgery. METHOD:Participants (N =?184) completed the eating disorder examination-bariatric surgery version (EDE-BSV) and the medical outcomes study 36-Item short form health survey (SF-36) prior to and annually following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for up to 7?years. RESULTS:The prevalence of ? weekly loss of control (LOC) eating, picking/nibbling, and cravings declined post-RYGB and remained lower through 7 years (LOC: 5.4% at Year-7 vs. 16.2% pre-RYGB, p =?.03; picking/nibbling: 7.0% vs. 32.4%, p <?.001; and cravings: 19.4% vs. 33.6%, p =?.02). The prevalence of picking/nibbling was significantly lower 7 years following LAGB vs. pre-LAGB (29.4% vs 45.8%, p =?.049), while cravings (p =?.13) and LOC eating (p =?.95) were not. EDE-BSV global score and ratings of hunger and enjoyment of eating were lower 7 years following both RYGB and LAGB versus pre-surgery (p's for all <.05). LOC eating following RYGB was associated with less long-term weight loss from surgery (p <?.01) and greater weight regain from weight nadir (p <?.001). Higher post-surgery EDE-BSV global score was associated with less weight loss/greater regain (both p <?.001) and worsening/less improvement from surgery in the SF-36 mental component summary scores (p <?.01). DISCUSSION:Initial improvements in eating pathology following RYGB and LAGB were sustained across 7?years of follow-up. Individuals with eating pathology post-RYGB, reflected by LOC eating and/or higher EDE-BSV global score, may be at risk for suboptimal long-term outcomes.
Project description:Setting:Bariatric surgery is indicated for patients diagnosed with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Many patients achieve type 2 diabetes remission soon after bariatric surgery. Even though most maintain good glycemic control, remission is not maintained in all patients, and as a result, some patients may relapse. Type 2 diabetes relapse is common in patients who regain weight; weight regain is prevalent 1 to 2 years after surgery. Additional pharmacotherapy may be required to aid bariatric surgery in fostering weight loss and reducing blood glucose levels. Objectives:The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the effects of canagliflozin in participants who initially achieved type 2 diabetes remission but subsequently relapsed. Methods:The double-blinded, randomized, and prospective study recruited participants (n = 16) roughly 3 years after bariatric surgery. The participants were followed for 6 months. Results:Body mass index (-1.24 kg/m2) and body weight (-3.7 kg) were significantly reduced with canagliflozin therapy versus placebo. There were improvements in body fat composition as denoted by reductions in android (-3.00%) and truncal (-2.67%) fat. Also, there were differences in blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C at 6 months. Conclusion:After bariatric surgery, canagliflozin improved weight loss and glycemic outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes. Canagliflozin also facilitated improvements in body fat composition.
Project description:Importance:More information is needed about the durability of weight loss and health improvements after bariatric surgical procedures. Objective:To examine long-term weight change and health status following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Design, Setting, and Participants:The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. Adults undergoing bariatric surgical procedures as part of clinical care between 2006 and 2009 were recruited and followed up until January 31, 2015. Participants completed presurgery, 6-month, and annual research assessments for up to 7 years. Main Outcome and Measures:Percentage of weight change from baseline, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, determined by physical measures, laboratory testing, and medication use. Results:Of 2348 participants, 1738 underwent RYGB (74%) and 610 underwent LAGB (26%). For RYBG, the median age was 45 years (range, 19-75 years), the median body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 47 (range, 34-81), 1389 participants (80%) were women, and 257 participants (15%) were nonwhite. For LAGB, the median age was 48 years (range, 18-78), the body mass index was 44 (range, 33-87), 465 participants (76%) were women, and 63 participants (10%) were nonwhite. Follow-up weights were obtained in 1300 of 1569 (83%) eligible for a year-7 visit. Seven years following RYGB, mean weight loss was 38.2 kg (95% CI, 36.9-39.5), or 28.4% (95% CI, 27.6-29.2) of baseline weight; between years 3 and 7 mean weight regain was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.4-4.4) of baseline weight. Seven years after LAGB, mean weight loss was 18.8 kg (95% CI, 16.3-21.3) or 14.9% (95% CI, 13.1-16.7), with 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4-2.4) regain. Six distinct weight change trajectory patterns for RYGB and 