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A Long-Standing Complex Tropical Dipole Shapes Marine Microbial Biogeography.


ABSTRACT: Microbial population size, production, diversity, and community structure are greatly influenced by the surrounding physicochemical conditions, such as large-scale biogeographic provinces and water masses. An oceanic mesoscale dipole consists of a cyclonic eddy and an anticyclonic eddy. Dipoles occur frequently in the ocean and usually last from a few days to several months; they have significant impacts on local and global oceanic biological, ecological, and geochemical processes. To better understand how dipoles shape microbial communities, we examined depth-resolved distributions of microbial communities across a dipole in the South China Sea. Our data demonstrated that the dipole had a substantial influence on microbial distributions, community structure, and functional groups both vertically and horizontally. Large alpha and beta diversity differences were observed between anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies in surface and subsurface layers, consistent with distribution changes of major bacterial groups in the dipole. The dipole created uplift, downward transport, enrichment, depletion, and horizontal transport effects. We also found that the edge of the dipole might induce strong subduction, indicated by the presence of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in deep waters. Our findings suggest that dipoles, with their unique characteristics, might act as a driver for microbial community dynamics.IMPORTANCE Oceanic dipoles, which consist of a cyclonic eddy and an anticyclonic eddy together, are among the most contrasted phenomena in the ocean. Dipoles generate strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection, inducing biological responses. This study provides vertical profiles of microbial abundance, diversity, and community structure in a mesoscale dipole. We identify the links between the physical oceanography and microbial oceanography and demonstrate that the dipole, with its unique features, could act as a driver for microbial community dynamics, which may have large impacts on both the local and global marine biogeochemical cycles.

SUBMITTER: Yan W 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6121994 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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