Long non-coding RNA SNHG5 promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating miR-26a-5p/GSK3? signal pathway.
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) had malfunctioning roles in the development of human cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression using human tissues and cell lines. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SNHG5 was up-regulated in both HCC tissues and hepatoma cell lines and was closely associated with tumor size, hepatitis B virus infection, histologic grade, TNM stage, and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) in HCC patients. Knockdown of SNHG5 induced apoptosis and repressed cell cycle progression, cell growth, and metastasis in hepatoma cell lines, whereas overexpression of SNHG5 had the opposite effects. In vivo functional assay, xenograft tumors grown from SNHG5-knockdown cells had smaller mean volumes than the tumors grown from negative control cells. Further investigations showed that SNHG5 may act as a competing endogenous RNA by competitively binding miR-26a-5p and thereby modulating the derepression of downstream target GSK3?, which were further confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Functionally, SNHG5 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway and inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Taken together, SNHG5 promotes HCC progression by competitively binding miR-26a-5p and regulating GSK3? and Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor and the main cause of cancer-associated mortality in females worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play vital roles in breast cancer development and progression; however, our understanding of most lncRNAs in breast cancer is still limited. In this study, we demonstrated that small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) promotes breast cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and depletion of SNHG5 significantly led to cell-cycle arrest at G1 phase. Accumulating evidence has shown that many lncRNA transcripts could function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) by competitively binding common microRNAs (miRNAs). We found that SNHG5 acts as a sponge for miR-154-5p, reducing its ability to repress proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). SNHG5 promoted breast cancer proliferation and cell-cycle progression by upregulation of PCNA expression. Clinically, we observed an increased SNHG5 expression in breast cancer, whereas miR-154-5p was decreased in breast cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal breast tissues. Furthermore, the SNHG5 expression was significantly negatively correlated with miR-154-5p expression. Taken together, our data uncover the SNHG5-miR-154-5p-PCNA axis and provide a novel mechanism to explain breast cancer proliferation.
Project description:Recent findings have unraveled the critical functions of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG5 in human malignancies. Nevertheless, the role and mechanism of SNHG5 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are still elusive. In our study, substantially higher abundance of SNHG5 was observed in ccRCC specimens and cell lines, and increased SNHG5 expression was intimately correlated with tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node invasion, and distant metastases in patients with ccRCC. SNHG5 knockdown obviously suppressed the proliferative, migratory, and invasive capabilities of ccRCC cells, whereas SNHG5 overexpression induced the opposite effects. Mechanistically, SNHG5 activated the transcription of ZEB1, which exerts a pivotal role in modulation of epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. SNHG5 was then shown to act as an endogenous sponge for miR-205-5p, which targets ZEB1 in ccRCC. Moreover rescue experiments revealed that SNHG5 promotes ccRCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in a miR-205-5p-dependent manner. Additionally, in vivo assays further indicated that overexpression or silencing of SNHG5 in ccRCC cells promoted or suppressed the tumorigenesis and metastasis, respectively. Altogether, the present data provide the first evidence that the lncRNA SNHG5 has an oncogenic role in ccRCC through the SNHG5/miR-205-5p/ZEB1 signaling axis and represents a novel potential therapeutic regimen against ccRCC.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors with high mortality worldwide. Spermatogenesis-associated serine-rich 2 (SPATS2) could be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HCC. However, the regulatory mechanism of SPATS2 in HCC requires further elucidation. Therefore, the study's objective was to investigate this process in HCC. In this study, we found that SPATS2 is significantly upregulated in HepG2 cells to promote cell growth and migration. SPATS2 is the target transcript of lncRNA SNHG5. SPATS2 positively affects the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells caused by the higher expression of SNHG5. Mechanistically, we identified that the elevated of SPATS2 was attributed to SNHG5 related hypomethylation of SPATS2. SNHG5 reduced the expression of DNMT3a to suppress the methylation level of SPATS2. Taken together, our results uncover a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of lncRNA SNHG5-DNMT3a axis-related SPATS2 expression underlying HCC progression. This may serve as a novel prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to explore expression profiles of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Further, we explored the mechanisms by which lncRNA SNHG5 modulates the function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in AAA.<h4>Methods</h4>Human gene expression profile GSE57691 dataset, was retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The dataset included gene expression array data of 49 AAA patients and 10 control aortic specimens from organ donors. To explore the main roles of the biological network, differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNAs in the aortic aneurysm (AAA) and normal aortic specimens were determined. Differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNAs were then used to construct a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network using Cytoscape software, and the five key lncRNA were identified. SNHG5 which was significantly downregulated in the AAA was chosen and analysis showed that it regulates mir-205-5p and SMAD4 by binding to mir-205-5p. Double luciferase reporter gene assays, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA knockdown studies were used to establish the relationship between SNHG5 and mir-205-5p. Apoptosis rate was determined using flow cytometry, whereas cell proliferation was evaluated using Edu, and 24 well Transwell assay. