Xenotropic Mouse Gammaretroviruses Isolated from Pre-Leukemic Tissues Include a Recombinant.
ABSTRACT: Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic host range, the X-MLVs are also present in the pre-leukemic tissues. We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. AKR40 resembles the active X-ERV Bxv1, while AKR6 has a Bxv1-like backbone with substitutions that alter the long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer and the envelope (env). AKR6 has a modified xenotropic host range, and its Env residue changes all lie outside of the domain that governs the receptor choice. The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. This suggests that AKR6 is the product of one, not two, recombination events. Xmv67 originated in the Asian mice. These data indicate that the recombinant X-MLVs that can be generated during lymphomagenesis, describe a novel X-ERV subtype found in the AKR genome, but not in the C57BL/6 reference genome, and identify residues in the envelope C-terminus that may influence the host range.
Project description:Inbred laboratory mouse strains carry endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) classed as ecotropic, xenotropic or polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X- or P-MLVs). Some of these MLV ERVs produce infectious virus and/or contribute to the generation of intersubgroup recombinants. Analyses of selected mouse strains have linked the appearance of MLVs and virus-induced disease to the strain complement of MLV E-ERVs and to host genes that restrict MLVs, particularly Fv1. Here we screened inbred strain DNAs and genome assemblies to describe the distribution patterns of 45 MLV ERVs and Fv1 alleles in 58 classical inbred strains grouped in two ways: by common ancestry to describe ERV inheritance patterns, and by incidence of MLV-associated lymphomagenesis. Each strain carries a unique set of ERVs, and individual ERVs are present in 5-96% of the strains, often showing lineage-specific distributions. Two ERVs are alternatively present as full-length proviruses or solo long terminal repeats. High disease incidence strains carry the permissive Fv1n allele, tested strains have highly expressed E-ERVs and most have the Bxv1 X-ERV; these three features are not present together in any low-moderate disease strain. The P-ERVs previously implicated in P-MLV generation are not preferentially found in high leukemia strains, but the three Fv1 alleles that restrict inbred strain E-MLVs are found only in low-moderate leukemia strains. This dataset helps define the genetic basis of strain differences in spontaneous lymphomagenesis, describes the distribution of MLV ERVs in strains with shared ancestry, and should help annotate sequenced strain genomes for these insertionally polymorphic and functionally important proviruses.
Project description:Ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X-, and P-MLVs) exist in mice as infectious viruses and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into mouse chromosomes. All three MLV subgroups are linked to leukemogenesis, which involves generation of recombinants with polytropic host range. Although P-MLVs are deemed to be the proximal agents of disease induction, few biologically characterized infectious P-MLVs have been sequenced for comparative analysis. We analyzed the complete genomes of 16 naturally occurring infectious P-MLVs, 12 of which were typed for pathogenic potential. We sought to identify ERV progenitors, recombinational hot spots, and segments that are always replaced, never replaced, or linked to pathogenesis or host range. Each P-MLV has an E-MLV backbone with P- or X-ERV replacements that together cover 100% of the recombinant genomes, with different substitution patterns for X- and P-ERVs. Two segments are always replaced, both coding for envelope (Env) protein segments: the N terminus of the surface subunit and the cytoplasmic tail R peptide. Viral gag gene replacements are influenced by host restriction genes Fv1 and Apobec3 Pathogenic potential maps to the env transmembrane subunit segment encoding the N-heptad repeat (HR1). Molecular dynamics simulations identified three novel interdomain salt bridges in the lymphomagenic virus HR1 that could affect structural stability, entry or sensitivity to host immune responses. The long terminal repeats of lymphomagenic P-MLVs are differentially altered by recombinations, duplications, or mutations. This analysis of the naturally occurring, sometimes pathogenic P-MLV recombinants defines the limits and extent of intersubgroup recombination and identifies specific sequence changes linked to pathogenesis and host interactions.IMPORTANCE During virus-induced leukemogenesis, ecotropic mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) recombine with nonecotropic endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) to produce polytropic MLVs (P-MLVs). Analysis of 16 P-MLV genomes identified two segments consistently replaced: one at the envelope N terminus that alters receptor choice and one in the R peptide at the envelope C terminus, which is removed during virus assembly. Genome-wide analysis shows that nonecotropic replacements in the progenitor ecotropic MLV genome are more extensive than previously appreciated, covering 100% of the genome; contributions from xenotropic and polytropic ERVs differentially alter the regions responsible for receptor determination or subject to APOBEC3 and Fv1 restriction. All pathogenic viruses had modifications in the regulatory elements in their long terminal repeats and differed in a helical segment of envelope involved in entry and targeted by the host immune system. Virus-induced leukemogenesis thus involves generation of complex recombinants, and specific replacements are linked to pathogenesis and host restrictions.