High-Density Lipoprotein Proteomic Composition, and not Efflux Capacity, Reflects Differential Modulation of Reverse Cholesterol Transport by Saturated and Monounsaturated Fat Diets.
ABSTRACT: Acute inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and reduces high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function in vivo. This study hypothesized that obesity-induced inflammation impedes RCT and alters HDL composition, and investigated if dietary replacement of saturated (SFA) for monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids modulates RCT.Macrophage-to-feces RCT, HDL efflux capacity, and HDL proteomic profiling was determined in C57BL/6j mice following 24 weeks on SFA- or MUFA-enriched high-fat diets (HFDs) or low-fat diet. The impact of dietary SFA consumption and insulin resistance on HDL efflux function was also assessed in humans. Both HFDs increased plasma (3)H-cholesterol counts during RCT in vivo and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1-independent efflux to plasma ex vivo, effects that were attributable to elevated HDL cholesterol. By contrast, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1-dependent efflux was reduced after both HFDs, an effect that was also observed with insulin resistance and high SFA consumption in humans. SFA-HFD impaired liver-to-feces RCT, increased hepatic inflammation, and reduced ABC subfamily G member 5/8 and ABC subfamily B member 11 transporter expression in comparison with low-fat diet, whereas liver-to-feces RCT was preserved after MUFA-HFD. HDL particles were enriched with acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and hemopexin) and depleted of paraoxonase-1 after SFA-HFD in comparison with MUFA-HFD.Ex vivo efflux assays validated increased macrophage-to-plasma RCT in vivo after both HFDs but failed to capture differential modulation of hepatic cholesterol trafficking. By contrast, proteomics revealed the association of hepatic-derived inflammatory proteins on HDL after SFA-HFD in comparison with MUFA-HFD, which reflected differential hepatic cholesterol trafficking between groups. Acute-phase protein levels on HDL may serve as novel biomarkers of impaired liver-to-feces RCT in vivo.
Project description:Inflammation is proposed to impair reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a major atheroprotective function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The present study presents the first integrated functional evidence that inflammation retards numerous components of RCT.We used subacute endotoxemia in the rodent macrophage-to-feces RCT model to assess the effects of inflammation on RCT in vivo and performed proof of concept experimental endotoxemia studies in humans. Endotoxemia (3 mg/kg SC) reduced (3)H-cholesterol movement from macrophage to plasma and (3)H-cholesterol associated with HDL fractions. At 48 hours, bile and fecal counts were markedly reduced consistent with downregulation of hepatic expression of ABCG5, ABCG8, and ABCB11 biliary transporters. Low-dose lipopolysaccharide (0.3 mg/kg SC) also reduced bile and fecal counts, as well as expression of biliary transporters, but in the absence of effects on plasma or liver counts. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide impaired (3)H-cholesterol efflux from human macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I and serum coincident with reduced expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1. During human (3 ng/kg; n=20) and murine endotoxemia (3 mg/kg SC), ex vivo macrophage cholesterol efflux to acute phase HDL was attenuated.We provide the first in vivo evidence that inflammation impairs RCT at multiple steps in the RCT pathway, particularly cholesterol flux through liver to bile and feces. Attenuation of RCT and HDL efflux function, independent of HDL cholesterol levels, may contribute to atherosclerosis in chronic inflammatory states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:ABCA1 plays a key role in the initial lipidation of apoA-I, which generates circulating HDL cholesterol. Whereas it is known that the transcriptional upregulation of ABCA1 promotes HDL formation and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), it is not known how the inhibition of ABCA1 protein degradation impacts HDL function. Employing the small molecule triacetyl-3-hydroxyphenyladenosine (IMM-H007), we determined how the attenuation of ABCA1 protein degradation affects HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, RCT, and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that IMM-H007 inhibits ABCA1 degradation and facilitates its cell-surface localization in macrophages, and additional studies in macrophages showed that IMM-H007 thereby promotes cholesterol efflux. IMM-H007 treatment of Paigen diet-fed mice caused an increase in circulating HDL level, it increased the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL, and it enhanced in vivo RCT from macrophages to the plasma, liver, and feces. Furthermore, ABCA1 degradation suppression by IMM-H007 reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE(-/-) mice. Thus, via effects on both ABCA1-expressing cells and circulating HDL function, the inhibition of ABCA1 protein degradation by IMM-H007 promotes HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and RCT and attenuates atherogenesis. IMM-H007 potentially represents a lead compound for the development of agents to augment HDL function.