Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity that resolved upon smoking cessation.
ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) is well-known as a serological marker for small-vessel vasculitis. However, when a smoker with interstitial lung disease (ILD) exhibits serum ANCA positivity without systemic vasculitis, diagnosis is a matter of debate; the relationship between smoking and ANCA is unknown. We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with elevated MPO-ANCA. Surgical lung biopsy showed emphysema and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia without vasculitis. The MPO-ANCA level decreased after smoking cessation, and no vasculitis or progression was observed during 3 years of follow-up. This suggested that smoking cessation was related to normalization of MPO-ANCA and corresponding disease activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate circulating cytokine profiles in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), classified by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) specificity (proteinase 3 ANCA [PR3-ANCA] versus myeloperoxidase ANCA [MPO-ANCA]) or by clinical diagnosis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA] versus microscopic polyangiitis [MPA]). METHODS:A panel of 29 cytokines was tested in 186 patients with active AAV at inclusion into the Rituximab in AAV trial. Cytokine concentrations were compared between groups within each classification system. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, and renal insufficiency were performed, with each biomarker as a dependent variable and ANCA specificity and clinical diagnosis as explanatory variables of interest. RESULTS:Levels of 9 circulating cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], IL-15, IL-18, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL-17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC], IL-18 binding protein [IL-18 BP], soluble IL-2 receptor ? [sIL-2R?], and nerve growth factor ? [NGF?]) were significantly higher in PR3-AAV than MPO-AAV, 4 cytokines (sIL6R, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II [sTNFRII], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1]) were higher in MPO-AAV than in PR3-AAV, 6 cytokines (IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-15, IL-18, sIL-2R?, and NGF?) were higher in GPA than in MPA, and 3 cytokines (osteopontin, sTNFRII, and NGAL) were higher in MPA than in GPA (all P < 0.05). For nearly all cytokines, the difference between PR3-AAV and MPO-AAV was larger than that between GPA and MPA. The multivariate analysis showed that 8 cytokines (IL-15, IL-8, IL-18 BP, NGF-?, sICAM-1, TARC, osteopontin, and kidney injury molecule 1 (P < 0.05) distinguished patients with AAV better (lower P values and larger effect sizes) when grouped by ANCA specificity than by clinical diagnosis. CONCLUSION:Distinct cytokine profiles were identified for PR3-AAV versus MPO-AAV and for GPA versus MPA. Differences in these circulating immune mediators are more strongly associated with ANCA specificity than with clinical diagnosis, suggesting that heterogeneity in the AAV subtypes extends beyond clinical phenotypes.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Increasing evidence has suggested that linear epitopes of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) directed to myeloperoxidase (MPO) might provide clues to the pathogenesis of propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study mapped epitopes of MPO-ANCA in sera from patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA (with or without vasculitis) and primary AAV, aiming to analyze certain epitopes associated with the development of PTU-induced AAV.<h4>Methods</h4>Six recombinant linear fragments, covering the whole amino acid sequence of a single chain of MPO, were produced from Escherichia coli. Sera from 17 patients with PTU-induced AAV, 17 patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA but without clinical evidence of vasculitis, and 64 patients with primary AAV were collected at presentation. Of the 17 patients with PTU-induced AAV, 12 also had sera at remission. The epitope specificities were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using the recombinant fragments as solid-phase ligands.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA but without clinical vasculitis, sera from PTU-induced AAV patients showed significantly higher reactivity against the H1 fragment of MPO (optical density values: 0.17 (0.10 to 0.35) versus 0.10 (0.04 to 0.21), P?=?0.038) and could recognize a significantly higher number of fragments (two (none to four) versus one (none to two), P?=?0.026). Compared with sera from primary AAV patients, sera from PTU-induced AAV patients had significantly higher reactivity to the P fragment and the H4 fragment (47.1% versus 14.1% P?<?0.001; 41.2% versus 14.1%, P?=?0.034, respectively), and could recognize a significantly higher number of fragments (two (none to four) versus one (none to two), P?=?0.013]. Among the 12 PTU-induced AAV patients with sequential samples, the number of fragments recognized in remission was significantly less than that in initial onset (two (none to four) versus none (none to 0.75), P?<?0.001].<h4>Conclusions</h4>Linear epitopes of MPO molecules might be associated closely with PTU-induced AAV. In particular, the P and H4 fragments may be important epitopes in PTU-induced AAV.
