Control of Listeria monocytogenes infection requires classical IL-6 signaling in myeloid cells.
ABSTRACT: IL-6 is required for the response of mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Control of infection depends on classical IL-6 signaling via membrane IL-6R?, but IL-6 target cells and protective mechanisms remain unclear. We used mice with IL-6R?-deficiency in T cells (Il6rafl/fl×CD4cre) or myeloid cells (Il6rafl/fl×LysMcre) to define the role of these cells in IL-6-mediated protection. Abrogation of IL-6R? in T cells did not interfere with bacteria control and induction of TH1 and CD8+ T-cell responses. IL-6R?-deficiency in myeloid cells caused significant defects in listeria control. This defect was not associated with reduced recruitment of granulocytes and inflammatory monocytes, and both cell populations were activated and not impaired in cytokine production. However, IL-6R?-deficient inflammatory monocytes displayed diminished expression of IL-4R? and of CD38, a protein required for phagocytosis and innate control of listeria. In vitro studies revealed that IL-4 and IL-6 cooperated in induction of CD38. In listeria-infected mice, phagocytic activity of inflammatory monocytes correlated with CD38 expression levels on cells and inflammatory monocytes of Il6rafl/fl×LysMcre mice were significantly impaired in phagocytosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that inhibition of classical IL-6 signaling in myeloid cells causes alterations in differentiation and function of these cells, which subsequently prevent effective control of L. monocytogenes.
Project description:The peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor that controls inflammation and immunity. Innate immune defense against bacterial infection appears to be compromised by PPAR?. The relevance of PPAR? in myeloid cells, that organize anti-bacterial immunity, for the outcome of immune responses against intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes in vivo is unknown. We found that Listeria monocytogenes infection of macrophages rapidly led to increased expression of PPAR?. This prompted us to investigate whether PPAR? in myeloid cells influences innate immunity against Listeria monocytogenes infection by using transgenic mice with myeloid-cell specific ablation of PPAR? (LysMCre×PPAR?(flox/flox)). Loss of PPAR? in myeloid cells results in enhanced innate immune defense against Listeria monocytogenes infection both, in vitro and in vivo. This increased resistance against infection was characterized by augmented levels of bactericidal factors and inflammatory cytokines: ROS, NO, IFN? TNF IL-6 and IL-12. Moreover, myeloid cell-specific loss of PPAR? enhanced chemokine and adhesion molecule expression leading to improved recruitment of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes to sites of infection. Importantly, increased resistance against Listeria infection in the absence of PPAR? was not accompanied by enhanced immunopathology. Our results elucidate a yet unknown regulatory network in myeloid cells that is governed by PPAR? and restrains both listeriocidal activity and recruitment of inflammatory monocytes during Listeria infection, which may contribute to bacterial immune escape. Pharmacological interference with PPAR? activity in myeloid cells might represent a novel strategy to overcome intracellular bacterial infection.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is an unavoidable consequence of liver transplantation that can lead to postoperative hepatic dysfunction. Myeloid cells that include Kupffer cells, monocytes, and neutrophils contribute to the inflammatory response and cellular injury observed during hepatic IRI. We hypothesize that overactivation of the nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in myeloid cells leads to decreased cellular damage after hepatic IRI. We constructed transgenic mice with constitutively active nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (caNrf2) that over activates the Nrf2-ARE pathway in myeloid cells (lysozyme M cre recombinase [LysMcre]+/caNrf2+, n = 9), and their littermate controls lacking transgene expression (LysMcre+/caNrf2-, n = 11). The mice underwent either sham or partial hepatic ischemia surgery, with 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. After IRI, LysMcre+/caNrf2+ mice demonstrated significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and decreased areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot of caspase 3 showed a significantly decreased cleaved to full-length caspase 3 ratio in LysMcre+/caNrf2+ animals. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G and CD68 staining demonstrated reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. LysMcre+/caNrf2+ animals also had significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL) 1?, IL6, tumor necrosis factor ?, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, and significantly decreased levels of 8-isoprostanes. In our model, Nrf2 overactivation in myeloid cells leads to decreased hepatocellular damage, necrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Pharmacologic targeting of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in myeloid cells may be a novel strategy to mitigate hepatic IRI. Liver Transplantation 22 1115-1128 2016 AASLD.
