Whole Genome Sequencing, de Novo Assembly and Phenotypic Profiling for the New Budding Yeast Species Saccharomyces jurei.
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex consist of yeast species, which are not only important in the fermentation industry but are also model systems for genomic and ecological analysis. Here, we present the complete genome assemblies of Saccharomyces jurei, a newly discovered Saccharomyces sensu stricto species from high altitude oaks. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that S. jurei is more closely related to S. mikatae, than S. cerevisiae, and S. paradoxus The karyotype of S. jurei presents two reciprocal chromosomal translocations between chromosome VI/VII and I/XIII when compared to the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, while the rearrangement I/XIII is unique to S. jurei, the other is in common with S. mikatae strain IFO1815, suggesting shared evolutionary history of this species after the split between S. cerevisiae and S. mikatae The number of Ty elements differed in the new species, with a higher number of Ty elements present in S. jurei than in S. cerevisiae Phenotypically, the S. jurei strain NCYC 3962 has relatively higher fitness than the other strain NCYC 3947T under most of the environmental stress conditions tested and showed remarkably increased fitness in higher concentration of acetic acid compared to the other sensu stricto species. Both strains were found to be better adapted to lower temperatures compared to S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.
Project description:High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through www.SaccharomycesSensuStricto.org.
Project description:Two strains, D5088T and D5095, representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Saccharomyces were isolated from oak tree bark and surrounding soil located at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level in Saint Auban, France. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 26S rRNA D1/D2 domains indicated that the two strains were most closely related to Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Genetic hybridization analyses showed that both strains are reproductively isolated from all other Saccharomyces species and, therefore, represent a distinct biological species. The species name Saccharomyces jurei sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these two strains, with D5088T (=CBS 14759T=NCYC 3947T) designated as the type strain.
Project description:Transposable elements have clearly played a major role in shaping both the size and organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, the evolution of essential genes in core biological processes may also have been shaped by coevolution with these elements. This would be predicted to occur in instances where host proteins are either hijacked for use by mobile elements or recruited to defend against them. To detect such cases, we have used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Saccharomyces paradoxus sibling species pair to identify genes that have evolved under positive selection. We identify 72 such genes, which participate in a variety of biological processes but are enriched for genes involved in meiosis and DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). We confirm the signature of positive selection acting on NHEJ genes using orthologous sequences from all seven Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Previous studies have found altered rates of Ty retrotransposition when these NHEJ genes are disrupted. We propose that the evolution of these repair proteins is likely to have been shaped by their interactions with Ty elements. Antagonistic pleiotropy, where critical genes like those involved in DNA repair are also subject to selective pressures imposed by mobile elements, could favor alleles that might be otherwise deleterious for their normal roles related to genome stability.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. RESULTS: We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pairs of species, in which individual germinating spores were presented with the opportunity to mate either with a germinating spore of their own species or with a germinating spore of the other species. For all five strain pairs, whether a S. cerevisiae or S. paradoxus occupies the role of "chooser" strain, the level of hybridisation that is observed between the two species is significantly lower than would be expected if mates were selected at random. We also show that, overall, S. cerevisiae exhibited a stronger own-species preference than S. paradoxus. CONCLUSION: Prezygotic reproductive isolation is well known in higher organisms but has been largely overlooked in yeast, an important model microbe. Here we present the first report of prezygotic reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces. Prezygotic reproductive isolation may be important in yeast speciation or yeast species cohesion, and may have evolved to prevent wasted matings between different species. Whilst yeast has long been used as a genetic model system, little is known about yeast in the wild. Our work sheds light on an interesting aspect of yeast natural behaviour: their ability to avoid costly interspecific matings.
