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Dual-Modality Immuno-PET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer Using an Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Cys-Diabody.


ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and the tendency to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize at an early stage. A molecular imaging agent that enables both presurgery antigen-specific PET (immuno-PET) and intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) guidance might benefit diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, staging, and surgical resection, which remains the only curative treatment. Methods: We developed a dual-labeled probe based on A2 cys-diabody (A2cDb) targeting the cell-surface prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is expressed in most pancreatic cancers. Maleimide-IRDye800CW was site-specifically conjugated to the C-terminal cys-tag (A2cDb-800) without impairing integrity or affinity (half-maximal binding, 4.3 nM). Direct radioiodination with 124I (124I-A2cDb-800) yielded a specific activity of 159 ± 48 MBq/mg with a radiochemical purity exceeding 99% and 65% ± 4.5% immunoreactivity (n = 3). In vivo specificity for PSCA-expressing tumor cells and biodistribution of the dual-modality tracer were evaluated in a prostate cancer xenograft model and compared with single-labeled 124I-A2cDb. Patient-derived pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma xenografts (PDX-PDACs) were grown subcutaneously in NSG mice and screened for PSCA expression by immuno-PET. Small-animal PET/CT scans of PDX-PDAC-bearing mice were obtained using the dual-modality 124I-A2cDb-800 followed by postmortem NIRF imaging with the skin removed. Tumors and organs were analyzed ex vivo to compare the relative fluorescent signals without obstruction by other organs. Results: Specific uptake in PSCA-positive tumors and low nonspecific background activity resulted in high-contrast immuno-PET images. Concurrent with the PET studies, fluorescent signal was observed in the PSCA-positive tumors of mice injected with the dual-tracer 124I-A2cDb-800, with low background uptake or autofluorescence in the surrounding tissue. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed comparable tumor uptake of both 124I-A2cDb-800 and 124I-A2cDb. Conclusion: Dual-modality imaging using the anti-PSCA cys-diabody resulted in high-contrast immuno-PET/NIRF images of PDX-PDACs, suggesting that this imaging agent might offer both noninvasive whole-body imaging to localize PSCA-positive pancreatic cancer and fluorescence image-guided identification of tumor margins during surgery.

SUBMITTER: Zettlitz KA 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6126441 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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