Botulinum Neurotoxin F Subtypes Cleaving the VAMP-2 Q58?K59 Peptide Bond Exhibit Unique Catalytic Properties and Substrate Specificities.
ABSTRACT: In the recent past, about 40 botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtypes belonging to serotypes A, B, E, and F pathogenic to humans were identified among hundreds of independent isolates. BoNTs are the etiological factors of botulism and represent potential bioweapons; however, they are also recognized pharmaceuticals for the efficient counteraction of hyperactive nerve terminals in a variety of human diseases. The detailed biochemical characterization of subtypes as the basis for development of suitable countermeasures and possible novel therapeutic applications is lagging behind the increase in new subtypes. Here, we report the primary structure of a ninth subtype of BoNT/F. Its amino-acid sequence diverges by at least 8.4% at the holotoxin and 13.4% at the enzymatic domain level from all other known BoNT/F subtypes. We found that BoNT/F9 shares the scissile Q58/K59 bond in its substrate vesicle associated membrane protein 2 with the prototype BoNT/F1. Comparative biochemical analyses of four BoNT/F enzymatic domains showed that the catalytic efficiencies decrease in the order F1 > F7 > F9 > F6, and vary by up to a factor of eight. KM values increase in the order F1 > F9 > F6 ? F7, whereas kcat decreases in the order F7 > F1 > F9 > F6. Comparative substrate scanning mutagenesis studies revealed a unique pattern of crucial substrate residues for each subtype. Based upon structural coordinates of F1 bound to an inhibitor polypeptide, the mutational analyses suggest different substrate interactions in the substrate binding channel of each subtype.
Project description:Botulism due to type F botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/F) is rare (<1% of cases), and only a limited number of clostridial strains producing this toxin type have been isolated. As a result, analysis of the diversity of genes encoding BoNT/F has been challenging. In this study, the entire bont/F nucleotide sequences were determined from 33 type F botulinum toxin-producing clostridial strains isolated from environmental sources and botulism outbreak investigations. We examined proteolytic and nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type F strains, bivalent strains, including Bf and Af, and Clostridium baratii type F strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bont/F genes examined formed 7 subtypes (F1 to F7) and that the nucleotide sequence identities of these subtypes differed by up to 25%. The genes from proteolytic (group I) C. botulinum strains formed subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic (group II) C. botulinum strains formed subtype F6. Subtype F7 was composed exclusively of bont/F genes from C. baratii strains. The region of the bont/F5 gene encoding the neurotoxin light chain was found to be highly divergent compared to the other subtypes. Although the bont/F5 nucleotide sequences were found to be identical in strains harboring this gene, the gene located directly upstream (ntnh/F) demonstrated sequence variation among representative strains of this subtype. These results demonstrate that extensive nucleotide diversity exists among genes encoding type F neurotoxins from strains with different phylogenetic backgrounds and from various geographical sources.
Project description:The whole genomes for six botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridial strains were sequenced to provide references for under-represented toxin types, bivalent strains or unusual toxin complexes associated with a bont gene. The strains include three Clostridium botulinum Group I strains (CDC 297, CDC 1436, and Prevot 594), a Group II C. botulinum strain (Eklund 202F), a Group IV Clostridium argentinense strain (CDC 2741), and a Group V Clostridium baratii strain (Sullivan). Comparisons of the Group I genomic sequences revealed close relationships and conservation of toxin gene locations with previously published Group I C. botulinum genomes. The bont/F6 gene of strain Eklund 202F was determined to be a chimeric toxin gene composed of bont/F1 and bont/F2. The serotype G strain CDC 2741 remained unfinished in 20 contigs with the bont/G located within a 1.15Mb contig, indicating a possible chromosomal location for this toxin gene. Within the genome of C. baratii Sullivan strain, direct repeats of IS1182 insertion sequence (IS) elements were identified flanking the bont/F7 toxin complex that may be the mechanism of bont insertion into C. baratii. Highlights of the six strains are described and release of their genomic sequences will allow further study of unusual neurotoxin-producing clostridial strains.
Project description:Human botulism is primarily caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B and E, with around 1% caused by serotype F (BoNT/F). BoNT/F comprises at least seven different subtypes with the amino acid sequence difference between subtypes as high as 36%. The sequence differences present a significant challenge for generating monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that can bind, detect and neutralize all BoNT/F subtypes. We used repertoire cloning of immune mouse antibody variable (V) regions and yeast display to generate a panel of 33 lead single chain Fv (scFv) mAbs that bound one or more BoNT/F subtypes with a median equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 4.06 × 10-9 M. By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross reactivity we generated five mAbs that bound each of the seven subtypes. Three scFv binding non-overlapping epitopes were converted to IgG that had KD for the different BoNT/F subtypes ranging from 2.2×10-8 M to 1.47×10-12 pM. An equimolar combination of the mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/F1, F2, F4 and F7 in the mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as diagnostics capable of recognizing the known BoNT/F subtypes and could be developed as antitoxins to prevent and treat type F botulism.
