Role of nuclear factor ?B in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) plays major roles in inflammatory diseases through regulation of inflammation and cell viability. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that NF-?B is activated in multiple cell types in the CNS of MS patients, including T cells, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Interestingly, data from animal model studies, particularly studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, have suggested that NF-?B activation in these individual cell types has distinct effects on the development of MS. In this review, we will cover the current literature on NF-?B and the evidence for its role in the development of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is firmly established that overactivation of the p65 (RelA) nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor upregulates expression of inflammatory mediators in both immune and non-immune resident CNS cells and promotes inflammation during MS. In contrast to p65, NF-κB family member RelB regulates immune cell development and can limit inflammation. Although RelB expression is induced during inflammation in the CNS, its role in MS remains unknown. METHODS:To examine the role of RelB in non-immune CNS cells, we generated mice with RelB specifically deleted in astrocytes (RelBΔAST), oligodendrocytes (RelBΔOLIGO), or neural progenitor-derived cells (RelBΔNP). We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an accepted mouse model of MS, to assess the effect of RelB deletion on disease outcomes and performed analysis on the histological, cellular, and molecular level. RESULTS:Despite being a negative regulator of inflammation, conditional knockout of RelB in non-immune resident CNS cells surprisingly decreased the severity of EAE. This protective effect was recapitulated by conditional deletion of RelB in oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes. Deletion of RelB in oligodendrocytes reduced disease severity, promoted survival of mature oligodendrocytes, and correlated with increased activation of p65 NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that RelB fine tunes inflammation and cell death/survival during EAE. Importantly, our data points out the detrimental role RelB plays in controlling survival of mature oligodendrocytes, which could be explored as a viable option to treat MS in the future.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of demyelinating autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by central nervous system white matter lesions, microglial activation, and peripheral T-cell infiltration secondary to blood-brain barrier disruption. We have previously shown that treatment with tuftsin, a tetrapeptide generated from IgG proteolysis, dramatically improves disease symptoms in EAE. Here, we report that microglial expression of Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is required for tuftsin-driven amelioration of EAE symptoms. Nrp1 ablation in microglia blocks microglial signaling and polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, and ablation in either the microglia or immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduces extended functional contacts between them and Treg activation, implicating a role for microglia in the activation process, and more generally, how immune surveillance is conducted in the CNS. Taken together, our findings delineate the mechanistic action of tuftsin as a candidate therapeutic against immune-mediated demyelinating lesions.
Project description:AIMS:Daphnetin, a coumarin derivative extracted from Daphne odora var. marginata, has been reported to have antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Our previous study indicated that it was able to remarkably suppress the neuroinflammation and suggested its potential application in treating neuroinflammatory diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS), a Th cell-mediated autoimmune disease, is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). We examined whether daphnetin treatment can protect mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. METHODS:To assess the effect of daphnetin in neuroinflammatory diseases, the EAE mice were established and treated with daphnetin at 8 mg/kg for 28 days. The severity of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the spinal cords was examined histopathologically. Infiltration of CD4(+) T cells into the CNS was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the cytokine production was determined by ELISA. Meanwhile, the effect of daphnetin on the activity of dendritic cells (DCs) was evaluated, as assessed by DCs' capability to express surface markers, secrete cytokines, and activate naïve CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanisms whereby DAPH regulated DCs' activity and thereby CD4(+) T cell responses. RESULTS:The administration of daphnetin markedly alleviated the clinical symptoms of EAE and reduced the CNS inflammation and demyelination in experimental mice. Th1 and Th17 cell responses were profoundly repressed in daphnetin-treated EAE mice. Mechanistically, daphnetin treatment significantly repressed the activation, maturation, and antigen-presenting capability of DCs. NF-κB signaling was significantly reduced in daphnetin-treated DCs, along with a concomitant induction of heme oxygenase-1, a negative regulator of inflammatory signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings for the first time demonstrate the property of daphnetin in regulating DCs' function and subsequently Th development. Given the low or absent toxicity associated with daphnetin, our data may suggest a novel safe and effective approach to control autoimmune neuroinflammation.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS. Although neurodegeneration is the major contributor to chronic disability in MS, mechanisms governing the viability of axons and neurons in MS and EAE remain elusive. Data indicate that activation of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) influences, positively or negatively, neuron and axon viability in various neurodegenerative diseases through induction of ATF4. In this study, we demonstrate that the PERK pathway was activated in neurons during EAE. We found that neuron-specific PERK inactivation impaired EAE resolution and exacerbated EAE-induced axon degeneration, neuron loss, and demyelination. Surprisingly, neuron-specific ATF4 inactivation did not alter EAE disease course or EAE-induced axon degeneration, neuron loss, and demyelination. These results suggest that PERK activation in neurons protects axons and neurons against inflammation in MS and EAE through ATF4-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is currently being discussed as a strategy that may promote functional recovery in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). However this assumes they will not only survive but also remyelinate demyelinated axons in the chronically inflamed CNS. To address this question we investigated the fate of transplanted SCs in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Dark Agouti rat; an animal model that reproduces the complex inflammatory demyelinating immunopathology of MS. We now report that SCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-SCs) allografted after disease onset not only survive but also migrate to remyelinate lesions in the inflamed CNS. GFP-SCs were detected more frequently in the parenchyma after direct injection into the spinal cord, than via intra-thecal delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid. In both cases the transplanted cells intermingled with astrocytes in demyelinated lesions, aligned with axons and by twenty one days post transplantation had formed Pzero protein immunoreactive internodes. Strikingly, GFP-SCs transplantation was associated with marked decrease in clinical disease severity in terms of mortality; all GFP-SCs transplanted animals survived whilst 80% of controls died within 40 days of disease.