Project description:Previous studies have evaluated the risk factors for relapse of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and the biomarkers of AAV for predicting relapse. However, little is known about the association between the presence of sinusitis and relapse and changes in the ANCA levels in AAV. This single-center, retrospective cohort study included 104 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) between 2006 and 2018 and were treated at the Aichi Medical University Hospital in Japan. The relationships between sinusitis and relapse of vasculitis and elevated MPO-ANCA levels were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for clinically relevant factors. During the entire follow-up period (median, 24 months; interquartile range, 7-54 months), 93 (89.4%) patients achieved remission. After achieving remission, 38 (40.9%) patients experienced at least one relapse (13 [65.0%] in the sinusitis group; 25 [34.3%] in the non-sinusitis group). Sinusitis was identified as a significant predictor of relapse (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-4.88; P = 0.015). Furthermore, sinusitis was more likely to be associated with elevated MPO-ANCA levels (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.14-5.92; P = 0.024). In conclusion, sinusitis was associated with a higher risk of relapse and elevated MPO-ANCA levels in MPA patients, suggesting that careful management may be required to reduce the risk of relapse in patients with sinusitis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the optimal treatment strategy for these patients.
Project description:Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are closely associated with systemic small vessel vasculitis characterized by segmental vessel wall necrotizing inflammation and a paucity of immunoglobulin deposition. Clinically, in vitro and experimental animal model observations indicate a direct pathogenic role for ANCA. This review focuses on the results of experiments utilizing a mouse model of ANCA disease induced by transfer of mouse anti-MPO IgG or anti-MPO lymphocytes into recipient mice, which causes small vessel vasculitis and glomerulonephritis that closely mimics human disease. Evidence for the following conclusion about this model, and by implication about human ANCA disease, will be summarized as follows: (1) anti-MPO IgG is sufficient even in the absence of functional T cells to cause disease and anti-MPO T lymphocytes are not sufficient to cause acute injury; (2) neutrophils are required; (3) ANCA antigens in bone marrow-derived cells are sufficient targets; (4) increased circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and microbial products exacerbate disease, and concurrent viral infection exacerbates and modulates the phenotype of disease; (5) Fcγ receptor engagement is required for disease induction, and Fcγ receptor repertoire modulates the phenotype of disease, especially pulmonary disease; (6) activation of the alternative pathway of complement is required, complement is activated by factors released by neutrophils stimulated by ANCA IgG and engagement of C5a receptors is a primary event in complement-mediated amplification; and (7) genetic background has a marked influence on the severity and outcome of disease, and modified gene expression in bone marrow-derived cells is the primary basis for genetically determined differences in disease susceptibility. Investigations using this animal model of ANCA disease have provided important insights into the cellular, molecular and genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis of ANCA disease which are likely to lead to the identification of improved markers of disease activity and response to therapy, as well as more effective and less toxic therapies.
