Real-time simultaneous endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery with intermediate-supine position: Washout mechanism and transport technique.
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) with simultaneous retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been proposed as a new surgical treatment to overcome the disadvantage of RIRS and PCNL monotherapies in the treatment of renal stone. One of advantages of ECIRS is that it can increase stone-free rates in complex renal stone within single-session. Intermediate-supine position in real-time simultaneous ECIRS can prevent an anesthesiologic problem, and patient's burden is small even for long-term operation. Thus, we will share the experience and advantages of real-time simultaneous ECIRS and introduce techniques to increase the stone-free rate.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing stone-free rates following retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) treatments of renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Clinical trials comparing RIRS, SWL, and PCNL for treatment of renal stones were identified from electronic databases. Stone-free rates for the procedures were compared by qualitative and quantitative syntheses (meta-analyses). Outcome variables are shown as risk ratios (ORs) with 95% credible intervals (CIs). RESULTS:A total of 35 studies were included in this network meta-analysis of success and stone-free rates following three different treatments of renal stones. Six studies compared PCNL versus SWL, ten studies compared PCNL versus RIRS, fourteen studies compared RIRS versus SWL, and five studies compared PCNL, SWL, and RIRS. The quality scores within subscales were relatively low-risk. Network meta-analyses indicated that stone-free rates of RIRS (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.22-0.64) and SWL (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.067-0.19) were lower than that of PCNL. In addition, stone-free rate of SWL was lower than that of RIRS (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.20-0.47). Stone free rate of PCNL was also superior to RIRS in subgroup analyses including ? 2 cm stone (OR 4.680; 95% CI 2.873-8.106), lower pole stone (OR 1.984; 95% CI 1.043-2.849), and randomized studies (OR 2.219; 95% CI 1.348-4.009). In rank-probability test, PCNL was ranked as No. 1 and SWL was ranked as No. 3. CONCLUSIONS:PCNL showed the highest success and stone-free rate in the surgical treatment of renal stones. In contrast, SWL had the lowest success and stone-free rate.
Project description:Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are widely used for pediatric upper tract stones; however, comparisons of their clinical efficacies are needed.Literature searches for relevant articles were performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the China CNKI database. Study quality was assessed by Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa Scales. Standard mean differences (SMDs) or odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) were pooled for meta-analysis. In addition, data was evaluated the quality of the body of evidence by means of grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE).Data from 4 studies (231 PCNL, 212 RIRS cases) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in operation time (SMD: 1.39; 95% CIs: -0.049 to 2.82; P?=?.058), overall stone-free rate (OR: 3.72; 95% CIs: 0.55-25.22; P?=?.18), or complication rate (OR: 1.92; 95% CIs: 0.90-4.07; P?=?.091). PCNL cases had longer hospital stays (SMD: 1.22; 95% CIs: 0.95-1.50; P?<?.001), but showed a higher stone-free rate for stones greater than 20 mm (OR: 6.38; 95% CIs: 1.83-22.22; P?=?.004). For stones less than 20 mm, however, no significant difference between PCNL and RIRS was found (OR: 0.92; 95% CIs: 0.33-2.55; P?=?.87). The quality of evidence based on the GRADE system was low.Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that, for the treatment of larger kidney stones (>20 mm) in pediatric patients, PCNL is a better option due to its higher stone-free rate, although RIRS may be associated with shorter hospital stays. A large-scale clinical trial is necessary to validate our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and minimally invasive PCNL are currently therapeutic options for lower-pole renal stones (LPS). However, the optimal treatment for LPS remains unclear. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of each intervention is needed to inform clinical decision-making. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of different interventions for LPS. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to December 6th 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including the patients treated for LPS were included. The frequentist models of network meta-analysis were used to compare the effect sizes. The primary outcome was stone free rate, and the secondary outcomes were overall complication rate, major complication rate, retreatment rate, and auxiliary procedure rate. RESULTS:This study included 13 RCTs comprising 1832 participants undergoing 6 different interventions, including RIRS, PCNL, Mini-PCNL, Micro-PCNL, SWL, and conservative observation. PCNL had the best stone free rate (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.30-9.12), followed by Mini-PCNL (OR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.13-7.46). Meta-regression did not find any association of the treatment effect with age, sex, and stone size. Although PCNL tended to exhibit a higher complication rate, the difference of complication rate among various interventions did not achieve a statistical significance. SWL was the less effective and associated with higher retreatment rate compared with PCNL, Mini-PNCL, and RIRS. CONCLUSIONS:PCNL was associated with the best stone free rate for LPS regardless of age, sex, and stone size. Each treatment achieved a similar complication rate compared with the others. Future large-scale RCTs are warranted to identify the most beneficial management for renal stones at a more complicated location.