Project description:Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels play critical roles not only in regulating synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of neurons, but also in controlling the function and proliferation of other cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The non-specific Kv channel blocker, 4-AminoPyridine (4-AP) (Dalfampridine, Ampyra®), is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease. However, little is known how various types of Kv channels are altered in any inflammatory demyelinating diseases. By using established animal models for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we report that expression and distribution patterns of Kv channels are altered in the CNS correlating with EAE severity. The juxtaparanodal (JXP) targeting of Kv1.2/Kv?2 along myelinated axons is disrupted within demyelinated lesions in the white matter of spinal cord in EAE. Moreover, somatodendritic Kv2.1 channels in the motor neurons of lower spinal cord significantly decrease correlating with EAE severity. Interestingly, Kv1.4 expression surrounding lesions is markedly up-regulated in the initial acute phase of both EAE models. Its expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes further increases in the remitting phase of remitting-relapsing EAE (rrEAE), but decreases in late chronic EAE (chEAE) and the relapse of rrEAE, suggesting that Kv1.4-positive astrocytes may be neuroprotective. Taken together, our studies reveal myelin-dependent and -independent alterations of Kv channels in the progression of EAE and lay a solid foundation for future study in search of a better treatment for MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive demyelination and disabling outcomes. CD4+ T cells are the most critical driving factor of relapsing MS, but little improvement has been noted upon deletion of the whole T cell population. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main active compounds of propolis, exhibits potent antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transactivation. To investigate the therapeutic potential of CAPE in MS, we studied the effects of CAPE on cytokine levels, T cells, and NF-?B activities and in an experimental MS animal model. The results showed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with relapsing MS is characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines that preferentially skew towards T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines. In vitro studies demonstrated that CAPE not only inhibited T cell proliferation and activation but also effectively modulated T cell subsets. Under both Th0- and Th1-polarizing conditions, the proportion of CD4+IFN-? + cells was downregulated, while CD4+Foxp3+ cells were increased. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 was inhibited by CAPE. In a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, prophylactic treatment with CAPE significantly decreased the disease incidence and severity. Compared to the vehicle group, mice pretreated with CAPE showed diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, microglia/macrophage activation, and demyelination injury. Additionally, CAPE pretreatment reduced the level of Th1 cells in both spleen and the CNS and increased regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the CNS. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential merit of CAPE in suppressing T cell activity mainly through targeting the pathogenic Th1 lineage, which may be beneficial for MS treatment.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) manifested with varying clinical course, pathology, and inflammatory patterns. There are multiple animal models that reflect different aspects of this heterogeneity. Collectively, these models reveal a balance between pathogenic and regulatory CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and B cells that influences the incidence, timing, and severity of CNS autoimmunity. In this review we discuss experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models that have been used to study the pathogenic and regulatory roles of these immune cells; models that recapitulate different aspects of the disease seen in patients with MS, and questions remaining for future studies.
Project description:Natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have long been considered a rich source of novel therapeutic agents. Baicalin (Ba) is a bioactive flavonoid compound derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, an herb widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate the effects and mechanism of action of Ba in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Ba treatment effectively ameliorated clinical disease severity in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE, and reduced inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). Ba reduced infiltration of immune cells into the CNS, inhibited expression of proinflammatory molecules and chemokines, and prevented Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation via STAT/NF?B signaling pathways. Further, we showed that SOCS3 induction is essential to the effects of Ba, given that the inhibitory effect of Ba on pathogenic Th17 responses was largely abolished when SOCS3 signaling was knocked down. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Ba has significant potential as a novel anti-inflammatory agent for therapy of autoimmune diseases such as MS.
Project description:Oligodendrocyte death contributes to the pathogenesis of the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, current MS therapies are mainly immunomodulatory and have demonstrated limited ability to inhibit MS progression. Protection of oligodendrocytes is therefore a desirable strategy for alleviating disease. Here we demonstrate that enhancement of the integrated stress response using the FDA-approved drug guanabenz increases oligodendrocyte survival in culture and prevents hypomyelination in cerebellar explants in the presence of interferon-?, a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in MS pathogenesis. In vivo, guanabenz treatment protects against oligodendrocyte loss caused by CNS-specific expression of interferon-?. In a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, guanabenz alleviates clinical symptoms, which correlates with increased oligodendrocyte survival and diminished CNS CD4+ T cell accumulation. Moreover, guanabenz ameliorates relapse in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Our results provide support for a MS therapy that enhances the integrated stress response to protect oligodendrocytes against the inflammatory CNS environment.