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein expression levels.<h4>Results</h4>The five differentially expressed lncRNAs were significantly correlated with 34 microRNAs and 112 mRNAs. mRNAs in the ceRNA network are implicated in protein binding, signal transduction, DNA and RNA transcription, development, and cell differentiation. SNHG5 was downregulated in the AAA and acts as a molecular sponge for mir-205. Downregulation of SNHG5 induces expression of mir-205-5p. Increased mir-205-5p expression level inhibits SMAD4 production, thus inhibiting proliferation and migration and promotes apoptosis of smooth muscle cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Bioinformatics were used to explore molecular mechanism of AAA progression. The findings of this study show that lncRNA SNHG5 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of VSMC cells through modulation of the mir-205-5p/SMAD4 axis. Therefore, SNHG5 is a potential therapeutic target for AAA disease.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial factor affecting HCC progression and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been validated to act as critical regulators of biological processes in various tumors. Herein, we attempted to elucidate the uncharacterized function and mechanism of lncRNA DLGAP1-AS1 in regulating tumorigenesis and EMT of HCC. In our study, DLGAP1-AS1 was shown to be upregulated in HCC cell lines and capable to promote HCC progression and EMT. Besides, DLGAP1-AS1 was proven to serve as a molecular sponge to sequester the HCC-inhibitory miRNAs, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p, thus enhancing the level of an oncogenic cytokine IL-6, which could activate JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and reciprocally elevate the transcriptional activity of DLGAP1-AS1, thus forming a positive feedback loop. Moreover, we elaborated that the cancerogenic effects of DLGAP1-AS1 in HCC cells could be effectuated via activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway by positively regulating CDK8 and LRP6, downstream genes of miR-26a/b-5p. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the detailed molecular mechanism of DLGAP1-AS1 in facilitating HCC progression and EMT in vitro and in vivo, and suggested the potentiality of DLGAP1-AS1 as a therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Background:The role of miR-26a-5p expression in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Herein, the effect of miR-26a-5p on cardiac hypertrophy was investigated using phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in a rat model of hypertension-induced hypertrophy in vivo. Methods:The PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy models in vitro and vivo were established. To investigate the effect of miR-26a-5p activation on autophagy, the protein expression of autophagosome marker (LC3) and p62 was detected by western blot analysis. To explore the effect of miR-26a-5p activation on cardiac hypertrophy, the relative mRNA expression of cardiac hypertrophy related mark GSK3? was detected by qRT-PCR in vitro and vivo. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was used to detect cardiac hypertrophy related mark ?-actinin. The cell surface area was measured by immunofluorescence staining. The direct target relationship between miR-26a-5p and GSK3? was confirmed by dual luciferase report. Results:MiR-26a-5p was highly expressed in PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy. MiR-26a-5p promoted LC3II and decreased p62 expression in PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy in the presence or absence of lysosomal inhibitor. Furthermore, miR-26a-5p significantly inhibited GSK3? expression in vitro and in vivo. Dual luciferase report results confirmed that miR-26a-5p could directly target GSK3?. GSK3? overexpression significantly reversed the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related markers including ANP, ACTA1 and MYH7. Immunofluorescence staining results demonstrated that miR-26a-5p promoted cardiac hypertrophy related protein ?-actinin expression, and increased cell surface area in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion:Our study revealed that miR-26a-5p promotes myocardial cell autophagy activation and cardiac hypertrophy by regulating GSK3?, which needs further research.
Project description:Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is involved in nonmalignant pathological processes. However, TREM2's function in malignant diseases, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, we report that TREM2 is a novel tumor suppressor in HCC. TREM2 expression was obviously decreased in hepatoma cells (especially metastatic HCC cells), and in most human HCC tissues (especially extrahepatic metastatic tumors). Reduced tumor TREM2 expression was correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients, and with aggressive pathological features (BCLC stage, tumor size, tumor encapsulation, vascular invasion, and tumor differentiation). TREM2 knockdown substantially promoted cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, while TREM2 overexpression produced the opposite effect. TREM2 suppressed HCC metastasis by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, accompanied by abnormal expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Further study revealed that downregulation of TREM2 in HCC was regulated by miR-31-5p. Moreover, by directly interacting with ?-catenin, TREM2 attenuated oncogenic and metastatic behaviors by inhibiting Akt and GSK3? phosphorylation, and activating ?-catenin. TREM2 suppressed carcinogenesis and metastasis in HCC by targeting the PI3K/Akt/?-catenin pathway. Thus, we propose that TREM2 may be a candidate prognostic biomarker in malignant diseases and TREM2 restoration might be a prospective strategy for HCC therapy.
