ABSTRACT: Menopause consists of a physiological process in women between 40 and 50 years of age, and it has substantial consequences for health, ranging from disturbances in lipid and glycidic metabolism to psychological stress and sleep alterations, thereby increasing women's risk of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we attempted to identify potential lipid alterations not identified by the classic methods.We analyzed the serum lipid profile in 40 women in pre- and post-menopause using a lipidomic approach and mass spectrometry. Lipid species presented increased concentrations, with a difference of more than 25% post-menopause and with the ceramides (N.C23:0.Cer, N.C23:0(OH).Cer and N.C24:0(OH).Cer) standing out with a fold change of 1.68, 1.59, and 1.58, respectively. It was also observed that 14 metabolites presented a significant difference in the average concentrations between pre- and post-menopause, especially the ceramide species. Strong and positive correlations were identified between various metabolites and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. Of note were the association ceramide (N.C10:0.Cer) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE.a.C18:0) between fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin.This study detected lipid alterations, especially in ceramides, post-menopause, as well as correlations with glycidic and lipid markers, which may in the future be useful to investigate diseases associated with menopause.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5-h infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptive men and women had muscle biopsies 1.5, 6.5, and 24 h after starting the tracer infusion. Concentrations and enrichment of muscle ceramides were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that HOMA of insulin resistance, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were positively correlated with SS C16:0 and C18:1 ceramide, but not SS C14:0-Cer, C20:0-Cer, C24:0-Cer, and C24:1-Cer concentrations; IMF ceramide concentrations were not correlated with any metabolic parameters. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to 16:0 ceramide was greater in SS than IMF (SS, 18.2% vs. IMF, 8.7%; P = 0.0006). Plasma insulin concentrations correlated positively with the fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to SS 16:0 ceramide. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to intramyocellular SS 16:0 ceramide was positively correlated with SS C16:0 ceramide concentrations (? = 0.435; P = 0.002). We conclude that skeletal muscle SS ceramides, especially C16 to C18 chain lengths and the de novo synthesis of intramyocellular ceramide from plasma palmitate are associated with markers of insulin resistance.
Project description:The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts.Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine-Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24-8.98), 1.64 (1.29-2.08), and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and ?AUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and ?AUC = 0.02).Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions.
Project description:We previously reported that epidermal glycation causes an increase in saturated fatty acid (FA) content in a differentiated reconstructed skin model and HaCaT cells. However, the relationship between ceramides (CERs) and glycation and their effects on stratum corneum (SC) barrier function was not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of glycation on lipid content in 6-day-old cultured reconstructed skin. We used the EPISKIN RHE 6D model and induced glycation using glyoxal. In addition to transepidermal water loss, content of CERs, cholesterol and FA in the reconstructed epidermal model were analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography. Expression of genes related to ceramide metabolism was determined by real time RT-PCR. Membrane fluidity of stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLL) that mimic glycated epidermis was analyzed using an electron spin resonance technique. It was found that FA was significantly increased by glycation. CER[NS], [AP], and cholesterol were decreased in glycated epidermis. Expression of ceramide synthase 3 (<i>CERS3</i>) was significantly decreased while fatty acid elongase 3 was increased by glyoxal in a dose dependent manner. Membrane fluidity of SCLL mimicking the lipid composition of glycated epidermis was increased compared with controls. Therefore, disruption of CER and FA content in glycated epidermis may be regulated via <i>CERS3</i> expression and contribute to abnormal membrane fluidity.
Project description:Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50?M). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in the epidermis, but not the dermis, increased in response to EPA, but not DHA. This ex vivo study shows that dietary supplementation with EPA has the potential to alter the ceramide profile of the skin, and this may contribute to its anti-inflammatory profile. This has implications for formation of the epidermal lipid barrier, and signalling pathways within the skin mediated by ceramides and other sphingolipid species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá.
Project description:Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24?weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129-1599?pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) significantly increased from 776?±?400?pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196?±?467?pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) decreased from 23.8?±?6.0% at week 0?to?15.2?±?5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (??=?0.788, P?<?0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion, shifting the dolphin diet to fishes rich in odd chain saturated fatty acids, such as C17:0, resulted in increased serum levels of the insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin and serum SPH consistent with an insulin-sensitizing phenotype. It is still unclear whether FGF21 plays a role in the regulation of adiponectin in dolphins, similar to that shown in laboratory animal models.