7 for LAGB were identified. Most participants followed trajectories in which weight regain from 3 to 7 years was small relative to year-3 weight loss, but patterns were variable. Compared with baseline, dyslipidemia prevalence was lower 7 years following both procedures; diabetes and hypertension prevalence were lower following RYGB only. Among those with diabetes at baseline (488 of 1723 with RYGB [28%]; 175 of 604 with LAGB [29%]), the proportion in remission at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 71.2% (95% CI, 67.0-75.4), 69.4% (95% CI, 65.0-73.8), 64.6% (95% CI, 60.0-69.2), and 60.2% (95% CI, 54.7-65.6), respectively, for RYGB and 30.7% (95% CI, 22.8-38.7), 29.3% (95% CI, 21.6-37.1), 29.2% (95% CI, 21.0-37.4), and 20.3% (95% CI, 9.7-30.9) for LAGB. The incidence of diabetes at all follow-up assessments was less than 1.5% for RYGB. Bariatric reoperations occurred in 14 RYGB and 160 LAGB participants. Conclusions and Relevance:Following bariatric surgery, different weight loss patterns were observed, but most participants maintained much of their weight loss with variable fluctuations over the long term. There was some decline in diabetes remission over time, but the incidence of new cases is low following RYGB. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00465829.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery are less favorable in super morbidly obese patients (BMI ?50?kg/m2). Non-response, either defined as insufficient weight loss or weight regain after initial successful weight loss, is a matter of serious concern in these patients. The primary banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has shown promising results regarding weight loss in the bariatric population. However, up to now, long-term comparative data about the banded and non-banded bypass in superobese patients is lacking. The aim of this study is to assess the added value of the banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in superobese patients on long-term weight loss outcomes. METHODS:This single center study will evaluate superobese patients who receive a non-banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (NB-RYGB) and a banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (B-RYGB). Data from the NB-RYGB group will be collected in retrospect, while data from the B-RYGB group will be collected prospectively. When performing a B-RYGB, a 7.0-8.0?cm silastic ring (MiniMizer®) will be placed proximal to the gastrojejunostomy. The main outcomes of this study are weight loss and non-response during a 10?year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes are reduction of obesity related comorbidities and medication, (ring-related) morbidity and mortality, complications, re-operations, patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life. A total of 142 patients will be included in this study. DISCUSSION:This study will help establish the clinical utility of the B-RYGB in superobese patients. TRIAL REGISTER:NL8093. Registered 15 October 2019 - Retrospectively registered on the Dutch Registry of Clinical trials, www.trialregister.nl.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-term, longitudinal data are limited on mental disorders after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE:To report mental disorders through 7 years postsurgery and examine their relationship with changes in weight and health-related quality of life. SETTING:Three U.S. academic medical centers. METHOD:As a substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Consortium, 199 adults completed the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Participants who completed ?1 follow-up through 7 years postsurgery are included (n?=?173; 86.9%). Mixed models were used to examine mental disorders over time, and among the RYGB subgroup (n?=?104), their relationship with long-term (?4 yr) pre- to postsurgery changes in weight and health-related quality of life, measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and with weight regain from nadir. RESULTS:Compared with presurgery (34.7%), the prevalence of having any mental disorder was significantly lower 4 years (21.3%; P < .01) and 5 years (19.2%; P?=?.01), but not 7 years (29.1%; P?=?.27) after RYGB. The most common disorders were not related to long-term weight loss postRYGB. However, independent of weight change, mood and anxiety disorders, both pre- and postRYGB, were significantly related to less improvement in mental (but not physical) health-related quality of life. Having a concurrent mood disorder appeared to be associated with greater weight regain (6.4% of maximum weight lost, 95% confidence interval, -.3 to 13.1), but this was not statistically significant (P?=?.06). CONCLUSIONS:Bariatric surgery does not result in consistent long-term reductions in mental disorders. Mood disorders may impact long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery.