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) are found in the common inbred strains of laboratory mice and in the house mouse subspecies ofMus musculus Receptor usage and envelope (env) sequence variation define three MLV host range subgroups in laboratory mice: ecotropic, polytropic, and xenotropic MLVs (E-, P-, and X-MLVs, respectively). These exogenous MLVs derive from endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that were acquired by the wild mouse progenitors of laboratory mice about 1 million years ago. We analyzed the genomes of seven MLVs isolated from Eurasian and American wild mice and three previously sequenced MLVs to describe their relationships and identify their possible ERV progenitors. The phylogenetic tree based on the receptor-determining regions ofenvproduced expected host range clusters, but these clusters are not maintained in trees generated from other virus regions. Colinear alignments of the viral genomes identified segmental homologies to ERVs of different host range subgroups. Six MLVs show close relationships to a small xenotropic ERV subgroup largely confined to the inbred mouse Y chromosome.envvariations define three E-MLV subtypes, one of which carries duplications of various sizes, sequences, and locations in the proline-rich region ofenv Outside theenvregion, all E-MLVs are related to different nonecotropic MLVs. These results document the diversity in gammaretroviruses isolated from globally distributedMussubspecies, provide insight into their origins and relationships, and indicate that recombination has had an important role in the evolution of these mutagenic and pathogenic agents. IMPORTANCE:Laboratory mice carry mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) of three host range groups which were acquired from their wild mouse progenitors. We sequenced the complete genomes of seven infectious MLVs isolated from geographically separated Eurasian and American wild mice and compared them with endogenous germ line retroviruses (ERVs) acquired early in house mouse evolution. We did this because the laboratory mouse viruses derive directly from specific ERVs or arise by recombination between different ERVs. The six distinctively different wild mouse viruses appear to be recombinants, often involving different host range subgroups, and most are related to a distinctive, largely Y-chromosome-linked MLV ERV subtype. MLVs with ecotropic host ranges show the greatest variability with extensive inter- and intrasubtype envelope differences and with homologies to other host range subgroups outside the envelope. The sequence diversity among these wild mouse isolates helps define their relationships and origins and emphasizes the importance of recombination in their evolution.
Project description:The xenotropic and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs and P-MLVs, respectively) have different host ranges but use the same functionally polymorphic receptor, XPR1, for entry. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) of these 2 gammaretrovirus subtypes are largely segregated in different house mouse subspecies, but both MLV types are found in the classical strains of laboratory mice, which are genetic mosaics of 3 wild mouse subspecies. To describe the subspecies origins of laboratory mouse XP-MLV ERVs and their coevolutionary trajectory with their XPR1 receptor, we screened the house mouse subspecies for known and novel Xpr1 variants and for the individual full-length XP-MLV ERVs found in the sequenced C57BL mouse genome. The 12 X-MLV ERVs predate the origins of laboratory mice; they were all traced to Japanese wild mice and are embedded in the 5% of the laboratory mouse genome derived from the Asian Mus musculus musculus and, in one case, in the <1% derived from M. m. castaneus. While all 31 P-MLV ERVs map to the 95% of the laboratory mouse genome derived from P-MLV-infected M. m. domesticus, no C57BL P-MLV ERVs were found in wild M. m. domesticus. All M. m. domesticus mice carry the fully permissive XPR1 receptor allele, but all of the various restrictive XPR1 receptors, including the X-MLV-restricting laboratory mouse Xpr1(n) and a novel M. m. castaneus allele, originated in X-MLV-infected Asian mice. Thus, P-MLV ERVs show more insertional polymorphism than X-MLVs, and these differences in ERV acquisition and fixation are linked to subspecies-specific and functionally distinct XPR1 receptor variants.