Project description:Elevated hepatic ceramide levels have been implicated in both insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. To understand the factors contributing to hepatic ceramide levels in mice of both sexes, we have quantitated ceramides in a reference population of mice, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel that has been previously characterized for a variety of metabolic syndrome traits. We observed significant positive correlations between Cer(d18:1/16:0) and IR/hepatic steatosis, consistent with previous findings, although the relationship broke down between sexes, as females were less insulin resistant, but had higher Cer(d18:1/16:0) levels than males. The sex difference was due in part to testosterone-mediated repression of ceramide synthase 6. One ceramide species, Cer(d18:1/20:0), was present at higher levels in males and was associated with IR only in males. Clear evidence of gene-by-sex and gene-by-diet interactions was observed, including sex-specific genome-wide association study results. Thus, our studies show clear differences in how hepatic ceramides are regulated between the sexes, which again suggests that the physiological roles of certain hepatic ceramides differ between the sexes.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Sphingolipids, such as ceramides and sphingosine, are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes; however, the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to develop a simultaneous measurement system for urinary sphingolipids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to elucidate the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We established a simultaneous measurement system for the urinary sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and six ceramide species (Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/18:1, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0), and we examined the urinary sphingolipids in 64 type 2 diabetes patients and 15 control participants. RESULTS:The established measurement system for the urinary sphingolipids showed good precision for Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0. We observed that the urinary levels of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0 were elevated in patients with stage 3 of diabetic nephropathy, and were correlated with urinary biomarkers, such as albumin and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and sediment score. CONCLUSIONS:Our method is useful for the measurement of ceramide in urine specimens, and urinary ceramides might be associated with the pathological condition of diabetic nephropathy, such as renal tubular injury.
Project description:Caspase-14 is an enzyme that is expressed predominantly in cornifying epithelia and catalyses the degradation of profilaggrin. Additionally, caspase-14 plays an important role in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. However, how caspase-14 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that ceramides (C(2) -Cer and C(6) -Cer), but not other sphingolipids (C(8) -glucosylceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate or ceramide-1-phosphate), increase caspase-14 expression (mRNA and protein) in cultured human keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase and ceramidase increase endogenous ceramide levels and also increase caspase-14 expression, indicating an important regulatory role for ceramides and suggesting that the conversion of ceramides to other metabolites is not required. The increase in caspase-14 expression induced by ceramides is first seen at 16 h and requires new protein synthesis, suggesting that the ceramide-induced increase is likely an indirect effect. Furthermore, ceramides increase caspase-14 gene expression primarily by increasing transcription. Blocking de novo synthesis of ceramides does not affect caspase-14 expression, suggesting that basal expression is not dependent on ceramide levels. These studies show that ceramides, an important structural lipid, stimulate caspase-14 expression providing a mechanism for coordinately regulating the formation of lipid lamellar membranes with the formation of corneocytes.
Project description:Ceramides are important lipid metabolites for primal skin functions. There is increasing evidence that alteration of the profile and metabolism of ceramides is associated with skin diseases, such as psoriasis vulgaris. Most studies have reported alteration in ceramide content in the stratum corneum, but these have been scarcely reported for other skin layers. In the present work, we aimed to explore changes in the ceramide profile of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and healthy subjects. Using the reversed-phase liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass spectrometry (RPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) platform, we identified ceramide containing non-hydroxy fatty acid ([N]), ?-hydroxy fatty acid ([A]), and esterified ?-hydroxy fatty acid ([EO]) and 3 sphingoid bases, dihydrosphingosine ([DS]), sphingosine ([S]), and phytosphingosine ([P]). We found that in the keratinocytes of patients with psoriasis, CER[NS], CER[NP], CER[AS], CER[ADS], CER[AP] and CER[EOS] tended to be expressed at higher relative levels, whereas CER[NDS] tended to be expressed with lower levels than in healthy subjects. In the case of fibroblasts, significant differences were observed, mainly in the three ceramide classes (CER[AS], CER[ADS] and CER[EOS]), which were expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with psoriasis. The most significant alteration in the fibroblasts involved elevated levels of CER[EOS] that contained ester-linked fatty acids. Our findings provide insights into the ceramide profile in the dermis and epidermis of patients with psoriasis and contribute for the research in this field, focusing on the role of keratinocyte-fibroblast crosstalk in the development of psoriasis vulgaris.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ceramides are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. We aim to investigate the potential diagnostic value of ceramides for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese patients with chest pain. DESIGN:Prospective observational survey. SETTING:Shanghai, China, 2016-2017. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 2773 patients with chest pain from four hospitals in Shanghai, China, between August 2016 and October 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Performance of metabolites model in detection of ACS cases including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina. RESULTS:Plasma levels of 12 ceramide molecules and corresponding ratios were compared between patients diagnosed with ACS and those without. Cer(d18:1/24:1(15Z))/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio, Cer(d18:1/14:0) and Cer(d18:1/22:0) were independent predictors of ACS after adjustment of traditional risk factors and high-sensitivecardiac troponin T. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant improvement in detecting ACS in the multivariable model with ceramides compared with that without (0.865 (0.840 to 0.889) vs 0.808 (0.776 to 0.841), p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Distinct plasma ceramides are independent diagnostic predictors of ACS among patients with chest pain. Ceramides together with high-sensitive troponin and traditional factors showed great potential in identifying ACS among patients with chest pain.