Project description:CD38, adenosine-5'-diphosphate-ribosyl cyclase 1, is a multifunctional enzyme, expressed on a wide variety of cell types. CD38 has been assigned diverse functions, including generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Using a murine Listeria monocytogenes infection model, we found that CD38 knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to infection. Enhanced susceptibility was already evident within 3 days of infection, suggesting a function of CD38 in the innate immune response. CD38 was expressed on neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, and especially inflammatory monocytes further upregulated CD38 during infection. Absence of CD38 caused alterations of the migration pattern of both cell types to sites of infection. We observed impaired accumulation of cells in the spleen but surprisingly similar or even higher accumulation of cells in the liver. CD38 KO and wild-type mice showed similar changes in the composition of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in blood and bone marrow, indicating that mobilization of these cells from the bone marrow was CD38 independent. In vitro, macrophages of CD38 KO mice were less efficient in uptake of listeria but still able to kill the bacteria. Dendritic cells also displayed enhanced CD38 expression following infection. However, absence of CD38 did not impair the capacity of mice to prime CD8(+) T cells against L. monocytogenes, and CD38 KO mice could efficiently control secondary listeria infection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an essential role for CD38 in the innate immune response against L. monocytogenes.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of important pro-inflammatory genes in microglia. Mice deficient for C/EBPβ show protection against excitotoxic and ischemic CNS damage, but the involvement in this neuroprotective effect of the various C/EBPβ-expressing cell types is not solved. Since C/EBPβ-deficient microglia show attenuated neurotoxicity in culture, we hypothesized that specific C/EBPβ deficiency in microglia could be neuroprotective in vivo. In this study, we have tested this hypothesis by generating mice with myeloid C/EBPβ deficiency.Mice with myeloid C/EBPβ deficiency were generated by crossing LysMCre and C/EBPβfl/fl mice. Primary microglial cultures from C/EBPβfl/fl and LysMCre-C/EBPβfl/fl mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide ± interferon γ (IFNγ) for 6 h, and gene expression was analyzed by RNA sequencing. Gene expression and C/EBPβ deletion were analyzed in vivo in microglia isolated from the brains of C/EBPβfl/fl and LysMCre-C/EBPβfl/fl mice treated systemically with lipolysaccharide or vehicle. Mice of LysMCre-C/EBPβfl/fl or control genotypes were subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalitis and analyzed for clinical signs for 52 days. One- or two-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis with their appropriate post hoc tests were used.LysMCre-C/EBPβfl/fl mice showed an efficiency of C/EBPβ deletion in microglia of 100 and 90% in vitro and in vivo, respectively. These mice were devoid of female infertility, perinatal mortality and reduced lifespan that are associated to full C/EBPβ deficiency. Transcriptomic analysis of C/EBPβ-deficient primary microglia revealed C/EBPβ-dependent expression of 1068 genes, significantly enriched in inflammatory and innate immune responses GO terms. In vivo, microglial expression of the pro-inflammatory genes Cybb, Ptges, Il23a, Tnf and Csf3 induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide injection was also blunted by C/EBPβ deletion. CNS expression of C/EBPβ was upregulated in experimental autoimmune encephalitis and in multiple sclerosis samples. Finally, LysMCre-C/EBPβfl/fl mice showed robust attenuation of clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalitis.This study provides new data that support a central role for C/EBPβ in the biology of activated microglia, and it offers proof of concept for the therapeutic potential of microglial C/EBPβ inhibition in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:The JAK/STAT pathway is critical for development, regulation, and termination of immune responses, and dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, that is, hyperactivation, has pathological implications in autoimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulates STAT3 activation in response to cytokines that play important roles in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases, including IL-6 and IL-23. We previously demonstrated that myeloid lineage-specific deletion of SOCS3 resulted in a severe, nonresolving atypical form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by lesions, inflammatory infiltrates, elevated STAT activation, and elevated cytokine and chemokine expression in the cerebellum. Clinically, these mice exhibit ataxia and tremors. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of this model, demonstrating that the atypical EAE observed in LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice is characterized by extensive neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem, increased inducible NO synthase levels in the cerebellum and brainstem, and prominent axonal damage. Importantly, infiltrating SOCS3-deficient neutrophils produce high levels of CXCL2, CCL2, CXCL10, NO, TNF-?, and IL-1?. Kinetic studies demonstrate that neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem of LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice closely correlates with atypical EAE clinical symptoms. Ab-mediated depletion of neutrophils converts the atypical phenotype to the classical EAE phenotype and, in some cases, a mixed atypical/classical phenotype. Blocking CXCR2 signaling ameliorates atypical EAE development by reducing neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum/brainstem. Thus, neutrophils lacking SOCS3 display elevated STAT3 activation and expression of proinflammatory mediators and play a critical role in the development of atypical EAE.
Project description:Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl)) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.
Project description:Variants in the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) are associated with inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. The anti-inflammatory role of PTPN2 is highlighted by the fact that PTPN2-deficient mice die a few weeks after birth because of systemic inflammation and severe colitis. However, the tissues, cells, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to this phenotype remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that myeloid cell-specific deletion of PTPN2 in mice (PTPN2-LysMCre) promotes intestinal inflammation but protects from colitis-associated tumor formation in an IL-1?-dependent manner. Elevated levels of mature IL-1? production in PTPN2-LysMCre mice are a consequence of increased inflammasome assembly due to elevated phosphorylation of the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC. Thus, we have identified a dual role for myeloid PTPN2 in directly regulating inflammasome activation and IL-1? production to suppress pro-inflammatory responses during colitis but promote intestinal tumor development.
Project description:Signaling of the pleiotropic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) via its soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to be responsible for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. The sIL-6R can be generated by alternative mRNA splicing or proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound IL-6R. However, which stimuli induce sIL-6R release and which endogenous signaling pathways are required for this process is poorly understood. Here, we show that activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and on the monocytic cell line THP-1 induces expression and secretion of IL-6 and the generation of sIL-6R. We show by flow cytometry that monocytes are a PBMC subset that expresses TLR2 in conjunction with the IL-6R and are the major cellular source for both IL-6 and sIL-6R. Mechanistically, we find that the metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are responsible for cleavage of the IL-6R and therefore sIL-6R generation. Finally, we identify the Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) cascade as a critical pathway that differentially regulates both IL-6 and sIL-6R generation in monocytes.
Project description:ADAM17 is a member of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase family of proteases. It is ubiquitously expressed and causes the shedding of a broad spectrum of surface proteins such as adhesion molecules, cytokines and cytokine receptors. By controlled shedding of these proteins from leukocytes, ADAM17 is able to regulate immune responses. Several ADAM17 targets on T cells have been implicated in T-cell migration, differentiation and effector functions. However, the role of ADAM17 in T-cell responses is still unclear. To characterize the function of ADAM17 in T cells, we used Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice with a T-cell restricted inactivation of the Adam17 gene. Upon stimulation, ADAM17-deficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were impaired in shedding of CD62L, IL-6R?, TNF-?, TNFRI and TNFRII. Surprisingly, we could not detect profound changes in the composition of major T-cell subsets in Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice mounted regular listeria-specific CD4+ TH1 and CD8+ T-cell responses and were able to control primary and secondary infections. In conclusion, our study indicates that ADAM17 is either not required in T cells under homoeostatic conditions and for control of listeria infection or can be effectively compensated by other mechanisms.
Project description:Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-? superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-? receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Eng(fl/fl)LysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Eng(fl/fl)LysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-?1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients.