Association of MGMT Promoter Methylation Status With Survival Outcomes in Patients With High-Risk Glioma Treated With Radiotherapy and Temozolomide: An Analysis From the NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424 Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:The initial report of NRG Oncology/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 demonstrated a 3-year overall survival benefit with the addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy compared with a historical control. However, an important end point of the trial-evaluation of the association between O6-methylgaunine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and survival outcomes-was not previously reported. Objective:To examine the proportion of patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424 with MGMT promoter methylation and its association with survival outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Specimens collected were analyzed after trial completion to determine MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1/2 status and the association between MGMT status and survival outcomes. A model derived from logistic regression (MGMT-STP27) was used to calculate MGMT promoter methylation status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine the association of MGMT status with survival outcomes. Patient pretreatment characteristics were included as covariates in multivariable analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results:Of all 129 eligible patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424, 75 (58.1%) had MGMT status available (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-76 years; 42 [56.0%] male): 57 (76.0%) methylated and 18 (24.0%) unmethylated. A total of 13 unmethylated patients (72.2%) had astrocytoma as opposed to oligoastrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, whereas 23 methylated patients (40.4%) had astrocytoma. On univariate analyses, an unmethylated MGMT promoter was significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.52; 95% CI, 1.64-7.56; P?
Project description:Importance:There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective:To refine the existing clinically based recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model by incorporating molecular variables. Design, Setting, and Participants:NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 specimens (n?=?452) were analyzed for protein biomarkers representing key pathways in GBM by a quantitative molecular microscopy-based approach with semiquantitative immunohistochemical validation. Prognostic significance of each protein was examined by single-marker and multimarker Cox regression analyses. To reclassify the prognostic risk groups, significant protein biomarkers on single-marker analysis were incorporated into an RPA model consisting of the same clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurologic function) as the existing RTOG RPA. The new RPA model (NRG-GBM-RPA) was confirmed using traditional immunohistochemistry in an independent data set (n?=?176). Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival (OS). Results:In 452 specimens, MGMT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37-2.39; P?<?.001), survivin (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76; P?=?.02), c-Met (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P?=?.02), pmTOR (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P?=?.03), and Ki-67 (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78; P?=?.007) protein levels were found to be significant on single-marker multivariate analysis of OS. To refine the existing RPA, significant protein biomarkers together with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurological function) were incorporated into a new model. Of 166 patients used for the new NRG-GBM-RPA model, 97 (58.4%) were male (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [12.0] years). Higher MGMT protein level was significantly associated with decreased MGMT promoter methylation and vice versa (1425.1 for methylated vs 1828.0 for unmethylated; P?<?.001). Furthermore, MGMT protein expression (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.43; P?<?.001) had greater prognostic value for OS compared with MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44; P?<?.001). The refined NRG-GBM-RPA consisting of MGMT protein, c-Met protein, and age revealed greater separation of OS prognostic classes compared with the existing clinically based RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525. The prognostic significance of the NRG-GBM-RPA was subsequently confirmed in an independent data set (n?=?176). Conclusions and Relevance:This new NRG-GBM-RPA model improves outcome stratification over both the current RTOG RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively, for patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and was biologically validated in an independent data set. The revised RPA has the potential to contribute to improving the accurate assessment of prognostic groups in patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and to influence clinical decision making. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304031.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Nomograms are often used for individualized estimation of prognosis. This study aimed to build and independently validate a nomogram to estimate individualized survival probabilities for patients with newly diagnosed GBM, using data from 2 independent NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials.<h4>Methods</h4>This analysis included information on 799 (RTOG 0525) and 555 (RTOG 0825) eligible and randomized patients with newly diagnosed GBM and contained the following variables: age at diagnosis, race, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), extent of resection, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, and survival (in months). Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, random survival forests, and recursive partitioning analysis, with adjustment for known prognostic factors. The models were developed using the 0525 data and were independently validated using the 0825 data. Models were internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation, and individually predicted 6-, 12-, and 24-month survival probabilities were generated to measure the predictive accuracy and calibration against the actual survival status.<h4>Results</h4>A final nomogram was built using the Cox proportional hazards model. Factors that increased the probability of shorter survival included greater age at diagnosis, male gender, lower KPS, not having total resection, and unmethylated MGMT status.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A nomogram that assesses individualized survival probabilities (6-, 12-, and 24-mo) for patients with newly diagnosed GBM could be useful to health care providers for counseling patients regarding treatment decisions and optimizing therapeutic approaches. Free software for implementing this nomogram is provided: http://cancer4.case.edu/rCalculator/rCalculator.html.