Project description:The extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) relies on their specific cleavage of SNARE proteins, which eventually leads to muscle paralysis. One newly identified mosaic toxin, BoNT/HA (aka H or FA), cleaves VAMP-2 at a unique position between residues L54 and E55, but the molecular basis underlying VAMP-2 recognition of BoNT/HA remains poorly characterized. Here, we report a ?2.09 Å resolution crystal structure of the light chain protease domain of BoNT/HA (LC/HA). Structural comparison between LC/HA and LC of BoNT/F1 (LC/F1) reveals distinctive hydrophobic and electrostatic features near the active sites, which may explain their different VAMP-2 cleavage sites. When compared to BoNT/F5 that cleaves VAMP-2 at the same site as BoNT/HA, LC/HA displays higher affinity for VAMP-2, which could be caused by their different surface charge properties surrounding a VAMP-2 exosite-binding cleft. Furthermore, systematic mutagenesis studies on VAMP-2 and structural modeling demonstrate that residues R47 to K59 spanning the cleavage site in VAMP-2 may adopt a novel extended conformation when interacting with LC/HA and LC/F5. Taken together, our structure provides new insights into substrate recognition of BoNT/HA and paves the way for rational design of small molecule or peptide inhibitors against LC/HA.
Project description:Clostridium botulinum group II isolates (n = 163) from different geographic regions, outbreaks, and neurotoxin types and subtypes were characterized in silico using whole-genome sequence data. Two clusters representing a variety of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types and subtypes were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. While one cluster included BoNT/B4/F6/E9 and nontoxigenic members, the other comprised a wide variety of different BoNT/E subtype isolates and a nontoxigenic strain. In silico MLST and core SNP methods were consistent in terms of clade-level isolate classification; however, core SNP analysis showed higher resolution capability. Furthermore, core SNP analysis correctly distinguished isolates by outbreak and location. This study illustrated the utility of next-generation sequence-based typing approaches for isolate characterization and source attribution and identified discrete SNP loci and MLST alleles for isolate comparison.
Project description:The allosteric regulation of substrate channeling in tryptophan synthase involves ligand-mediated allosteric signaling that switches the ?- and ?-subunits between open (low activity) and closed (high activity) conformations. This switching prevents the escape of the common intermediate, indole, and synchronizes the ?- and ?-catalytic cycles. (19)F NMR studies of bound ?-site substrate analogues, N-(4'-trifluoromethoxybenzoyl)-2-aminoethyl phosphate (F6) and N-(4'-trifluoromethoxybenzenesulfonyl)-2-aminoethyl phosphate (F9), were found to be sensitive NMR probes of ?-subunit conformation. Both the internal and external aldimine F6 complexes gave a single bound peak at the same chemical shift, while ?-aminoacrylate and quinonoid F6 complexes all gave a different bound peak shifted by +1.07 ppm. The F9 complexes exhibited similar behavior, but with a corresponding shift of -0.12 ppm. X-ray crystal structures show the F6 and F9 CF3 groups located at the ?-? subunit interface and report changes in both the ligand conformation and the surrounding protein microenvironment. Ab initio computational modeling suggests that the change in (19)F chemical shift results primarily from changes in the ?-site ligand conformation. Structures of ?-aminoacrylate F6 and F9 complexes and quinonoid F6 and F9 complexes show the ?- and ?-subunits have closed conformations wherein access of ligands into the ?- and ?-sites from solution is blocked. Internal and external aldimine structures show the ?- and ?-subunits with closed and open global conformations, respectively. These results establish that ?-subunits exist in two global conformational states, designated open, where the ?-sites are freely accessible to substrates, and closed, where the ?-site portal into solution is blocked. Switching between these conformations is critically important for the ??-catalytic cycle.