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is linked to inflammation. HDL protects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, mainly by mediating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The present study aimed to test the impact of acute inflammation as well as selected acute phase proteins on RCT with a macrophage-to-feces in vivo RCT assay using intraperitoneal administration of [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled macrophage foam cells. In patients with acute sepsis, cholesterol efflux toward plasma and HDL were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). In mice, acute inflammation (75 microg/mouse lipopolysaccharide) decreased [(3)H]cholesterol appearance in plasma (P < 0.05) and tracer excretion into feces both within bile acids (-84%) and neutral sterols (-79%, each P < 0.001). In the absence of systemic inflammation, overexpression of serum amyloid A (SAA, adenovirus) reduced overall RCT (P < 0.05), whereas secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2), transgenic mice) had no effect. Myeloperoxidase injection reduced tracer appearance in plasma (P < 0.05) as well as RCT (-36%, P < 0.05). Hepatic expression of bile acid synthesis genes (P < 0.01) and transporters mediating biliary sterol excretion (P < 0.01) was decreased by inflammation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that acute inflammation impairs cholesterol efflux in patients and macrophage-to-feces RCT in vivo in mice. Myeloperoxidase and SAA contribute to a certain extent to reduced RCT during inflammation but not sPLA(2). However, reduced bile acid formation and decreased biliary sterol excretion might represent major contributing factors to decreased RCT in inflammation.
Project description:Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the largest cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CVD in ESRD is not explained by classical CVD risk factors such as HDL cholesterol mass levels making functional alterations of lipoproteins conceivable. HDL functions in atheroprotection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), comprising cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, uptake into hepatocytes and final excretion into the feces. ESRD-HDL (n?=?15) were compared to healthy control HDL (n?=?15) for their capacity to promote in vitro (i) cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage foam cells and (ii) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into ldla[SR-BI] cells as well as (iii) in vivo RCT. Compared with HDL from controls, ESRD-HDL displayed a significant reduction in mediating cholesterol efflux (p?<?0.001) and SR-BI-mediated selective uptake (p?<?0.01), two key steps in RCT. Consistently, also the in vivo capacity of ESRD-HDL to promote RCT when infused into wild-type mice was significantly impaired (p?<?0.01). In vitro oxidation of HDL from healthy controls with hypochloric acid was able to fully mimic the impaired biological activities of ESRD-HDL. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HDL from ESRD patients is dysfunctional in key steps as well as overall RCT, likely due to oxidative modification.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs clearance of cholesterol through the Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT) pathway, with downregulation in hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid transporters, namely ABCG5/8 and ABCB11, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). In the current study, we hypothesized that the development of hepatosteatosis, secondary to adipose-tissue dysfunction, contributes to obesity-impaired RCT and that such effects could be mitigated using the anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (NaS).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>C57BL/6J mice, fed HFD ± NaS or low-fat diet (LFD) for 24 weeks, underwent glucose and insulin tolerance testing. The <sup>3</sup>H-cholesterol movement from macrophage-to-feces was assessed in vivo. HDL-CEC was determined ex vivo. Cytokine secretion from adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was measured ex vivo. Liver and HDL proteins were determined by mass spectrometry and analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.<h4>Results</h4>NaS delayed HFD-induced weight gain, abrogated priming of pro-IL-1β in SVFs, attenuated insulin resistance, and prevented steatohepatitis (ectopic fat accumulation in the liver). Prevention of hepatosteatosis coincided with increased expression of PPAR-alpha/beta-oxidation proteins with NaS and reduced expression of LXR/RXR-induced proteins including apolipoproteins. The latter effects were mirrored within the HDL proteome in circulation. Despite remarkable protection shown against steatosis, HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia and repression of the liver-to-bile cholesterol transporter, ABCG5/8, could not be rescued with NaS.<h4>Discussions and conclusions</h4>The cardiometabolic health benefits of NaS may be attributed to the reprogramming of hepatic metabolic pathways to increase fatty acid utilization in the settings of nutritional overabundance. Reduced hepatic cholesterol levels, coupled with reduced LXR/RXR-induced proteins, may underlie the lack of rescue of ABCG5/8 expression with NaS. This remarkable protection against HFD-induced hepatosteatosis did not translate to improvements in cholesterol homeostasis.