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genetic and epigenetic profiling of glioblastomas has provided a comprehensive list of altered cancer genes of which only O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation is used thus far as a predictive marker in a clinical setting. We investigated the prognostic significance of genetic and epigenetic alterations in glioblastoma patients. METHODS: We screened 98 human glioblastoma samples for genetic and epigenetic alterations in 10 genes and chromosomal loci by PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). We tested the association between these genetic and epigenetic alterations and glioblastoma patient survival. Subsequently, we developed a 2-gene survival predictor. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed that mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), promoter methylation of MGMT, irradiation dosage, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KFS) were independent prognostic factors. A 2-gene predictor for glioblastoma survival was generated. Based on the genetic and epigenetic status of IDH1 and MGMT, glioblastoma patients were stratified into 3 clinically different genotypes: glioblastoma patients with IDH1mt/MGMTmet had the longest survival, followed by patients with IDH1mt/MGMTunmet or IDH1wt/MGMTmet, and patients with IDH1wt/MGMTunmet had the shortest survival. This 2-gene predictor was an independent prognostic factor and performed significantly better in predicting survival than either IDH1 mutations or MGMT methylation alone. The predictor was validated in 3 external datasets. DISCUSSION: The combination of IDH1 mutations and MGMT methylation outperforms either IDH1 mutations or MGMT methylation alone in predicting survival of glioblastoma patients. This information will help to increase our understanding of glioblastoma biology, and it may be helpful for baseline comparisons in future clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment of glioblastoma (GB), the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, can include alkylating chemo-therapeutic agents. Two molecular biomarkers of treatment response are MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation and IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutations, which prevent repair of tumor cell DNA damage caused by alkylating chemotherapy. The status of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH mutation are associated with longer survival and a better response to chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE:Assess the prognostic value of MGMT methylation status and IDH mutation in adult Saudi glioblastoma patients. DESIGN:Retrospective, comparative survival analysis. SETTING:Tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The status of the MGMT promoter methylation and IDH mutation was assessed in adult patients diagnosed with GB between 2006 and 2019. A PCR-based assay was used to analyze for methylation of the MGMT promoter. A qualitative assay combining PCR clamping and amplification refractory mutation system technology was used to search for any of the 12 most common mutations in IDH1 and IDH2. Differences in survival were compared between those with and without MGMT promoter methylation and IDH mutation and between other subgroups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Survival of GB patients relative to MGMT promoter methylation and IDH mutation status. SAMPLE SIZE:146 patients (80 males and 66 females). RESULTS:Of 43 (29.5%) cases tested for MGMT promoter methylation, 14 (32.5%) were positive. Of 65 (44.5%) cases screened for IDH mutation, 6 cases (9.2%) tested positive. The 36-month survival rate was 47% for the MGMT methylated cohort compared to 27% for their unmethylated counterparts. The 18-month survival rate for the IDH-mutant was 75% compared to 48% for their IDH-wildtype counterparts. CONCLUSION:The findings confirm the positive impact of both MGMT promoter methylation and IDH mutation on the overall survival of Saudi GB patients. LIMITATIONS:Single institute study with relatively few tested cases. CONFLICT OF INTEREST:None.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p?=?0.024) and IV patients (p?=?0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Young age is a favorable prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We reviewed the outcomes and molecular tumor characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with GBM treated in 2 Austrian centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on patients with histologically proven primary GBM diagnosed from 18 through 40 years of age were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with standard first-line therapy. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). IDH1-R132H mutation status was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and MGMT promoter methylation was assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We included 70 patients (36 men and 34 women) with a median age of 33 years. IDH1-R132H mutations were detected in 22 (39.3%) of 56 cases and MGMT promoter methylation in 33 (61.1%) of 54 cases with available tissue samples. In patients with wild-type IDH, median TTP was 8.2 months and median OS was 24 months, compared with 18 months and 44 months, respectively, observed in patients with mutated IDH. Neither IDH1 nor MGMT status showed a statistically significant association with TTP or OS. Of note, the social and economical situation of the young patients with GBM was alarming, because only 17% succeeded in staying employed after receiving the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high frequency of IDH1 mutations and MGMT promoter methylation among young adult patients with primary GBM that may contribute to the generally favorable outcome associated with young age. The social and economic coverage of patients with glioma remains an unsolved socio-ethical problem.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Consistently reported prognostic factors for glioblastoma (GBM) are age, extent of surgery, performance status, IDH1 mutational status, and MGMT promoter methylation status. We aimed to integrate biological and clinical prognostic factors into a nomogram intended to predict the survival time of an individual GBM patient treated with a standard regimen. In a previous study we showed that the methylation status of the DGKI promoter identified patients with MGMT-methylated tumors that responded poorly to the standard regimen. We further evaluated the potential prognostic value of DGKI methylation status.<h4>Methods</h4>399 patients with newly diagnosed GBM and treated with a standard regimen were retrospectively included in this study. Survival modelling was performed on two patient populations: intention-to-treat population of all included patients (population 1) and MGMT-methylated patients (population 2). Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to identify the main prognostic factors. A nomogram was developed for population 1. The prognostic value of DGKI promoter methylation status was evaluated on population 1 and population 2.<h4>Results</h4>The nomogram-based stratification of the cohort identified two risk groups (high/low) with significantly different median survival. We validated the prognostic value of DGKI methylation status for MGMT-methylated patients. We also demonstrated that the DGKI methylation status identified 22% of poorly responding patients in the low-risk group defined by the nomogram.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results improve the conventional MGMT stratification of GBM patients receiving standard treatment. These results could help the interpretation of published or ongoing clinical trial outcomes and refine patient recruitment in the future.
