Data on dielectric strength heterogeneity associated with printing orientation in additively manufactured polymer materials.
ABSTRACT: The following data describe the dielectric performance of additively manufactured polymer materials printed in various orientations for four common additive manufacturing techniques. Data are presented for selected commercial 3D printing materials fabricated using four common 3D printing techniques: Stereolithography (SLA), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Polymer Jetting (PolyJet). Dielectric strengths are compiled for the listed materials, based on the ASTM D139 standard. This article provides data related to "Dielectric Strength Heterogeneity Associated with Printing Orientation in Additively Manufactured Polymer Materials" .
Project description:Computer-aided design software and additive manufacturing provide flexibility for the direct fabrication of multi-material devices. This design and fabrication versatility has been investigated for the manufacture of dielectric spiral phase plates (SPP) that generate electromagnetic waves with helical wavefronts. Three types of SPPs designed to produce an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode number l = |1| were additively manufactured using material extrusion and polyjet fabrication methods. The OAM mode characteristics of the transformed helical microwaves as a function of the SPP geometrical features were investigated experimentally in the 12-18 GHz frequency range. The SPPs were further combined with an additively manufactured dielectric lens that provided a marked improvement in OAM mode purity. Finally, multiplexing and de-multiplexing of two OAM modes were demonstrated successfully using an optimum SPP geometry and arrangement.
Project description:The integration of electronics into the process flow of the additive manufacturing of 3D objects is demonstrated using water soluble films as a temporary flexible substrate. Three process variants are detailed to evaluate their capabilities to meet the additive manufacturing requirements. One of them, called water transfer printing, shows the best ability to fabricate electronics onto 3D additively manufactured objects. Moreover, a curved capacitive touchpad hidden by color films is successfully transferred onto the 3D objects, showing a potential application of this technology to fabricate fully additively manufactured discrete or even hidden electronic devices.
Project description:Here we report the first example of a class of additively manufactured carbon fiber reinforced composite (AMCFRC) materials which have been achieved through the use of a latent thermal cured aromatic thermoset resin system, through an adaptation of direct ink writing (DIW) 3D-printing technology. We have developed a means of printing high performance thermoset carbon fiber composites, which allow the fiber component of a resin and carbon fiber fluid to be aligned in three dimensions via controlled micro-extrusion and subsequently cured into complex geometries. Characterization of our composite systems clearly show that we achieved a high order of fiber alignment within the composite microstructure, which in turn allows these materials to outperform equivalently filled randomly oriented carbon fiber and polymer composites. Furthermore, our AM carbon fiber composite systems exhibit highly orthotropic mechanical and electrical responses as a direct result of the alignment of carbon fiber bundles in the microscale which we predict will ultimately lead to the design of truly tailorable carbon fiber/polymer hybrid materials having locally programmable complex electrical, thermal and mechanical response.
Project description:Development and comparison of spine-shaped phantoms generated by two different 3D-printing technologies, digital light processing (DLP) and Polyjet has been purposed to utilize in patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of stereotactic body radiation treatment. The developed 3D-printed spine QA phantom consisted of an acrylic body phantom and a 3D-printed spine shaped object. DLP and Polyjet 3D printers using a high-density acrylic polymer were employed to produce spine-shaped phantoms based on CT images. Image fusion was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of our phantom, and the Hounsfield units (HUs) were measured based on each CT image. Two different intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans based on both CT phantom image sets from the two printed spine-shaped phantoms with acrylic body phantoms were designed to deliver 16 Gy dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and were compared for target coverage and normal organ-sparing. Image fusion demonstrated good reproducibility of the developed phantom. The HU values of the DLP- and Polyjet-printed spine vertebrae differed by 54.3 on average. The PTV Dmax dose for the DLP-generated phantom was about 1.488 Gy higher than that for the Polyjet-generated phantom. The organs at risk received a lower dose for the 3D printed spine-shaped phantom image using the DLP technique than for the phantom image using the Polyjet technique. Despite using the same material for printing the spine-shaped phantom, these phantoms generated by different 3D printing techniques, DLP and Polyjet, showed different HU values and these differently appearing HU values according to the printing technique could be an extra consideration for developing the 3D printed spine-shaped phantom depending on the patient's age and the density of the spinal bone. Therefore, the 3D printing technique and materials should be carefully chosen by taking into account the condition of the patient in order to accurately produce 3D printed patient-specific QA phantom.