Project description:Hepatitis A virus (HAV), an enigmatic and ancient pathogen, is a major causative agent of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Although there are effective vaccines, antivirals against HAV infection are still required, especially during fulminant hepatitis outbreaks. A more in-depth understanding of the antigenic characteristics of HAV and the mechanisms of neutralization could aid in the development of rationally designed antiviral drugs targeting HAV. In this paper, 4 new antibodies-F4, F6, F7, and F9-are reported that potently neutralize HAV at 50% neutralizing concentration values (neut50) ranging from 0.1 nM to 0.85 nM. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of HAV bound to F4, F6, F7, and F9, together with results of our previous studies on R10 fragment of antigen binding (Fab)-HAV complex, shed light on the locations and nature of the epitopes recognized by the 5 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs). All the epitopes locate within the same patch and are highly conserved. The key structure-activity correlates based on the antigenic sites have been established. Based on the structural data of the single conserved antigenic site and key structure-activity correlates, one promising drug candidate named golvatinib was identified by in silico docking studies. Cell-based antiviral assays confirmed that golvatinib is capable of blocking HAV infection effectively with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of approximately 1 ?M. These results suggest that the single conserved antigenic site from complete HAV capsid is a good antiviral target and that golvatinib could function as a lead compound for anti-HAV drug development.
Project description:To enhance bacterial resistance and osteogenesis of titanium (Ti) -based implants, TiO2/calcium-phosphate coatings (TiCP) doped with various amounts of fluorine (F) (designated as TiCP-F1, TiCP-F6, and TiCP-F9) were prepared on Ti by micro-arc oxidation. The F doped TiCP coatings possess a microporous structure (pore size of 3-4 ?m in average diameter) which is evenly covered by nano-grains of 30-60?nm in size. Successful F incorporation into TiCP was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and it shows weak influence on the microstructure, phase compositions, surface roughness and wettability of TiCP. All the coatings bonded firmly to the Ti substrates and showed enduring high adhesion strength in biological circumstances. The bacterial resistance and osteogenesis of the coatings were evaluated by implanting testing materials in vitro and in an infected rabbit model caused by bacteria. Both the in vitro and in vivo results indicated that TiCP and TiCP-F1 were of much higher osteogenic activity compared with Ti but lacking of bacterial resistance, whereas TiCP with high F addition (TiCP-F6 and TiCP-F9) exhibited both dramatically improved bacterial resistance and osteogenesis. In summary, TiCP-F6 possessed the best antibacterial and osteogenic activities, especially exhibited excellent osseointegration efficacy in the infected rabbit model.
Project description:The present work aims to elaborate many juice formulas (F1 to F8) from two dried fruits (jujubes: Ziziphus lotus L. and dates: Phoenix dactylifera L.). Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of the formula juices shows that juices rich in dates fruits (F1, F3, F5, and F7) are loaded, on average, in total sugars (129.5?g/l), proteins (3.02?g/l), lipids (1.08?g/l), and carotenoid (0.02?mg/l), while juices rich in jujube fruits (F2, F4, F6, and F8) are overloaded, on average, in phenolic compounds (697?mg/l), flavonoids (6.32?mg/l), condensed tannins (2.1?mg/l), hydrolysable tannins (359.5?mg/l), and viscosity (1.062?mm 10-3?s). All formulations developed have a pH that rotates between 5.12 and 5.20. Total antioxidant capacity (CAT) reveals that formulations F1, F3, F5, and F7 show a strong activity compared to the other formulas. The DPPH test shows that all formulated juices have the same antioxidant profile with IC50 values lower than the template (BHT and Vit C). The FRAP test reveals that F2, F4, F6, and F8 formulas have a strong reducing power. Organoleptic evaluation by a jury shows that F4 formula is the best in terms of odor, aroma, and aftertaste agreeability.
Project description:Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (A to H) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. Infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the United States. It results from swallowed spores of Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii) that germinate and temporarily colonize the lumen of the large intestine, where, as vegetative cells, they produce botulinum toxin. Botulinum neurotoxin is encoded by the bont gene that is part of a toxin gene cluster that includes several accessory genes. We sequenced for the first time the complete botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of nonproteolytic C. baratii type F7. Like the type E and the nonproteolytic type F6 botulinum toxin gene clusters, the C. baratii type F7 had an orfX toxin gene cluster that lacked the regulatory botR gene which is found in proteolytic C. botulinum strains and codes for an alternative ? factor. In the absence of botR, we identified a putative alternative regulatory gene located upstream of the C. baratii type F7 toxin gene cluster. This putative regulatory gene codes for a predicted ? factor that contains DNA-binding-domain homologues to the DNA-binding domains both of BotR and of other members of the TcdR-related group 5 of the ?70 family that are involved in the regulation of toxin gene expression in clostridia. We showed that this TcdR-related protein in association with RNA polymerase core enzyme specifically binds to the C. baratii type F7 botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters. This TcdR-related protein may therefore be involved in regulating the expression of the genes of the botulinum toxin gene cluster in neurotoxigenic C. baratii.