Project description:A number of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and meta-analyses of genetic variants have been performed in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. We reinterpreted previous studies using false-positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). This study searched publications in PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) up to February 2018. Identification of noteworthy associations were analyzed using FPRP and BFDP, and data (i.e., odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), p-value) related to significant associations were separately extracted. Using filtered gene variants, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and protein?protein interaction (PPI) networks were performed. Overall, 241 articles were identified, and 7 were selected for analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by GWASs were shown to be noteworthy, whereas only 27% of significant results from meta-analyses of observational studies were noteworthy. Eighty-five percent of SNPs with borderline p-values (5.0 × 10-8 < p < 0.05) in GWASs were found to be noteworthy. No overlapping SNPs were found between PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA vasculitis. GO analysis revealed immune-related GO terms, including "antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II", "interferon-gamma-mediated (IFN-?) signaling pathway". By using FPRP and BFDP, network analysis of noteworthy genetic variants discovered genetic risk factors associated with the IFN-? pathway as novel mechanisms potentially implicated in the complex pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of belimumab as adjunctive therapy to maintain remission in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). METHODS:In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with AAV (ages ?18 years) were randomized 1:1 to receive azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day), low-dose oral glucocorticoids (?10 mg/day), and either intravenous belimumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo, following remission induction with rituximab or cyclophosphamide along with glucocorticoids. The primary end point was time to first protocol-specified event (PSE), with first PSE defined as a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) of ?6, presence of ?1 major BVAS item, or receipt of prohibited medications for any reason, resulting in treatment failure (adjusted for ANCA type [proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO)], disease stage at induction, and induction regimen). Vasculitis relapse was defined as the PSE of either a BVAS activity score of ?6 or receipt of prohibited medications for vasculitis. Changes in treatment practice led to truncation of the study population from ~300 patients to ~100 patients. RESULTS:The intent-to-treat population totaled 105 patients with AAV, of whom 52 (40 with PR3-ANCAs, 12 with MPO-ANCAs) received placebo and 53 (41 with PR3-ANCAs, 12 with MPO-ANCAs) received belimumab; 27 of the patients were in rituximab-induced disease remission, while 78 were in cyclophosphamide-induced disease remission at baseline. Compared with placebo, treatment with belimumab did not reduce the risk of a PSE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.44-2.59; P = 0.884) or vasculitis relapse (adjusted HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.29-2.65; P = 0.821). The overall rate of PSEs was low (11 [21.2%] of 52 patients receiving placebo, 10 [18.9%] of 53 patients receiving belimumab). Vasculitis relapse in the placebo group (n = 8) occurred independent of the induction regimen, disease stage, or ANCA type. All vasculitis relapses in the belimumab group (n = 6) occurred in patients who had PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis with cyclophosphamide-induced disease remission. Adverse events occurred in 49 (92.5%) of 53 patients receiving belimumab and 43 (82.7%) of 52 patients receiving placebo, with no new safety concerns. CONCLUSION:Belimumab plus azathioprine and glucocorticoids for the maintenance of remission in AAV did not reduce the risk of relapse.
Project description:A novel patient cluster in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) may be identified in Japan. We performed multiple correspondence and cluster analysis regarding 427 clinically diagnosed AAV patients excluding eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Model 1 included the ANCA phenotype, items of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score, and interstitial lung disease; model 2 included serum creatinine (s-Cr) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with model 1 components. In seven clusters determined in model 1, the ANCA-negative (n?=?8) and proteinase 3-ANCA-positive (n?=?41) groups emerged as two distinct clusters. The other five myeloperoxidase-ANCA-positive clusters were characterized by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) (n?=?47); cutaneous (n?=?36); renal (n?=?256), non-renal (n?=?33); and both ENT and cutaneous symptoms (n?=?6). Four clusters in model 2 were characterized by myeloperoxidase-ANCA negativity (n?=?42), without s-Cr elevation (<?1.3 mg/dL) (n?=?157), s-Cr elevation (??1.3 mg/dL) with high CRP (>?10 mg/dL) (n?=?71), or s-Cr elevation (??1.3 mg/dL) without high CRP (??10 mg/dL) (n?