Project description:This study examined whether changes in adipocyte long chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake kinetics explain the weight regain increasingly observed following bariatric surgery.Three groups (10 patients each) were studied: patients without obesity (NO: BMI 24.2 ± 2.3 kg m(-2) ); patients with obesity (O: BMI 49.8 ± 11.9); and patients classified as super-obese (SO: BMI 62.6 ± 2.8). NO patients underwent omental and subcutaneous fat biopsies during clinically indicated abdominal surgeries; O were biopsied during bariatric surgery, and SO during both a sleeve gastrectomy and at another bariatric operation 16 ± 2 months later, after losing 113 ± 13 lbs. Adipocyte sizes and [(3) H]-LCFA uptake kinetics were determined in all biopsies.Vmax for facilitated LCFA uptake by omental adipocytes increased exponentially from 5.1 ± 0.95 to 21.3 ± 3.20 to 68.7 ± 9.45 pmol/sec/50,000 cells in NO, O, and SO patients, respectively, correlating with BMI (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Subcutaneous results were virtually identical. By the second operation, the mean BMI (SO patients) fell significantly (P < 0.01) to 44.4 ± 2.4 kg m(-2) , similar to the O group. However, Vmax (40.6 ± 11.5) in this weight-reduced group remained ~2X that predicted from the BMI:Vmax regression among NO, O, and SO patients.Facilitated adipocyte LCFA uptake remains significantly upregulated ?1 year after bariatric surgery, possibly contributing to weight regain.
Project description:Bariatric surgery induces significant weight loss for severely obese patients, but there is limited evidence of the durability of weight loss compared with nonsurgical matches and across bariatric procedures.To examine 10-year weight change in a large, multisite, clinical cohort of veterans who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with nonsurgical matches and the 4-year weight change in veterans who underwent RYGB, adjustable gastric banding (AGB), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG).In this cohort study, differences in weight change up to 10 years after surgery were estimated in retrospective cohorts of 1787 veterans who underwent RYGB from January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2011 (573 of 700 eligible [81.9%] with 10-year follow-up), and 5305 nonsurgical matches (1274 of 1889 eligible [67.4%] with 10-year follow-up) in mixed-effects models. Differences in weight change up to 4 years were compared among veterans undergoing RYGB (n?=?1785), SG (n?=?379), and AGB (n?=?246). Data analysis was performed from September 9, 2014, to February 12, 2016.Bariatric surgical procedures and usual care.Weight change up to 10 years after surgery through December 31, 2014.The 1787 patients undergoing RYGB had a mean (SD) age of 52.1 (8.5) years and 5305 nonsurgical matches had a mean (SD) age of 52.2 (8.4) years. Patients undergoing RYGB and nonsurgical matches had a mean body mass index of 47.7 and 47.1, respectively, and were predominantly male (1306 [73.1%] and 3911 [73.7%], respectively). Patients undergoing RYGB lost 21% (95% CI, 11%-31%) more of their baseline weight at 10 years than nonsurgical matches. A total of 405 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (71.8%) had more than 20% estimated weight loss, and 224 of 564 (39.7%) had more than 30% estimated weight loss at 10 years compared with 134 of 1247 (10.8%) and 48 of 1247 (3.9%), respectively, of nonsurgical matches. Only 19 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (3.4%) regained weight back to within an estimated 5% of their baseline weight by 10 years. At 4 years, patients undergoing RYGB lost 27.5% (95% CI, 23.8%-31.2%) of their baseline weight, patients undergoing AGB lost 10.6% (95% CI, 0.6%-20.6%), and patients undergoing SG lost 17.8% (95% CI, 9.7%-25.9%). Patients undergoing RYGB lost 16.9% (95% CI, 6.2%-27.6%) more of their baseline weight than patients undergoing AGB and 9.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-18.6%) more than patients undergoing SG.Patients in the Veterans Administration health care system lost substantially more weight than nonsurgical matches and sustained most of this weight loss in the long term. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass induced significantly greater weight loss among veterans than SG or AGB at 4 years. These results provide further evidence of the beneficial association between surgery and long-term weight loss that has been demonstrated in shorter-term studies of younger, predominantly female populations.