'We pledge to improve the health of our entire community': Improving health worker motivation and performance in Bihar, India through teamwork, recognition, and non-financial incentives.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Motivation is critical to health worker performance and work quality. In Bihar, India, frontline health workers provide essential health services for the state's poorest citizens. Yet, there is a shortfall of motivated and skilled providers and a lack of coordination between two cadres of frontline health workers and their supervisors. CARE India developed an approach aimed at improving health workers' performance by shifting work culture and strengthening teamwork and motivation. The intervention-"Team-Based Goals and Incentives"-supported health workers to work as teams towards collective goals and rewarded success with public recognition and non-financial incentives. METHODS:Thirty months after initiating the intervention, 885 health workers and 98 supervisors completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire in 38 intervention and 38 control health sub-centers in one district. The questionnaire included measures of social cohesion, teamwork attitudes, self-efficacy, job satisfaction, teamwork behaviors, equitable service delivery, taking initiative, and supervisory support. We conducted bivariate analyses to examine the impact of the intervention on these psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. RESULTS:Results show statistically significant differences across several measures between intervention and control frontline health workers, including improved teamwork (mean = 8.8 vs. 7.3), empowerment (8.5 vs. 7.4), job satisfaction (7.1 vs. 5.99) and equitable service delivery (6.7 vs. 4.99). While fewer significant differences were found for supervisors, they reported improved teamwork (8.4 vs. 5.3), and frontline health workers reported improved fulfillment of supervisory duties by their supervisors (8.9 vs. 7.6). Both frontline health workers and supervisors found public recognition and enhanced teamwork more motivating than the non-financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS:The Team-Based Goals and Incentives model reinforces intrinsic motivation and supports improvements in the teamwork, motivation, and performance of health workers. It offers an approach to practitioners and governments for improving the work environment in a resource-constrained setting and where there are multiple cadres of health workers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. METHODS: Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. RESULTS: Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. CONCLUSION: While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The motivation of health workers is a key concern of policy makers, practitioners and researchers. Public Service Motivation (PSM), defined as the altruistic desire to serve the common interest, to serve others and to help patients and their families regardless of financial or external rewards, has been shown to be key to the performance of public servants. Yet, limited attention has been paid to this kind of motivation in health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about PSM and its contextual specificity in the Moroccan health system. We set out to qualitatively explore the meaning of PSM and its expression among health workers in four public hospitals. METHODS:We adopted a multiple embedded case study design to explore PSM in two well-performing and two poor-performing hospitals. We carried out 68 individual interviews, eight focus group discussions and 11 group discussions with different cadres (doctors, administrators and nurses). We carried out thematic analysis using NVivo 10. RESULTS:Our analysis shows that public service motivation is a notion that seems natural to the health workers we interviewed. Daily interactions with patients catalysed health providers' affective motives (compassion and self- sacrifice), a central element of PSM. It also provided them with job satisfaction aligned with their intrinsic motivation. Managers and administrative personnel express other PSM components: attraction to public policy making and commitment to public values. A striking result is that health workers expressed strong religious beliefs about expected rewards from God when properly serving patients. CONCLUSION:This study highlights the presence of PSM as a driver of motivation among health workers in four Moroccon hospitals, and the prominence of intrinsic motivation and compassion in the motivation of frontline health workers. Religious beliefs were found to shape the expression of PSM in Morocco.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Well-trained, adequately skilled and motivated primary healthcare (PHC) workers are essential for attaining universal health coverage (UHC). While there is abundant literature on the drivers of workforce motivation, published knowledge on the mechanisms of motivation within different contexts is limited, particularly in resource-limited countries. This paper contributes to health workforce literature by reporting on how motivation works among PHC workers in a maternal and child health (MCH) programme in Nigeria. METHODS:We adopted a realist evaluation design combining document review with 56 in-depth interviews of PHC workers, facility managers and policy-makers to assess the impact of the MCH programme in Anambra State, Nigeria. A realist process of theory development, testing and consolidation was used to understand how and under what circumstances the MCH programme impacted on workers' motivation and which mechanisms explain how motivation works. We drew on Herzberg's two-factor and Adam's equity theories to unpack how context shapes worker motivation. RESULTS:A complex and dynamic interaction between the MCH programme and organisational and wider contexts triggered five mechanisms which explain PHC worker motivation: (1) feeling supported, (2) feeling comfortable with work environment, (3) feeling valued, (4) morale and confidence to perform tasks and (5) companionship. Some mechanisms were mutually reinforcing while others operated in parallel. Other conditions that enabled worker motivation were organisational values of fairness, recognition of workers' contributions and culture of task-sharing and teamwork. CONCLUSIONS:Policy designs and management strategies for improving workforce performance, particularly in resource-constrained settings should create working environments that foster feelings of being valued and supported while enabling workers to apply their knowledge and skills to improve healthcare delivery