Project description:Purpose:We evaluated the comparative effect of miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) on perioperative kidney function by use of diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) scintigraphy and identified significant predictors associated with deterioration or amelioration of renal function after surgery. Materials and Methods:All 70 patients who underwent mini-PCNL or RIRS between 2012 and 2016 were monitored by 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy preoperatively. Patients with abnormal renal function were monitored from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the predictors of aggravated renal dysfunction and improvement. Results:The difference in preoperative renal function between the contralateral and the operative side was >10% in 57 patients (81.4%). Among those in the group with abnormal renal function, 40 (70.2%), 10 (17.5%), and 7 (12.3%) patients showed stability, deterioration, and improvement in renal function at postoperative year 1, respectively. Functional changes did not differ according to the type of surgery. A high level of serum creatinine preoperatively (p=0.060) and a history of previous stone procedures (p=0.051) showed borderline significance for prediction of deterioration in renal function. Conclusions:RIRS and mini-PCNL had similar effects and favorable outcomes on renal function during a 1-year follow-up period. High baseline serum creatinine levels and a history of procedures warrant careful attention.
Project description:PURPOSE:The miniaturization of instruments has had an impact on stone management. The aims of this study were to highlight surgeon preferences among Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS), Regular, Mini-, UltraMini- and Micro- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for urolithiasis and to compare the effectiveness and safety of these techniques in a real-life setting. METHODS:A 12-item survey regarding endourological techniques was conducted through Survey Monkey among attendees of the 2013 European Association of Urology Section of Urolithiasis meeting. We asked responders to share data from the last 5 cases they performed for each technique. Procedures were stratified according to stone size and the centres' surgical volume. Techniques were compared in terms of effectiveness and safety. Analyses were performed on the overall group and a subgroup of 1-2 cm stones. RESULTS:We collected data from a total of 420 procedures by 30, out of 78, urologists who received the survey (response rate 38%): 140 RIRS, 141 Regular-PCNL (>20 Ch), 67 Mini-PCNL (14-20 Ch), 28 UltraMini-PCNL (11-13 Ch) and 44 Micro-PCNL (4,8-8 Ch). Techniques choice was influenced by stone size and the centre's surgical volume. Effectiveness and safety outcomes were influenced by stone size, independently of the technique. The stone-free rate was significantly lower in Micro-PCNL compared to Regular-PCNL. This was not confirmed for 1-2 cm stones. All techniques presented a lower complication rate than Regular-PCNL, with Mini-PCNL being the most protective technique compared to Regular-PCNL. CONCLUSIONS:Stone size seems to drive treatment choice. Miniaturized PCNL techniques are widely employed for 1-2 cm stones, in particular in higher surgical volume centres. Mini-PCNL and RIRS are growing in popularity for stones > 2 cm. Mini-PCNL seems to be a good compromise, being the most effective and safe procedure among PCNL techniques. RIRS is characterized by satisfactory stone-free and low complication rates.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and safety of micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (Microperc) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in treating renal stones using published literature. METHODS:A systematic literature review was performed on August 21, 2017, using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Summarized mean differences (MDs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the differences in outcomes between Microperc and RIRS. RESULTS:A total of nine studies (7 in adult patients and 2 in pediatric patients) containing 842 patients (381 Microperc cases and 461 RIRS cases) with renal stones were included in this analysis. Among the adult patients, Microperc was associated with higher stone-free rate(SFR)(OR: 1.6; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.48), significantly longer hospital stays (MD: 0.66 day; 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.15), longer fluoroscopy time (MD: 78.12 s; 95% CI, 66.08 to 90.15), and larger decreases in hemoglobin (MD: 0.59 g/dl; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.02) than was RIRS. No significant differences were observed with respect to operative time, stone-free rate, complication rate or auxiliary procedures. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated that Microperc might be more effective in adult patients than RIRS will due to its higher SFR. However, longer hospital stays, longer fluoroscopy time and a larger decrease in hemoglobin should be considered cautiously.
Project description:Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urological conditions with a huge socio-economic impact. About 50% of recurrent stone-formers have just one lifetime recurrence and >10% of patients present with a high recurrent disease requiring subsequent and sometimes multiple surgical interventions. The advent of new technology has made endourological procedures the pinnacle of stone treatment, including procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), retrograde intrarenal surgery and miniaturized PCNL procedures. Researchers have primarily focused on comparisons with respect to stone-free rates, procedure parameters and post-operative complications. However, the effect of these three procedures on renal function or indexes of renal injury has not been sufficiently examined. This was only reported in a few studies as a secondary objective with the use of common and not the appropriate and detailed renal parameters. This review presents current literature regarding the use of novel and highly predictive biomarkers for diagnosing acute kidney injury, discusses potential mechanisms through which endourological procedures for renal stone treatment may affect renal function and proposes areas with open questions where future research efforts in the field should focus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We analyzed the influence of anesthesia methods on surgical outcomes and renal function in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in a prospective, randomized controlled study. METHODS:Seventy patients who underwent RIRS from September 2015 to February 2017 were randomly allocated to general anesthesia (GA) or spinal anesthesia (SA) groups. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate, and separate renal function was evaluated using nuclear medicine tests. Maneuverability and accessibility were evaluated after every surgery. All procedures were performed by a single experienced surgeon (SY Cho). RESULTS:Stone-free rate was higher in the GA (92.3%, 36 of 39) than the SA (71.0%, 22 of 31) (P?=?0.019) group. Pain score was higher in the GA than in the SA group on the first postoperative morning (P?=?0.025), but pain scores of the two groups were similar before discharge (P?=?0.560). There were no differences in the changes of serum creatinine level (P?=?0.792) and changes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (P?=?0.807). Differences of separate renal function between operative and contralateral site increased significantly in patients under GA than under SA at postoperative 3?months (P?=?0.014). Maneuverability and accessibility were better in SA with sedation than GA (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:RIRS under SA showed advantages in renal function change using renogram at postoperative 3?months and in lower pain score on the first postoperative morning. Performance of operator under SA was worse than that under GA and significantly improved with sedation. RIRS under SA showed advantages in lower pain score at postoperative first day. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov ID is NCT03957109, and registration date is 17th May 2019. This study was retrospectively registered.
Project description:Treatment of pediatric stone disease is a challenge, more so, in the case of infants. Infantile anuria due to calculus disease is rare, as pre-renal causes predominate. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is a less often sorted modality in infants, due to the lingering skepticism regarding handling pediatric ureters and urethra. We hereby present the first case report of bilateral simultaneous RIRS, in a 4 month old male child. With better stone free rates than ESWL and a lesser incidence of major complications, we opted for RIRS in this child, taking advantage of the pre-stented ureter.
Project description:Ultrasound-guided renal access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a safe, effective, and low-cost procedure commonly performed worldwide, but a technique underutilized by urologists in the United States. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the practicing urologist with methods for ultrasound guidance for percutaneous renal access. We discuss two alternative techniques for gaining renal access for PCNL under ultrasound guidance. We also describe a novel technique of using the puncture needle to reposition residual stone fragments to avoid additional tract dilation. With appropriate training, ultrasound-guided renal access for PCNL can lead to reduced radiation exposure, accurate renal access, and excellent stone-free success rates and clinical outcomes.