Tackling the Antibiotic Resistance Caused by Class A ?-Lactamases through the Use of ?-Lactamase Inhibitory Protein.
ABSTRACT: ?-Lactams are the most widely used and effective antibiotics for the treatment of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, bacteria have developed several mechanisms to combat these therapeutic agents. One of the major resistance mechanisms involves the production of ?-lactamase that hydrolyzes the ?-lactam ring thereby inactivating the drug. To overcome this threat, the small molecule ?-lactamase inhibitors (e.g., clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam) have been used in combination with ?-lactams for treatment. However, the bacterial resistance to this kind of combination therapy has evolved recently. Therefore, multiple attempts have been made to discover and develop novel broad-spectrum ?-lactamase inhibitors that sufficiently work against ?-lactamase producing bacteria. ?-lactamase inhibitory proteins (BLIPs) (e.g., BLIP, BLIP-I and BLIP-II) are potential inhibitors that have been found from soil bacterium Streptomyces spp. BLIPs bind and inhibit a wide range of class A ?-lactamases from a diverse set of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including TEM-1, PC1, SME-1, SHV-1 and KPC-2. To the best of our knowledge, this article represents the first systematic review on ?-lactamase inhibitors with a particular focus on BLIPs and their inherent properties that favorably position them as a source of biologically-inspired drugs to combat antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, an extensive compilation of binding data from ?-lactamase?BLIP interaction studies is presented herein. Such information help to provide key insights into the origin of interaction that may be useful for rationally guiding future drug design efforts.
Project description:KPC beta-lactamases hydrolyze the "last resort" beta-lactam antibiotics (carbapenems) used to treat multidrug resistant infections and are compromising efforts to combat life-threatening Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitals worldwide. Consequently, the development of novel inhibitors is essential for restoring the effectiveness of existing antibiotics. The beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) is a competitive inhibitor of a number of class A beta-lactamases. In this study, we characterize the previously unreported interaction between KPC-2 beta-lactamase and BLIP. Biochemical results show that BLIP is an extremely potent inhibitor of KPC enzymes, binding KPC-2 and KPC-3 with subnanomolar affinity. To understand the basis of affinity and specificity in the beta-lactamase-BLIP system, the crystallographic structure of the KPC-2-BLIP complex was determined to 1.9 A resolution. Computational alanine scanning was also conducted to identify putative hot spots in the KPC-2-BLIP interface. Interestingly, the two complexes making up the KPC-2-BLIP asymmetric unit are distinct, and in one structure, the BLIP F142 loop is absent, in contrast to homologous structures in which it occupies the active site. This finding and other sources of structural plasticity appear to contribute to BLIP's promiscuity, enabling it to respond to mutations at the beta-lactamase interface. Given the continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance, the high-resolution KPC-2-BLIP structure will facilitate its use as a template for the rational design of new inhibitors of this problematic enzyme.
Project description:?-Lactamase production is one of the most important strategies for Gram-negative bacteria to combat ?-lactam antibiotics. Studies of the regulation of ?-lactamase expression have largely been focused on the class C ?-lactamase AmpC, whose induction by ?-lactams requires LysR-type regulator AmpR and permease AmpG-dependent peptidoglycan recycling intermediates. In Shewanella, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and is a reservoir for antibiotic resistance, production of the class D ?-lactamase BlaA confers bacteria with natural resistance to many ?-lactams. Expression of the blaA gene in the genus representative Shewanella oneidensis is distinct from the AmpC paradigm because of the lack of an AmpR homologue and the presence of an additional AmpG-independent regulatory pathway. In this study, using transposon mutagenesis, we identify proteins that are involved in blaA regulation. Inactivation of mrcA and lpoA, which encode penicillin binding protein 1a (PBP1a) and its lipoprotein cofactor, LpoA, respectively, drastically enhances blaA expression in the absence of ?-lactams. Although PBP1b and its cognate, LpoB, also exist in S. oneidensis, their roles in blaA induction are dispensable. We further show that the mrcA-mediated blaA expression is independent of AmpG.
Project description:The ?-lactamase inhibitory proteins (BLIPs) are a model system for examining molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions. BLIP and BLIP-II are structurally unrelated proteins that bind and inhibit TEM-1 ?-lactamase. Both BLIPs share a common binding interface on TEM-1 and make contacts with many of the same TEM-1 surface residues. BLIP-II, however, binds TEM-1 over 150-fold tighter than BLIP despite the fact that it has fewer contact residues and a smaller binding interface. The role of eleven TEM-1 amino acid residues that contact both BLIP and BLIP-II was examined by alanine mutagenesis and determination of the association (k on) and dissociation (k off) rate constants for binding each partner. The substitutions had little impact on association rates and resulted in a wide range of dissociation rates as previously observed for substitutions on the BLIP side of the interface. The substitutions also had less effect on binding affinity for BLIP than BLIP-II. This is consistent with the high affinity and small binding interface of the TEM-1-BLIP-II complex, which predicts per residue contributions should be higher for TEM-1 binding to BLIP-II versus BLIP. Two TEM-1 residues (E104 and M129) were found to be hotspots for binding BLIP while five (L102, Y105, P107, K111, and M129) are hotspots for binding BLIP-II with only M129 as a common hotspot for both. Thus, although the same TEM-1 surface binds to both BLIP and BLIP-II, the distribution of binding energy on the surface is different for the two target proteins, that is, different binding strategies are employed.
Project description:Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors.
Project description:The ?-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) binds and inhibits a wide range of class A ?-lactamases including the TEM-1 ?-lactamase (Ki = 0.5 nM), which is widely present in Gram-negative bacteria, and the KPC-2 ?-lactamase (Ki = 1.2 nM), which hydrolyzes virtually all clinically useful ?-lactam antibiotics. The extent to which the specificity of a protein that binds a broad range of targets can be modified to display narrow specificity was explored in this study by engineering BLIP to bind selectively to KPC-2 ?-lactamase. A genetic screen for BLIP function in Escherichia coli was used to narrow the binding specificity of BLIP by identifying amino acid substitutions that retain affinity for KPC-2 while losing affinity for TEM-1 ?-lactamase. The combination of single substitutions yielded the K74T:W112D BLIP variant, which was shown by inhibition assays to retain high affinity for KPC-2 with a Ki of 0.4 nM, while drastically losing affinity for TEM-1 with a Ki > 10 ?M. The K74T:W112D mutant therefore binds KPC-2 ?-lactamase 3 times more tightly while binding TEM-1 > 20000-fold more weakly than wild-type BLIP. The K74T:W112D BLIP variant also exhibited low affinity (Ki > 10 ?M) for other class A ?-lactamases. The high affinity and narrow specificity of BLIP K74T:W112D for KPC-2 ?-lactamase suggest it could be a useful sensor for the presence of this enzyme in multidrug-resistant bacteria. This was demonstrated with an assay employing BLIP K74T:W112D conjugated to a bead to specifically pull-down and detect KPC-2 ?-lactamase in lysates from clinical bacterial isolates containing multiple ?-lactamases.
Project description:The ?-lactams retain a central place in the antibacterial armamentarium. In Gram-negative bacteria, ?-lactamase enzymes that hydrolyze the amide bond of the four-membered ?-lactam ring are the primary resistance mechanism, with multiple enzymes disseminating on mobile genetic elements across opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Escherichia coli) and non-fermenting organisms (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa). ?-Lactamases divide into four classes; the active-site serine ?-lactamases (classes A, C and D) and the zinc-dependent or metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs; class B). Here we review recent advances in mechanistic understanding of each class, focusing upon how growing numbers of crystal structures, in particular for ?-lactam complexes, and methods such as neutron diffraction and molecular simulations, have improved understanding of the biochemistry of ?-lactam breakdown. A second focus is ?-lactamase interactions with carbapenems, as carbapenem-resistant bacteria are of grave clinical concern and carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes such as KPC (class A) NDM (class B) and OXA-48 (class D) are proliferating worldwide. An overview is provided of the changing landscape of ?-lactamase inhibitors, exemplified by the introduction to the clinic of combinations of ?-lactams with diazabicyclooctanone and cyclic boronate serine ?-lactamase inhibitors, and of progress and strategies toward clinically useful MBL inhibitors. Despite the long history of ?-lactamase research, we contend that issues including continuing unresolved questions around mechanism; opportunities afforded by new technologies such as serial femtosecond crystallography; the need for new inhibitors, particularly for MBLs; the likely impact of new ?-lactam:inhibitor combinations and the continuing clinical importance of ?-lactams mean that this remains a rewarding research area.