Project description:Cells from the Asian wild mouse species Mus castaneus are resistant to infection by the polytropic host range group of mouse gammaretroviruses. Two factors are responsible for this resistance: a defective XPR1 cell surface receptor for polytropic murine leukemia viruses (P-MLVs), and a resistance factor detectable only in interspecies hybrids between M. castaneus and mice with an XPR1 variant that permits infection by xenotropic MLVs (X-MLVs) as well as P-MLVs. This second novel virus resistance phenotype has been associated with expression of viral Env glycoprotein; Northern blotting with specific hybridization probes identified a spliced X-MLV env message unique to virus-resistant mice. These observations suggest that resistance is due to expression of one or more endogenous X-MLV envelope genes that interfere with infection by exogenous P-MLVs. M. castaneus contains multiple X-MLV proviruses, but serial backcrosses reduced this proviral content and permitted identification of a single proviral env sequence inherited with resistance. The resistance phenotype and the provirus were mapped to the same site on distal chromosome 18. The provirus was shown to be a full-length provirus highly homologous to previously described X-MLVs. Use of viral pseudotypes confirmed that this resistance gene, termed Rmcf2, prevents entry of P-MLVs. Rmcf2 resembles the virus resistance genes Fv4 and Rmcf in that it produces Env glycoprotein but fails to produce infectious virus; the proviruses associated with all three resistance genes have fatal defects. This type of provirus Env-mediated resistance represents an important defense mechanism in wild mouse populations exposed to endemic infections.
Project description:The xenotropic/polytropic subgroup of mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) all rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, but these viruses vary in tropism, distribution among wild and laboratory mice, pathogenicity, strategies used for transmission, and sensitivity to host restriction factors. Most, but not all, isolates have typical xenotropic or polytropic host range, and these two MLV tropism types have now been detected in humans as viral sequences or as infectious virus, termed XMRV, or xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. The mouse xenotropic MLVs (X-MLVs) were originally defined by their inability to infect cells of their natural mouse hosts. It is now clear, however, that X-MLVs actually have the broadest host range of the MLVs. Nearly all nonrodent mammals are susceptible to X-MLVs, and all species of wild mice and several common strains of laboratory mice are X-MLV susceptible. The polytropic MLVs, named for their apparent broad host range, show a more limited host range than the X-MLVs in that they fail to infect cells of many mouse species as well as many nonrodent mammals. The co-evolution of these viruses with their receptor and other host factors that affect their replication has produced a heterogeneous group of viruses capable of inducing various diseases, as well as endogenized viral genomes, some of which have been domesticated by their hosts to serve in antiviral defense.
Project description:Envelope (env) proteins of certain endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) participate in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we characterized pathophysiologic properties of two murine leukemia virus-type ERV (MuLV-ERV) env genes cloned from the ovary of C57BL/6J mice. The two env genes (named ENV(OV1) and ENV(OV2)), with 1,926 bp coding region, originated from two MuLV-ERV loci on chromosomes 8 and 18, respectively. ENV(OV1) and ENV(OV2) were ~75 kDa and predominantly expressed on the cell membrane. They were capable of producing pseudotype murine leukemia virus virions. Tropism trait and infectivity of ENV(OV2) were similar to the polytropic env; however, ENV(OV1) had very low level of infectivity. Overexpression of ENV(OV2), but not ENV(OV1), exerted cytotoxic effects and induced expression of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS. These findings suggest that the ENV(OV1) and ENV(OV2) are capable of serving as an env protein for virion assembly, and they exert differential cytotoxicity and modulation of inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are generated by recombination of ecotropic MLVs with members of a family of endogenous proviruses in mice. Previous studies have indicated that polytropic MLV isolates comprise two mutually exclusive antigenic subclasses, each of which is reactive with one of two monoclonal antibodies termed MAb 516 and Hy 7. A major determinant of the epitopes distinguishing the subclasses mapped to a single amino acid difference in the SU protein. Furthermore, distinctly different populations of the polytropic MLV subclasses are generated upon inoculation of different ecotropic MLVs. Here we have characterized the majority of endogenous polytropic MLV-related proviruses of NFS/N mice. Most of the proviruses contain intact sequences encoding the receptor-binding region of the SU protein and could be distinguished by sequence heterogeneity within that region. We found that the endogenous proviruses comprise two major groups that encode the major determinant for Hy 7 or MAb 516 reactivity. The Hy 7-reactive proviruses correspond to previously identified polytropic proviruses, while the 516-reactive proviruses comprise the modified polytropic proviruses as well as a third group of polytropic MLV-related proviruses that exhibit distinct structural features. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the latter proviruses reflect features of phylogenetic intermediates linking xenotropic MLVs to the polytropic and modified polytropic proviruses. These studies elucidate the relationships of the antigenic subclasses of polytropic MLVs to their endogenous counterparts, identify a new group of endogenous proviruses, and identify distinguishing characteristics of the proviruses that should facilitate a more precise description of their expression in mice and their participation in recombination to generate recombinant viruses.