Project description:Increase in saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in membrane phospholipids dramatically affects membrane properties and cellular functioning. We sought to determine whether exogenous SFA from the diet directly affects the degree of membrane phospholipid unsaturation in adult hearts and if these changes correlate with contractile dysfunction. Although both SFA-rich high fat diets (HFDs) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA)-rich HFDs cause the same degree of activation of myocardial FA uptake, triglyceride turnover, and mitochondrial FA oxidation and accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, the former induced more severe diastolic dysfunction than the latter, which was accompanied with a decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation, induction of unfolded protein response (UPR), and a decrease in the expression of Sirt1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), catalyzing the conversion of SFA to MUFA. When the SFA supply in the heart overwhelms the cellular capacity to use it for energy, excess exogenous SFA channels to membrane phospholipids, leading to UPR induction, and development of diastolic dysfunction.
Project description:Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17?-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages.
Project description:ApoE plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism. This study investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated human apoE overexpression (AdhApoE3) on sterol metabolism and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In wild-type mice, AdhApoE3 resulted in decreased HDL cholesterol levels and a shift toward larger HDL in plasma, whereas hepatic cholesterol content increased (P < 0.05). These effects were dependent on scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) as confirmed using SR-BI-deficient mice. Kinetic studies demonstrated increased plasma HDL cholesteryl ester catabolic rates (P < 0.05) and higher hepatic selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters in AdhApoE3-injected wild-type mice (P < 0.01). However, biliary and fecal sterol output as well as in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT studied with (3)H-cholesterol-loaded mouse macrophage foam cells remained unchanged upon human apoE overexpression. Similar results were obtained using hApoE3 overexpression in human CETP transgenic mice. However, blocking ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from hepatocytes in AdhApoE3-injected mice using probucol increased biliary cholesterol secretion (P < 0.05), fecal neutral sterol excretion (P < 0.05), and in vivo RCT (P < 0.01), specifically within neutral sterols. These combined data demonstrate that systemic apoE overexpression increases i) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into the liver and ii) ABCA1-mediated efflux of RCT-relevant cholesterol from hepatocytes back to the plasma compartment, thereby resulting in unchanged fecal mass sterol excretion and overall in vivo RCT.
Project description:Inflammation has been proposed to impair HDL function and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated the effects of inflammation mediated by zymosan, a yeast glucan, on multiple steps along the RCT pathway in vivo and ex vivo. Acute inflammation with 70 mg/kg zymosan impaired RCT to plasma, liver, and feces similarly by 17-22% (P < 0.05), with no additional block at the liver. Hepatic gene expression further demonstrated no change in ABCG5, ABCB4, and ABCB11 expression but a decline in ABCG8 mRNA (32% P < 0.05). Plasma from zymosan-treated mice had a 21% decrease in cholesterol acceptor ability (P < 0.01) and a 35% decrease in ABCA1-specific efflux capacity (P < 0.01) in vitro. Zymosan treatment also decreased HDL levels and led to HDL remodeling with increased incorporation of serum amyloid A. In addition, cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophages declined with zymosan treatment in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that zymosan impairs in vivo RCT primarily by decreasing macrophage-derived cholesterol entering the plasma, with minimal additional blocks downstream. Our study supports the notion that RCT impairment is one of the mechanisms for the increased atherosclerotic burden observed in inflammatory conditions.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) on cholesterol mobilization from macrophages.Overexpression of human 15-LO-1 in RAW mouse macrophages led to enhanced cholesterol efflux, increased cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolysis, and increased reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Efflux studies comparing 15-LO-1 overexpressing cells to mock-transfected RAW macrophages resulted in a 3- to 7-fold increase in cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and a modest increase in efflux to HDL. Additional experiments revealed an increase in mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the RAW expressing 15-LO-1 compared to controls. Efforts to examine whether the arachidonic acid metabolite of 15-LO-1, (15S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), was responsible for the enhanced efflux revealed this eicosanoid metabolite did not play a role. Enhanced steryl ester hydrolysis was observed in 15-LO-1 overexpressing cells suggesting that the CE produced in the 15-LO-1 expressing cells was readily mobilized. To measure RCT, RAW macrophages overexpressing 15-LO-1 or mock-transfected cells were cholesterol enriched by exposure to acetylated low-density lipoprotein and [(3)H]-cholesterol. These macrophages were injected into wild-type animals and RCT was measured as a percent of injected dose of (3)H appearing in the feces at 48 hours. We found 7% of the injected (3)H in the feces of mice that received macrophages overexpressing 15-LO-1 and 4% in the feces of mice that received mock-transfected cells.These data are consistent with a model in which overexpression of human 15-LO-1 in RAW macrophages promotes RCT through increased CE hydrolysis and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux.