Imatinib Inhibits GH Secretion From Somatotropinomas.
ABSTRACT: Background: Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, causes growth failure in children with chronic myeloid leukemia probably by targeting the growth hormone (GH)/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. We aim to explore the imatinib targets expression in pituitary adenomas and study the effect of imatinib on GH secretion in somatotropinoma cells and GH3 cell line. Materials and Methods: The expression pattern of imatinib's targets (c-kit, VEGF, and PDGFR-?/?) was studied using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting 157 giant (?4 cm) pituitary adenomas (121 non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 32 somatotropinomas, and four prolactinomas) and compared to normal pituitary (n = 4) obtained at autopsy. The effect imatinib on GH secretion, cell viability, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and apoptosis was studied in primary culture of human somatotropinomas (n = 20) and in rat somato-mammotroph GH3 cell-line. A receptor tyrosine kinase array was applied to human samples to identify altered pathways. Results: Somatotropinomas showed significantly higher immunopositivity for c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?; P < 0.009 and P < 0.001, respectively), while staining for platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) revealed a weaker expression (P < 0.001) compared to normal pituitary. Imatinib inhibited GH secretion from both primary culture (P < 0.01) and GH3 cells (P < 0.001), while it did not affect cell viability and apoptosis. The receptor tyrosine kinase array showed that imatinib inhibits GH signaling via PDGFR-? pathway. Conclusion: Imatinib inhibits GH secretion in somatotropinoma cells without affecting cell viability and may be used as an adjunct therapy for treating GH secreting pituitary adenomas.
Project description:The GH/IGF1 response of somatotropinomas to somatostatin analogues (SSA) is associated with their pattern of somatostatin receptor (sst1-sst5) expression. Recently, we demonstrated that expression of a truncated sst5-variant (sst5TMD4) can influence the secretory response of somatotropinomas to SSA-therapy; however, its potential relationship with aggressive features (e.g. invasion/proliferation) is still unknown. Here, we show that sst5TMD4 is present in 50% of non-functioning pituitary-adenomas (NFPA) (n?=?30) and 89% of somatotropinomas (n?=?36), its expression levels being highest in somatotropinomas?>?>?NFPAs?>?>?>?normal pituitaries (negligible expression; n?=?8). In somatotropinomas, sst5TMD4 mRNA and protein levels correlated positively, and its expression was directly associated with tumor invasiveness (cavernous/sphenoid sinus), and inversely correlated with age and GH/IGF1 reduction after 3-6?months with octreotide-LAR therapy. GNAS+ somatotropinomas expressed lower sst5TMD4 levels. ROC analysis revealed sst5TMD4 expression as the only marker, within all sst-subtypes, capable to predict tumor invasiveness in somatotropinomas. sst5TMD4 overexpression increased cell viability in cultured somatotropinoma (n?=?5). Hence, presence of sst5TMD4 associates with increased aggressive features and worse prognosis in somatotropinomas, thereby providing a potentially useful tool to refine somatotropinoma diagnosis, predict outcome of clinical response to SSA-therapy and develop new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
Project description:Acromegaly is a rare but severe disease, originated in 95% of cases by a growth hormone-secreting adenoma (somatotropinoma) in the pituitary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique used for the diagnosis and prognosis of pituitary tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of T2-weighted signal intensity at MRI could help to improve the characterisation of somatotropinomas, by analysing its relationship with clinical/molecular features. An observational study was implemented in a cohort of 22 patients (mean age?=?42.1?±?17.2 years; 59% women; 95% size>10?mm). Suprasellar-extended somatotropinomas presented larger diameters vs. non-extended tumours. T2-imaging revealed that 59% of tumours were hyperintense and 41% isointense adenomas, wherein hyperintense were more invasive (according to Knosp-score) than isointense adenomas. A higher proportion of hyperintense somatotropinomas presented extrasellar-growth, suprasellar-growth and invasion of the cavernous sinus compared to isointense adenomas. Interestingly, somatostatin receptor-3 and dopamine receptor-5 (DRD5) expression levels were associated with extrasellar and/or suprasellar extension. Additionally, DRD5 was also higher in hyperintense adenomas and its expression was directly correlated with Knosp-score and with tumour diameter. Hence, T2-weighted MRI on somatotropinomas represents a potential tool to refine their diagnosis and prognosis, and could support the election of preoperative treatment, when required.