Project description:Laboratory mouse strains carry endogenous copies of the xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs), named for their inability to infect cells of the laboratory mouse. This resistance to exogenous infection is due to a nonpermissive variant of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor, a resistance that also limits in vivo expression of germ line X-MLV proviruses capable of producing infectious virus. Because laboratory mice vary widely in their proviral contents and in their virus expression patterns, we screened inbred strains for sequence and functional variants of the XPR1 receptor. We also typed inbred strains and wild mouse species for an endogenous provirus, Bxv1, that is capable of producing infectious X-MLV and that also contributes to the generation of pathogenic recombinant MLVs. We identified the active Bxv1 provirus in many common inbred strains and in some Japanese Mus molossinus mice but in none of the other wild mouse species that carry X-MLVs. Our screening for Xpr1 variants identified the permissive Xpr1(sxv) allele in 7 strains of laboratory mice, including a Bxv1-positive strain, F/St, which is characterized by lifelong X-MLV viremia. Cells from three strains carrying Xpr1(sxv), namely, SWR, SJL, and SIM.R, were shown to be infectable by X-MLV and XMRV; these strains carry different alleles at Fv1 and vary in their sensitivities to specific X/P-MLV isolates and XMRV. Several strains with Xpr1(sxv) lack the active Bxv1 provirus or other endogenous X-MLVs and may provide a useful model system to evaluate the in vivo spread of these gammaretroviruses and their disease potential in their natural host.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections of germ cells. Retroviral endogenization is an adaptation process for the host genome, and ERVs are gradually attenuated or inactivated by mutation. However, some ERVs that have been "domesticated" by their hosts eventually gain physiological functions, such as placentation or viral resistance. We previously reported the discovery of Refrex-1, a soluble antiretroviral factor in domestic cats that specifically inhibits infection by feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), a chimeric virus of FeLV, and a feline ERV, ERV-DC. Refrex-1 is a truncated envelope protein (Env) encoded by both ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 proviral loci. Here, we reconstituted ancestral and functional Env from ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 envelope genes (env) by inducing reverse mutations. Unexpectedly, ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 full-length Env (ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl), reconstructed by removing stop codons, did not produce infectious viral particles. ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl were highly expressed in cells but were not cleaved into surface subunits (SU) and transmembrane subunits, nor were they incorporated into virions. G407R/N427I-A429T and Y431D substitutions within the SU C-terminal domain of ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl, respectively, caused these dysfunctions. The residues glycine 407 and tyrosine 431 are relatively conserved among infectious gammaretroviruses, and their substitution causes the same dysfunctions as the tested retroviruses. Our results reveal that specific mutations within the SU C-terminal domain suppressed Env cleavage and incorporation into virions and indicate that these mutations contributed to the domestication of Refrex-1 through multistep events that occurred in the postintegration period.Domestic cats are colonized with various exogenous retroviruses (exRVs), such as feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and their genomes contain numerous ERVs, some of which are replication-competent proviruses. The feline hosts, exRVs, and ERVs have complicated genetic interactions and provide an interesting field model for triangular relationships: recombination between FeLV and ERV-DC, which is a feline ERV, generated FeLV-D, a chimeric virus, and FeLV-D is restricted by Refrex-1, an antiretroviral factor corresponding to truncated Env of ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16. Here, we reconstructed ancestral, functional Env from ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 env by inducing reverse mutations to elucidate how Refrex-1 was generated from its ancestor. Our results reveal that they were repeatedly inactivated by mutations preventing Env maturation. Our results provide insights into how ERVs were "domesticated" by their hosts and identify the mutations that mediated these evolutions. Notably, experiments that restore inactivated ERVs might uncover previously unrecognized features or properties of retroviruses.