Project description:To examine the role of nucleosome occupancy in the evolution of gene expression, we measured the genome-wide nucleosome profiles of four yeast species, three belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto lineage and the more distantly related Candida glabrata. Nucleosomes and associated promoter elements at C. glabrata genes are typically shifted upstream by ?20 bp, compared to their orthologs from sensu stricto species. Nonetheless, all species display the same global organization features first described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a stereotypical nucleosome organization along genes and a division of promoters into those that contain or lack a pronounced nucleosome-depleted region (NDR), with the latter displaying a more dynamic pattern of gene expression. Despite this global similarity, however, nucleosome occupancy at specific genes diverged extensively between sensu stricto and C. glabrata orthologs (?50 million years). Orthologs with dynamic expression patterns tend to maintain their lack of NDR, but apart from that, sensu stricto and C. glabrata orthologs are nearly as similar in nucleosome occupancy patterns as nonorthologous genes. This extensive divergence in nucleosome occupancy contrasts with a conserved pattern of gene expression. Thus, while some evolutionary changes in nucleosome occupancy contribute to gene expression divergence, nucleosome occupancy often diverges extensively with apparently little impact on gene expression.
Project description:Exploring the evolutionary patterns of mitochondrial genomes is important for our understanding of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto (SSS) group, which is a model system for genomic evolution and ecological analysis. In this study, we first obtained the complete mitochondrial sequences of two important species, Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. We then compared the mitochondrial genomes in the SSS group with those of close relatives, and found that the non-coding regions evolved rapidly, including dramatic expansion of intergenic regions, fast evolution of introns and almost 20-fold higher rearrangement rates than those of the nuclear genomes. However, the coding regions, and especially the protein-coding genes, are more conserved than those in the nuclear genomes of the SSS group. The different evolutionary patterns of coding and non-coding regions in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be related to the origin of the aerobic fermentation lifestyle in this group. Our analysis thus provides novel insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes.
Project description:Using the biological species definition, yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces sensu stricto comprise six species and one natural hybrid. Previous work has shown that reproductive isolation between the species is due primarily to sequence divergence acted upon by the mismatch repair system and not due to major gene differences or chromosomal rearrangements. Sequence divergence through mismatch repair has also been shown to cause partial reproductive isolation among populations within a species. We have surveyed sequence variation in populations of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts and measured meiotic sterility in hybrids. This allows us to determine the divergence necessary to produce the reproductive isolation seen among species. Rather than a sharp transition from fertility to sterility, which may have been expected, we find a smooth monotonic relationship between diversity and reproductive isolation, even as far as the well-accepted designations of S. paradoxus and S. cerevisiae as distinct species. Furthermore, we show that one species of Saccharomyces--S. cariocanus--differs from a population of S. paradoxus by four translocations, but not by sequence. There is molecular evidence of recent introgression from S. cerevisiae into the European population of S. paradoxus, supporting the idea that in nature the boundary between these species is fuzzy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Changes in protein evolutionary rates among lineages have been frequently observed during periods of notable phenotypic evolution. It is also known that, following gene duplication and loss, the protein evolutionary rates of genes involved in such events changed because of changes in functional constraints acting on the genes. However, in the evolution of closely related species, excluding the aforementioned situations, the frequency of changes in protein evolutionary rates is still not clear at the genome-wide level. Here we examine the constancy of protein evolutionary rates in the evolution of four closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group (S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, S. mikatae and S. bayanus). RESULTS: For 2,610 unambiguously defined orthologous genes among the four species, we carried out likelihood ratio tests between constant-rate and variable-rate models and found 344 (13.2%) genes showing significant changes in the protein evolutionary rates in at least one lineage. Of all those genes which experienced rate changes, 139 and 49 genes showed accelerated and decelerated evolution, respectively. Most of the evolutionary rate changes could be attributed to changes in selective constraints acting on nonsynonymous sites, independently of species-specific gene duplication and loss. We estimated that the changes in protein evolutionary rates have appeared with a probability of 2.0 x 10-3 per gene per million years in the evolution of the Saccharomyces species. Furthermore, we found that the genes which experienced rate acceleration have lower expression levels and weaker codon usage bias than those which experienced rate deceleration. CONCLUSION: Changes in protein evolutionary rates possibly occur frequently in the evolution of closely related Saccharomyces species. Selection for translational accuracy and efficiency may dominantly affect the variability of protein evolutionary rates.