Project description:(Pro)renin receptor (PRR) has a single transmembrane domain that co-purifies with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). In addition to its role in cellular acidification, V-ATPase has been implicated in membrane fusion and exocytosis via its Vo domain. Results from the present study show that PRR is expressed in pituitary adenoma cells and regulates growth hormone (GH) release via V-ATPase-induced cellular acidification. Positive PRR immunoreactivity was detected more often in surgically resected, growth hormone-producing adenomas (GHomas) than in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. GHomas strongly expressing PRR showed excess GH secretion, as evidenced by distinctly high plasma GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, as well as an elevated nadir GH in response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Suppression of PRR expression in rat GHoma-derived GH3 cells using PRR siRNA resulted in reduced GH secretion and significantly enhanced intracellular GH accumulation. GH3 treatment with bafilomycin A1, a V-ATPase inhibitor, also blocked GH release, indicating mediation via impaired cellular acidification of V-ATPase. PRR knockdown decreased Atp6l, a subunit of the Vo domain that destabilizes V-ATPase assembly, increased intracellular GH, and decreased GH release. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a pivotal role for PRR in a pituitary hormone release mechanism.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are intracranial tumors, often associated with excessive hormonal secretion and severe comorbidities. Some patients are resistant to medical therapies; therefore, novel treatment options are needed. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) exert potent anticancer effects, and early GHRH antagonists were found to inhibit GHRH-induced secretion of pituitary GH in vitro and in vivo. However, the antitumor role of GHRH antagonists in PAs is largely unknown. Here, we show that the GHRH antagonists of MIAMI class, MIA-602 and MIA-690, inhibited cell viability and growth and promoted apoptosis in GH/prolactin-secreting GH3 PA cells transfected with human GHRH receptor (GH3-GHRHR), and in adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH-secreting AtT20 PA cells. GHRH antagonists also reduced the expression of proteins involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, upregulated proapoptotic molecules, and lowered GHRH receptor levels. The combination of MIA-690 with temozolomide synergistically blunted the viability of GH3-GHRHR and AtT20 cells. Moreover, MIA-690 reduced both basal and GHRH-induced secretion of GH and intracellular cAMP levels. Finally, GHRH antagonists inhibited cell viability in human primary GH- and ACTH-PA cell cultures. Overall, our results suggest that GHRH antagonists, either alone or in combination with pharmacological treatments, may be considered for further development as therapy for PAs.
Project description:Rosiglitazone, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligand, has been reported to reduce growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in 10 patients with acromegaly. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we reveal that PPARγ directly enhances 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) expression, whose expression is decreased and negatively correlates with tumor size in acromegaly. Rosiglitazone decreases GH production and promotes apoptosis and autophagy in GH3 and primary somatotroph adenoma cells and suppresses hepatic GH receptor (GHR) expression and IGF-1 secretion in HepG2 cells. Activating the PGE2/cAMP/PKA pathway directly increases GHR expression. Rosiglitazone suppresses tumor growth and decreases GH and IGF-1 levels in mice inoculated subcutaneously with GH3 cells. The above effects are all dependent on 15-PGDH expression. Rosiglitazone as monotherapy effectively decreases GH and IGF-1 levels in all nineteen patients with active acromegaly. Evidence suggests that rosiglitazone may be an alternative pharmacological approach for acromegaly by targeting both pituitary adenomas and liver.
Project description:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene, as indicated by a mutational analysis of pituitary somatotroph adenomas. However, the physiological significance of AIP inactivation in somatotroph cells remains unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we identified a GH3 cell clone (termed GH3-FTY) in which Aip was genetically disrupted, and subsequently investigated its character with respect to growth hormone (Gh) synthesis and proliferation. Compared with GH3, GH3-FTY cells showed remarkably increased Gh production and a slight increase in cell proliferation. Gh-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is known to be a mechanism of Gh oversecretion in GH3. Interestingly, phosphorylated-Stat3 expression in GH3-FTY cells was increased more compared with GH3 cells, suggesting a stronger drive for this mechanism in GH3-FTY. The phenotypes of GH3-FTY concerning Gh overproduction, cell proliferation, and increased Stat3 phosphorylation were significantly reversed by the exogenous expression of Aip. GH3-FTY cells were less sensitive to somatostatin than GH3 cells in the suppression of cell proliferation, which might be associated with the reduced expression of somatostatin receptor type 2. GH3-FTY xenografts in BALB/c nude mice (GH3-FTY mice) formed more mitotic somatotroph tumors than GH3 xenografts (GH3 mice), as also evidenced by increased Ki67 scores. GH3-FTY mice were also much larger and had significantly higher plasma Gh levels than GH3 mice. Furthermore, GH3-FTY mice showed relative insulin resistance compared with GH3 mice. In conclusion, we established a somatotroph cell line, GH3-FTY, which possessed prominent Gh secretion and mitotic features associated with the disruption of Aip.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene lead to pituitary adenomas that most frequently present in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome, usually as somatotropinomas and prolactinomas. More recently, they have been found in a significant percentage of young patients presenting with pituitary macroadenoma without any apparent family history. We describe the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a gigantic somatotropinoma. His family history was negative. His peripheral DNA showed a heterozygous AIP mutation (p.I13N), while tumor tissue only had the mutated allele, showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and suggesting that the mutation caused the disease.<h4>Learning points</h4>AIP mutations may be observed in sporadic somatotrope adenomas occurring in young patients.LOH is a strong indicator that an AIP variant is disease causing.Somatotrope adenomas in carriers of AIP mutations are generally larger and more difficult to cure.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas are among the most frequent intracranial neoplasms and treatment depends on tumor subtype and clinical features. Unfortunately, non responder cases occur, then new molecular targets are needed. Notch system component expression and activation data are scarce in pituitary tumorigenesis, we therefore aimed to characterize Notch system in pituitary tumors of different histotype. In human pituitary adenomas we showed NOTCH1-4 receptors, JAGGED1 ligand and HES1 target gene expression with positive correlations between NOTCH1,2,4 and HES1, and NOTCH3 and JAGGED1 denoting Notch system activation in a subset of tumors. Importantly, NOTCH3 positive cells were higher in corticotropinomas and somatotropinomas compared to non functioning adenomas. In accordance, Notch activation was evidenced in AtT20 tumor corticotropes, with higher levels of NOTCH1-3 active domains, Jagged1 and Hes1 compared to normal pituitary. In the prolactinoma cell lines GH3 and MMQ, in vivo GH3 tumors and normal glands, Notch system activation was lower than in corticotropes. In MMQ cells only the NOTCH2 active domain was increased, whereas NOTCH1 active domain was higher in GH3 tumors. High levels of Jagged1 and Dll1 were found solely in GH3 cells, and Hes1, Hey1 and Hey2 were expressed in a model dependent pattern. Prolactinomas harbored by lacDrd2KO mice expressed high levels of NOTCH1 active domain and reduced Hes1. We show a differential expression of Notch system components in tumoral and normal pituitaries and specific Notch system involvement depending on adenoma histotype, with higher activation in corticotropinomas. These data suggest that targeting Notch pathway may benefit non responder pituitary adenomas.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses the current clinical and therapeutic characteristics of more than 200 FIPA families and addresses research findings among AIP mutation-bearing patients in different populations with pituitary adenomas.