Project description:Establishing processing routes for obtaining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) with uniformly-dispersed reinforcements is one of the main subjects in additively manufactured composite materials to achieve designed microstructures and mechanical properties. Here we report on the microstructural features of compositionally graded WC/Co-alloy composites additively manufactured by multi-beam laser directed energy deposition (multi-beam LDED). For tailoring microstructures of compositionally graded WC/Co-alloy composites with uniformly-dispersed reinforcements, the combinational method: the laser-beam defocus function in the multi-beam LDED system and granulated powder was attempted. By laser defocusing in the multi-beam LDED system, composites with uniformly-dispersed WC particles in Co alloy matrix was successfully obtained due to melting of Co bond in WC-12?wt.%Co granulated particles. It was found that the laser defocusing of multi-beam lasers affects temperature increase of flying powder during the laser focusing area, resulting in change of processing mode from melt-pool mode to thermal spray mode. The preferable property gradients in the WC/Co-alloy composites could be obtained by controlling the feeding rate of the powders and laser-beam defocus. These experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the laser-beam-defocus function in the multi-beam LDED system as a key factor for tailoring microstructures of additively-manufactured functionally graded MMCs with uniformly-dispersed reinforcements.
Project description:Additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials commonly possess substantial microscale internal stresses that manifest as intergranular and intragranular residual stresses. However, the impact of these residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of AM materials remains unexplored. Here we combine in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and computational modelling to quantify the lattice strains in different families of grains with specific orientations and associated intergranular residual stresses in an AM 316L stainless steel under uniaxial tension. We measure pronounced tension-compression asymmetries in yield strength and work hardening for as-printed stainless steel, and show they are associated with back stresses originating from heterogeneous dislocation distributions and resultant intragranular residual stresses. We further report that heat treatment relieves microscale residual stresses, thereby reducing the tension-compression asymmetries and altering work-hardening behaviour. This work establishes the mechanistic connections between the microscale residual stresses and mechanical behaviour of AM stainless steel.
Project description:Conventional medical imaging phantoms are limited by simplified geometry and radiographic skeletal homogeneity, which confines their usability for image quality assessment and radiation dosimetry. These challenges can be addressed by additive manufacturing technology, colloquially called 3D printing, which provides accurate anatomical replication and flexibility in material manipulation. In this study, we used Computed Tomography (CT)-based modified PolyJetTM 3D printing technology to print a hollow thorax phantom simulating skeletal morphology of the patient. To achieve realistic heterogenous skeletal radiation attenuation, we developed a novel radiopaque amalgamate constituting of epoxy, polypropylene and bone meal powder in twelve different ratios. We performed CT analysis for quantification of material radiodensity (in Hounsfield Units, HU) and for identification of specific compositions corresponding to the various skeletal structures in the thorax. We filled the skeletal structures with their respective radiopaque amalgamates. The phantom and isolated 3D printed rib specimens were rescanned by CT for reproducibility tests regarding verification of radiodensity and geometry. Our results showed that structural densities in the range of 42-705HU could be achieved. The radiodensity of the reconstructed phantom was comparable to the three skeletal structures investigated in a real patient thorax CT: ribs, ventral vertebral body and dorsal vertebral body. Reproducibility tests based on physical dimensional comparison between the patient and phantom CT-based segmentation displayed 97% of overlap in the range of 0.00-4.57 mm embracing the anatomical accuracy. Thus, the additively manufactured anthropomorphic thorax phantom opens new vistas for imaging- and radiation-based patient care in precision medicine.