Project description:Background:Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG5 has been found to play an important role in tumors. Nevertheless, the function and mechanism of lncRNA SNHG5 in osteosarcoma (OS) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lncRNA SNHG5 can regulate the occurrence and development of OS cells. Methods:We performed quantitative real time PCR to detect the expression of lncRNA SNHG5 in OS cells. 143B, MG63 (knockdown) and U2OS, U2R (overexpression) cell lines were chosen for the function study of SNHG5. The effect of SNHG5, miR-212-3p, and SGK3 in OS cells was explored by MTT assays, clony formation, flow cytometry, transwell assays, wound healing assays, and cell spreading assays. Quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and luciferase assays were used to detect the interaction between lncRNA SNHG5 and miR-212-3p. Results:In this study, knockdown of lncRNA SNHG5 suppressed the growth and metastasis of OS cells, whereas the overexpression of SNHG5 produced an opposite result. Mechanistically, lncRNA SNHG5 functions as a sponger against miR-212-3p and suppresses the miR-212-3p/SGK3 signaling pathway. Introduction of miR-212-3p mimics or inhibitors reverses SNHG5 overexpression or silences the exerted tumor promoting or suppressing effect. In addition, our results showed that the function of SNHG5 can be rescued by miR-212-3p and can regulate the growth and metastasis of OS cells via SGK3, the downstream target of miR-212-3p. Conclusions:In summary, our study demonstrated that lncRNA SNHG5 can regulate the proliferation and metastasis of OS cells through the miR-212-3p/SGK3 axis. This axis may provide a new target for future clinical treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are manifestations of endometrial fibrosis characterized by inflammation and fibrinogen aggregation in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The available therapeutic interventions for IUA are insufficiently effective in the clinical setting for postoperative adhesion recurrence and infertility problems. In this study, we investigated whether si-SNHG5-FOXF2 can serve as a molecular mechanism for the inhibition of IUA fibrosis ex vivo. METHODS:FOXF2, TGF-?1 and collagen expression levels were measured by microarray sequencing analysis in three normal endometrium groups and six IUA patients. We induced primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) into myofibroblasts (MFs) to develop an IUA cell model with various concentrations of TGF-?1 at various times. Downstream target genes of FOXF2 were screened by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with whole-genome high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). We investigated ECM formation, cell proliferation and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway-related proteins in primary HESCs with FOXF2 downregulation by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, ethylenediurea (EdU) and CCK8 assays. We identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) SNHG5 as the upstream regulatory gene of FOXF2 through RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pulldown and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Finally, we examined FOXF2 expression, ECM formation, cell proliferation and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway-related proteins in primary HESCs upon FOXF2 downregulation. RESULTS:FOXF2 was highly expressed in the endometrium of patients with IUA. Treatment of primary HESCs with 10?ng/ml TGF-?1 for 72?h was found to be most effective for developing an IUA cell model. FOXF2 regulated multiple downstream target genes, including collagen, vimentin (VIM) and cyclin D2/DK4, by ChIP-seq and ChIP-PCR. FOXF2 downregulation inhibited TGF-?1-mediated primary HESC fibrosis, including ECM formation, cell proliferation and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway-related protein expression. We identified lncRNA SNHG5 as an upstream gene that directly regulates FOXF2 by RIP-seq, qRT-PCR, WB and FISH. SNHG5 downregulation suppressed FOXF2 expression in the IUA cell model, resulting in synergistic repression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, thereby altering TGF-?1-mediated ECM aggregation in endometrial stromal cells ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway and ECM formation by si-SNHG5-FOXF2 effectively inhibited the profibrotic effect of TGF-?1 on primary HESCs. This finding can provide a molecular basis for antagonizing TGF-?1-mediated fibrosis in primary HESCs.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a more common malignancy than the majority of cancers and ranks second in the world's top causes of cancer-related mortality. The objective of the study was to investigate and explain how circularRNA-9119 (circ9119) regulated the properties of HCC cell lines. Cancer cells isolated from HCC patients and HCC cell lines showed clearly upregulated expression of circ9119 and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) with decreased levels of miR-26a compared to healthy controls and normal hepatic cells. To determine the function of circ9119, circ9119 was silenced in HCC cells, resulting in significantly less proliferation of HCC cells and increasing apoptosis. Circ9119 silencing also resulted in the upregulation of miR-26a. Bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that circ9119 targeted miR-26a. Further studies revealed that miR-26a had the opposite effect on circ9119; the inhibition of miR-26a antagonized circ9119 silencing, leading to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, while the ectopic overexpression of miR-26a impaired cell growth. Additionally, we found that the JAK1 3'-UTR was targeted by miR-26a; a decrease in the levels of JAK1 protein and mRNA followed transfection of a miR-26a mimic. Administration of the JAK1 inhibitor, baricitinib, caused the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and revealed an effect similar to that of circ9119 silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis. These results showed that circ9119 could modulate apoptosis, and broadly, cell proliferation by competitively binding miR-26a, which targeted JAK1-STAT3, in HCC cell lines. This study is a novel description of circ9119 regulation of HCC.