Project description:Background:Glioblastoma (GBM) in children is rare. Pediatric GBM have a distinct molecular profile as compared to adult GBM. There are relatively few studies of pediatric GBMs and no standard of care on adjuvant therapy. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome and molecular profile of pediatric GBM. Methods and Materials:Between 2004 and 2013, 66 consecutive children with histologically proven GBM were identified from our database. The majority of the children underwent maximal safe resection followed by focal radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for p53, MIB-1 labeling index, MGMT overexpression, and EGFR amplification and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) R132H point mutation. Survival and impact of possible prognostic factors on outcomes were analyzed. Result:Median survival was 15 months. The overall survival rate at 1 year was 62%, at 2 years was 30%, and at 3 years was 27%. Patients with thalamic tumors (P < .001), incompletely resected tumors (P < .00001), and tumors with MIB-1 labeling index >25% (P < .002) had poor overall survival rates. p53 was overexpressed in 74% of patients, MGMT promoter methylation was seen in 37% of patients, IDH1 mutation was seen in 4% of patients, and no patients had EGFR amplification. MGMT methylation and p53 overexpression did not impact survival. Conclusions:Clinical outcome of pediatric GBM is similar to that reported for adult GBM. The frequency of p53 overexpression is higher than in adult GBM, while MGMT methylation, IDH1 mutations and EGFR amplification is lower than in adult GBM. MGMT methylation and p53 expression status do not have any prognostic significance.
Project description:Molecular biomarkers including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation may improve prognostication and guide treatment decisions for patients with World Health Organization (WHO) anaplastic gliomas. At present, each marker is individually tested by distinct assays. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays (HM450) enable the determination of large-scale methylation profiles and genome-wide DNA copy number changes. Algorithms have been developed to detect the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) associated with IDH1/2 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation using a single assay.Here, we retrospectively investigated the diagnostic and prognostic performance of these algorithms in comparison to individual marker testing and patient outcome in the biomarker cohort (n = 115 patients) of the NOA-04 trial.Concordance for IDH and 1p/19q status was very high: In 92% of samples, the HM450 and reference data agreed. In discordant samples, survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses suggested a more accurate assessment of biological phenotype by the HM450 analysis. The HM450-derived MGMT-STP27 model to calculate MGMT promoter methylation probability revealed this aberration in a significantly higher fraction of samples than conventional methylation-specific PCR, with 87 of 91 G-CIMP tumors predicted as MGMT promoter-methylated. Pyrosequencing of discordant samples confirmed the HM450 assessment in 14 of 17 cases.G-CIMP and 1p/19q codeletion are reliably detectable by HM450 analysis and are associated with prognosis in the NOA-04 trial. For MGMT, HM450 suggests promoter methylation in the vast majority of G-CIMP tumors, which is supported by pyrosequencing.
Project description:Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM) that facilitates recurrence, treatment resistance, and worse prognosis. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is a significant prognostic marker for Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in GBM patients. YKL-40 is a molecular marker for the mesenchymal subtype of GBMs and is responsible for TMZ resistance. However, underlying mechanisms by which MGMT epigenetics impacts patient outcomes and the function of YKL-40 are not fully determined. Herein, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments, six human IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were established and studied to further determine a potential interaction of YKL-40 and MGMT promoter methylation. We demonstrated that YKL-40 functioned differently in human IDH1/2 wild-type GSCs. In MGMT promoter-methylated (MGMT-m) GSCs, it acted as a tumor suppressor gene. On the other hand, in MGMT promoter-unmethylated (MGMT-um) GSCs, it promoted tumorigenesis. Notably, the reason that YKL-40 played different roles in GSCs could not be interpreted by the molecular classification of each GSCs, but is a function of MGMT promoter methylation status and involves the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway. YKL-40 mediated TMZ sensitivity by activating DNA damage responses (DDRs) in MGMT-m GSCs, and it mediated resistance to TMZ by inhibiting DDRs in MGMT-um GSCs. Our report demonstrated that MGMT promoter methylation status might influence a gene's function in human cancer. Moreover, our data also highlight the point that gene function should be investigated not only according to the molecular tumor classification, but also the epigenetic signature.