Project description:The worldwide proliferation of life-threatening metallo-?-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria is a serious concern to public health. MBLs are compromising the therapeutic efficacies of ?-lactams, particularly carbapenems, which are last-resort antibiotics indicated for various multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Inhibition of enzymes mediating antibiotic resistance in bacteria is one of the major promising means for overcoming bacterial resistance. Compounds having potential MBL-inhibitory activity have been reported, but none are currently under clinical trials. The need for developing safe and efficient MBL inhibitors (MBLIs) is obvious, particularly with the continuous spread of MBLs worldwide. In this review, the emergence and escalation of MBLs in Gram-negative bacteria are discussed. The relationships between different class B ?-lactamases identified up to 2017 are represented by a phylogenetic tree and summarized. In addition, approved and/or clinical-phase serine ?-lactamase inhibitors are recapitulated to reflect the successful advances made in developing class A ?-lactamase inhibitors. Reported MBLIs, their inhibitory properties, and their purported modes of inhibition are delineated. Insights into structural variations of MBLs and the challenges involved in developing potent MBLIs are also elucidated and discussed. Currently, natural products and MBL-resistant ?-lactam analogues are the most promising agents that can become clinically efficient MBLIs. A deeper comprehension of the mechanisms of action and activity spectra of the various MBLs and their inhibitors will serve as a bedrock for further investigations that can result in clinically useful MBLIs to curb this global menace.
Project description:The interactions between ?-lactamase inhibitory proteins (BLIPs) and ?-lactamases have been used as model systems to understand the principles of affinity and specificity in protein-protein interactions. The most extensively studied tight binding inhibitor, BLIP, has been characterized with respect to amino acid determinants of affinity and specificity for binding ?-lactamases. BLIP-II, however, shares no sequence or structural homology to BLIP and is a femtomolar to picomolar potency inhibitor, and the amino acid determinants of binding affinity and specificity are unknown. In this study, alanine scanning mutagenesis was used in combination with determinations of on and off rates for each mutant to define the contribution of residues on the BLIP-II binding surface to both affinity and specificity toward four ?-lactamases of diverse sequence. The residues making the largest contribution to binding energy are heavily biased toward aromatic amino acids near the center of the binding surface. In addition, substitutions that reduce binding energy do so by increasing off rates without impacting on rates. Also, residues with large contributions to binding energy generally exhibit low temperature factors in the structures of complexes. Finally, with the exception of D206A, BLIP-II alanine substitutions exhibit a similar trend of effect for all ?-lactamases, i.e., a substitution that reduces affinity for one ?-lactamase usually reduces affinity for all ?-lactamases tested.
Project description:The production of β-lactamases by bacteria is the most common mechanism of resistance to the widely prescribed β-lactam antibiotics. β-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) competitively inhibits class A β-lactamases via two binding loops that occlude the active site. It has been shown that BLIP Tyr50 is a specificity determinant in that substitutions at this position result in large differential changes in the relative affinity of BLIP for class A β-lactamases.In this study, the effect of systematic substitutions at BLIP position 50 on binding to class A β-lactamases was examined to further explore the role of BLIP Tyr50 in modulating specificity. The results indicate the sequence requirements at position 50 are widely different depending on the target β-lactamase. Stringent sequence requirements were observed at Tyr50 for binding Bacillus anthracis Bla1 while moderate requirements for binding TEM-1 and relaxed requirements for binding KPC-2 β-lactamase were seen. These findings cannot be easily rationalized based on the β-lactamase residues in direct contact with BLIP Tyr50 since they are identical for Bla1 and KPC-2 suggesting that differences in the BLIP-β-lactamase interface outside the local environment of Tyr50 influence the effect of substitutions.Results from this study and previous studies suggest that substitutions at BLIP Tyr50 may induce changes at the interface outside its local environment and point to the complexity of predicting the impact of substitutions at a protein-protein interaction interface.
Project description:?-Lactamases hydrolyze ?-lactam antibiotics to provide drug resistance to bacteria. ?-Lactamase inhibitory protein-II (BLIP-II) is a potent proteinaceous inhibitor that exhibits low picomolar affinity for class A ?-lactamases. This study examines the driving forces for binding between BLIP-II and ?-lactamases using a combination of presteady state kinetics, isothermal titration calorimetry, and x-ray crystallography. The measured dissociation rate constants for BLIP-II and various ?-lactamases ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-7) s(-1) and are comparable with those found in some of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. The crystal structures of BLIP-II alone and in complex with Bacillus anthracis Bla1 ?-lactamase revealed no significant side-chain movement in BLIP-II in the complex versus the monomer. The structural rigidity of BLIP-II minimizes the loss of the entropy upon complex formation and, as indicated by thermodynamics experiments, may be a key determinant of the observed potent inhibition of ?-lactamases.