and promote UHC. Future research can test the explanatory framework generated by this study and explore differences in motivational mechanisms among different cadres of PHC workers to inform cadre-related motivational interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Supervisors play an essential role in implementation by diffusing and synthesizing information, selling implementation, and translating top management's project plans to frontline workers. Theory and emerging evidence suggest that through these roles, supervisors shape implementation climate-i.e., the degree to which innovations are expected, supported, and rewarded. However, it is unclear exactly how supervisors carry out each of these roles in ways that contribute to implementation climate-this represents a gap in the understanding of the causal mechanisms that link supervisors' behavior with implementation climate. This study examined how supervisors' performance of each of these roles influences three core implementation climate domains (expectations, supports, and rewards). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A sequenced behavioral health screening, assessment, and referral intervention was implemented within a county-based child welfare agency. We conducted 6 focus groups with supervisors and frontline workers from implementing work units 6 months post-implementation (n = 51) and 1 year later (n = 40) (12 groups total). Participants were asked about implementation determinants, including supervision and implementation context. We audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed focus groups using an open coding process during which the importance of the supervisors' roles emerged as a major theme. We further analyzed this code using concepts and definitions related to middle managers' roles and implementation climate. RESULTS:In this work setting, supervisors (1) diffused information about the intervention proactively, and in response to workers' questions, (2) synthesized information by tailoring it to workers' individual needs, (3) translated top managements' project plans into day-to-day tasks through close monitoring and reminders, and (4) justified implementation. All four of these roles appeared to shape the implementation climate by conveying strong expectations for implementation. Three roles (diffusing, synthesizing, and mediating) influenced climate by supporting workers during implementation. Only one role (diffusing) influenced climate by conveying rewards. CONCLUSIONS:Supervisors shaped implementation climate by carrying out four roles (diffusing, synthesizing, mediating, and selling). Findings suggest that the interaction of these roles convey expectations and support for implementation (two implementation climate domains). Our study advances the causal theory explaining how supervisors' behavior shapes the implementation climate, which can inform implementation practice.
Project description:Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda.We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers' perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression.Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32), job satisfaction (r=0.38), and team work (r=0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21) and teamwork (r=0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33-10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13-5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83-17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07-8.57), idealized influence-attributed (OR=3.9; 95% CI, 1.24-12.36), and contingent reward (OR=5.6; 95% CI, 1.87-17.01).Transformational styles had a positive impact on stimulating motivation, assuring job satisfaction, and consolidating teamwork among health workers compared with those who demonstrated transactional skills or laissez-faire styles.Supporting transformational leadership skills development in health facility leaders could encourage health worker motivation, strengthen job satisfaction, and maintain cohesion among health workers for better service delivery.
Project description:A systematic and structured approach to the support and supervision of health workers can strengthen the human resource management function at the district and health facility levels and may help address the current crisis in human resources for health in sub-Saharan Africa by improving health workers' motivation and retention.A supportive supervision programme including (a) a workshop, (b) intensive training and (c) action learning sets was designed to improve human resource management in districts and health facilities in Tanzania. We conducted a randomised experimental design to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Data on the same measures were collected pre and post the intervention in order to identify any changes that occurred (between baseline and end of project) in the capacity of supervisors in intervention a + b and intervention a + b + c to support and supervise their staff. These were compared to supervisors in a control group in each of Tanga, Iringa and Tabora regions (n = 9). A quantitative survey of 95 and 108 supervisors and 196 and 187 health workers sampled at baseline and end-line, respectively, also contained open-ended responses which were analysed separately.Supervisors assessed their own competency levels pre- and post-intervention. End-line samples generally scored higher compared to the corresponding baseline in both intervention groups for competence activities. Significant differences between baseline and end-line were observed in the total scores on 'maintaining high levels of performance', 'dealing with performance problems', 'counselling a troubled employee' and 'time management' in intervention a + b. In contrast, for intervention a + b + c, a significant difference in distribution of scores was only found on 'counselling a troubled employee', although the end-line mean scores were higher than their corresponding baseline mean scores in all cases. Similar trends to those in the supervisors' reports are seen in health workers data in terms of more efficient supervision processes, although the increases are not as marked.A number of different indicators were measured to assess the impact of the supportive supervision intervention on the a + b and a + b + c intervention sites. The average frequency of supervision visits and the supervisors' competency levels across the facilities increased in both intervention types. This would suggest that the intervention proved effective in raising awareness of the importance of supervision and this understanding led to action in the form of more supportive supervision.