Project description:Man-made structural colors, which originate from resonant interactions between visible light and manufactured nanostructures, are emerging as a solution for ink-free color printing. We show that non-iridescent structural colors can be conveniently produced by nanostructures made from high-index dielectric materials. Compared to plasmonic analogs, color surfaces with high-index dielectrics, such as germanium (Ge), have a lower reflectance, yielding a superior color contrast. Taking advantage of band-to-band absorption in Ge, we laser-postprocess Ge color metasurfaces with morphology-dependent resonances. Strong on-resonance energy absorption under pulsed laser irradiation locally elevates the lattice temperature (exceeding 1200 K) in an ultrashort time scale (1 ns). This forms the basis for resonant laser printing, where rapid melting allows for surface energy-driven morphology changes with associated modification of color appearance. Laser-printable high-index dielectric color metasurfaces are scalable to a large area and open a new paradigm for printing and decoration with nonfading and vibrant colors.
Project description:The functional gradient is a concept often occurring in nature. This concept can be implemented in the design and fabrication of advanced materials with specific functionalities and properties. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) can effectively eliminate the interface problems in extremely hard-soft connections, and, thus, have numerous and diverse applications in high-tech industries, such as those in biomedical and aerospace fields. Here, using voxel-based multi-material additive manufacturing (AM, = 3D printing) techniques, which works on the basis of material jetting, we studied the fracture behavior of functionally graded soft-hard composites with a pre-existing crack colinear with the gradient direction. We designed, additively manufactured, and mechanically tested the two main types of functionally graded composites, namely, composites with step-wise and continuous gradients. In addition, we changed the length of the transition zone between the hard and soft materials such that it covered 5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of the width (<i>W</i>) of the specimens. The results showed that except for the fracture strain, the fracture properties of the graded specimens decreased as the length of the transition zone increased. Additionally, it was found that specimens with abrupt hard-soft transitions have significantly better fracture properties than those with continuous gradients. Among the composites with gradients, those with step-wise gradients showed a slightly better fracture resistance compared to those with continuous gradients. In contrast, FGMs with continuous gradients showed higher values of elastic stiffness and fracture energy, which makes each gradient function suitable for different loading scenarios. Moreover, regardless of the gradient function used in the design of the specimens, decreasing the length of the transition zone from 100%<i>W</i> to 5%<i>W</i> increased the fracture resistance of FGMs. We discuss the important underlying fracture mechanisms using data collected from digital image correlation (DIC), digital image microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which were used to analyze the fracture surface.
Project description:Additive manufacturing (AM) alias 3D printing translates computer-aided design (CAD) virtual 3D models into physical objects. By digital slicing of CAD, 3D scan, or tomography data, AM builds objects layer by layer without the need for molds or machining. AM enables decentralized fabrication of customized objects on demand by exploiting digital information storage and retrieval via the Internet. The ongoing transition from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing prompts new challenges for mechanical engineers and materials scientists alike. Because polymers are by far the most utilized class of materials for AM, this Review focuses on polymer processing and the development of polymers and advanced polymer systems specifically for AM. AM techniques covered include vat photopolymerization (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (SLS), material and binder jetting (inkjet and aerosol 3D printing), sheet lamination (LOM), extrusion (FDM, 3D dispensing, 3D fiber deposition, and 3D plotting), and 3D bioprinting. The range of polymers used in AM encompasses thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, hydrogels, functional polymers, polymer blends, composites, and biological systems. Aspects of polymer design, additives, and processing parameters as they relate to enhancing build speed and improving accuracy, functionality, surface finish, stability, mechanical properties, and porosity are addressed. Selected applications demonstrate how polymer-based AM is being exploited in lightweight engineering, architecture, food processing, optics, energy technology, dentistry, drug delivery, and personalized medicine. Unparalleled by metals and ceramics, polymer-based AM plays a key role in the emerging AM of advanced multifunctional and multimaterial systems including living biological systems as well as life-like synthetic systems.