=?157). Overall, renal, and relapse-free survival rates were significantly different across the four clusters in model 2. ENT, cutaneous, and renal symptoms may be useful in characterization of Japanese AAV patients with myeloperoxidase-ANCA. The combination of s-Cr and CRP levels may be predictive of prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immunopathologic features predict renal function at baseline and follow-up in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). The interstitial infiltrate consists predominantly of T lymphocytes, but their pathophysiologic significance is unclear, especially in light of the success of B-cell-directed therapy. METHODS:Renal biopsies from 33 patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC; n = 17) or rituximab (RTX; n = 16) in the RTX in ANCA-associated vasculitis (RAVE) trial were classified according to the new ANCA GN classification. T- and B-cell infiltration in the interstitium was assessed by immunostaining for CD3 and CD20. Correlations of clinical and histologic parameters with renal function at set time points were examined. RESULTS:The mean (SD) baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 36 (20) mL/min/1.73 m2. ANCA GN class distribution was 46% focal, 33% mixed, 12% sclerotic and 9% crescentic. The interstitial infiltrate consisted of >50% CD3 positive cells in 69% of biopsies, but >50% CD20 positive cells only in 8% of biopsies. In a multiple linear regression model, only baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) correlated with GFR at 6, 12, and 18 months. Interstitial B- and T-cell infiltrates had no significant impact on long-term prognosis, independent of the treatment limb. A differential effect was noted only at 6 months, where a dense CD3 positive infiltrate predicted lower GFR in the RTX group and a CD20 positive infiltrate predicted higher GFR in the CYC group. CONCLUSIONS:In ANCA-associated GN, the interstitial infiltrate contains mainly T lymphocytes. However, it is neither reflecting baseline renal function nor predictive of response to treatment, regardless of the immunosuppression regimen employed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:There is accumulating evidence that complement activation is important in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) pathogenesis. This study was undertaken to investigate complement activation in AAV with myeloperoxidase (MPO) positivity and AAV with proteinase 3 (PR3) positivity after determining optimal methods for measuring activated complement factors in circulation. METHODS:Participants included 98 patients with AAV (45 MPO-ANCA positive, 53 PR3-ANCA positive) and 35 healthy controls. Plasma was obtained from blood collected using EDTA tubes, with or without 100 ?g/ml Futhan. Levels of Bb, C3a, C5a, soluble C5b-9 (sC5b-9), properdin, and C4d were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Group comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's 2-sample test. Paired data were analyzed using a matched pairs signed rank test. RESULTS:Compared to healthy controls, certain complement analyte levels were high in patients with active AAV with MPO positivity, including C3a (P < 0.0001), C5a (P = 0.0004), and sC5b-9 (P = 0.0007). During remission, levels of Bb (P = 0.001), C3a (P < 0.0001), and sC5b-9 (P = 0.003) were higher. Compared to healthy controls, C3a (P < 0.0001), C5a (P = 0.002), sC5b-9 (P = 0.0001), and C4d (P = 0.005) levels were higher in patients with active AAV with PR3 positivity; levels of C3a (P < 0.0001) and C4d (P = 0.007) were also higher duriing remission. There were no significant differences in any complement analyte for either ANCA serotype between patients with active disease and those with disease in remission. Among patients with paired samples, sC5-9 levels were significantly lower during disease remission compared to active disease. C5a was significantly lower among patients with disease in long-term remission who were not receiving therapy. For Bb, C5a, and sC5b-9, median levels and individual values were considerably higher in control and patient samples processed without Futhan compared to those processed with Futhan. CONCLUSION:Complement activation occurs in both MPO-positive AAV and PR3-positive AAV. The complement activation profile differs according to disease activity and possibly ANCA serotype. Futhan reduces in vitro complement activation and provides a more accurate measurement.
Project description:Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis exhibits endothelial damage, but the capacity for vessel repair in this disorder is not well understood. Here, we observed a marked increase in serum levels of soluble Flt1 (sFlt1), a potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, in patients with active ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with patients during remission and other controls. Serum levels of sFlt1 correlated with C5a, an anaphylatoxin released after complement activation. Serum from patients with acute ANCA-associated vasculitis disrupted blood flow in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, suggesting an antiangiogenic effect. Preincubation with excess human vascular endothelial growth factor prevented this effect. Anti-proteinase-3 (PR3) mAb and serum containing PR3-ANCA from patients with active vasculitis both induced a significant and sustained release of sFlt1 from monocytes, whereas anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) mAb or polyclonal antibodies did not. However, the serum containing polyclonal PR3-ANCA did not induce release of sFlt1 from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In summary, these data suggest that anti-PR3 antibodies, and to a much lesser extent anti-MPO antibodies, increase sFlt1 during acute ANCA-associated vasculitis, leading to an antiangiogenic state that hinders endothelial repair.