Project description:Background: Primary health care (PHC) systems require motivated and well-trained frontline providers, but are increasingly challenged by the growing global shortage of health care workers. Burnout, defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal achievement, negatively impacts motivation and may further decrease productivity of already limited workforces. The objective of this review was to analyze the prevalence of and factors associated with provider burnout in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We performed a systematic review of articles on outpatient provider burnout in LMICs published up to 2016 in three electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CAB). Articles were reviewed to identify prevalence of factors associated with provider burnout. Results: A total of 6,182 articles were identified, with 20 meeting eligibility criteria. We found heterogeneity in definition and prevalence of burnout. Most studies assessed burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. All three dimensions of burnout were seen across multiple cadres (physicians, nurses, community health workers, midwives, and pharmacists). Frontline nurses in South Africa had the highest prevalence of high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, while PHC providers in Lebanon had the highest reported prevalence of low personal achievement. Higher provider burnout (for example, among nurses, pharmacists, and rural health workers) was associated with high job stress, high time pressure and workload, and lack of organizational support. Conclusions: Our comprehensive review of published literature showed that provider burnout is prevalent across various health care providers in LMICs. Further studies are required to better measure the causes and consequences of burnout and guide the development of effective interventions to reduce or prevent burnout.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The motivation and retention of community health workers (CHWs) is a challenge and inadequately addressed in research and policy. We sought to identify factors influencing the retention of CHWs in Ethiopia and ways to avert their exit. DESIGN:A qualitative study was undertaken using in-depth interviews with the study participants. Interviews were audio-recorded, and then simultaneously translated into English and transcribed for analysis. Data were analysed in NVivo 12 using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. SETTING:The study was conducted in two districts each in the Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Republic (SNNPR) regions in Ethiopia. Respondents were located in a mix of rural and urban settings. PARTICIPANTS:Leavers of health extension worker (HEW) positions (n=20), active HEWs (n=16) and key informants (n=11) in the form of policymakers were interviewed. RESULTS:We identified several extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors affecting the retention and labour market choices of HEWs. While financial incentives in the form of salaries and material incentives in the form of improvements to health facility infrastructure, provision of childcare were reported to be important, non-material factors like HEWs' self-image, acceptance and validation by the community and their supervisors were found to be critical. A reduction or loss of these non-material factors proved to be the catalyst for many HEWs to leave their jobs. CONCLUSION:Our study contributes new empirical evidence to the global debate on factors influencing the motivation and retention of CHWs, by being the first to include job leavers in the analysis. Our findings suggest that policy interventions that appeal to the social needs of CHWs can prove to be more acceptable and potentially cost-effective in improving their retention in the long run. This is important for government policymakers in resource constrained settings like Ethiopia that rely heavily on lay workers for primary healthcare delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) was introduced in 2017 into the routine childhood immunization schedule (at 15-18?months of age) in Burkina Faso to help reduce meningococcal meningitis burden. MACV was scheduled to be co-administered with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), a vaccine already in the national schedule. One year following the introduction of MACV, an assessment was conducted to qualitatively examine health workers' perceptions of MACV introduction, identify barriers to uptake, and explore opportunities to improve coverage. METHODS:Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with different cadres of health workers in four purposively selected districts in Burkina Faso. Districts were selected to include urban and rural areas as well as high and low MCV2 coverage areas. Respondents included health workers at the following levels: regional health managers (n?=?4), district health managers (n?=?4), and frontline healthcare providers (n?=?4). All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS:Four themes emerged around supply and health systems barriers, demand-related barriers, specific challenges related to MACV and MCV2 co-administration, and motivations and efforts to improve vaccination coverage. Supply and health systems barriers included aging cold chain equipment, staff shortages, overworked and poorly trained staff, insufficient supplies and financial resources, and challenges with implementing community outreach activities. Health workers largely viewed MACV introduction as a source of motivation for caregivers to bring their children for the 15- to 18-month visit. However, they also pointed to demand barriers, including cultural practices that sometimes discourage vaccination, misconceptions about vaccines, and religious beliefs. Challenges in co-administering MACV and MCV2 were mainly related to reluctance among health workers to open multi-dose vials unless enough children were present to avoid wastage. CONCLUSIONS:To improve effective administration of vaccines in the second-year of life, adequate operational and programmatic planning, training, communication, and monitoring are necessary. Moreover, clear policy communication is needed to help ensure that health workers do not refrain from opening multi-dose vials for small numbers of children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study contributes to a small but growing body of literature on how context influences employee turnover intention. We examine the impact of staff perceptions of supervisory leadership support for safety, teamwork, and mindful organizing on turnover intention. Interaction effects of safety-specific constructs on turnover intention are also examined. METHODS:Cross-sectional survey data were collected from nurses, allied health professionals, and unit clerks working in intensive care, general medicine, mental health, or the emergency department of a large community hospital in Southern Ontario. RESULTS:Hierarchical regression analyses showed that staff perceptions of teamwork were significantly associated with turnover intention (p < 0.001). Direct associations of supervisory leadership support for safety and mindful organizing with turnover intention were non-significant; however, when staff perceived lower levels of mindful organizing at the frontlines, the positive effect of supervisory leadership on turnover intention was significant (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that, in addition to teamwork perceptions positively affecting turnover intentions, safety-conscious supportive supervisors can help alleviate the negative impact of poor mindful organizing on frontline staff turnover intention. Healthcare organizations should recruit and retain individuals in supervisory roles who prioritize safety and possess adequate relational competencies. They should further dedicate resources to build and strengthen the relational capacities of their supervisory leadership. Moreover, it is important to provide on-site workshops on topics (e.g., conflict management) that can improve the quality of teamwork and consequently reduce employees' intention to leave their unit/organization.