Dual-Modality Immuno-PET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer Using an Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Cys-Diabody.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and the tendency to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize at an early stage. A molecular imaging agent that enables both presurgery antigen-specific PET (immuno-PET) and intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) guidance might benefit diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, staging, and surgical resection, which remains the only curative treatment. Methods: We developed a dual-labeled probe based on A2 cys-diabody (A2cDb) targeting the cell-surface prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is expressed in most pancreatic cancers. Maleimide-IRDye800CW was site-specifically conjugated to the C-terminal cys-tag (A2cDb-800) without impairing integrity or affinity (half-maximal binding, 4.3 nM). Direct radioiodination with 124I (124I-A2cDb-800) yielded a specific activity of 159 ± 48 MBq/mg with a radiochemical purity exceeding 99% and 65% ± 4.5% immunoreactivity (n = 3). In vivo specificity for PSCA-expressing tumor cells and biodistribution of the dual-modality tracer were evaluated in a prostate cancer xenograft model and compared with single-labeled 124I-A2cDb. Patient-derived pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma xenografts (PDX-PDACs) were grown subcutaneously in NSG mice and screened for PSCA expression by immuno-PET. Small-animal PET/CT scans of PDX-PDAC-bearing mice were obtained using the dual-modality 124I-A2cDb-800 followed by postmortem NIRF imaging with the skin removed. Tumors and organs were analyzed ex vivo to compare the relative fluorescent signals without obstruction by other organs. Results: Specific uptake in PSCA-positive tumors and low nonspecific background activity resulted in high-contrast immuno-PET images. Concurrent with the PET studies, fluorescent signal was observed in the PSCA-positive tumors of mice injected with the dual-tracer 124I-A2cDb-800, with low background uptake or autofluorescence in the surrounding tissue. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed comparable tumor uptake of both 124I-A2cDb-800 and 124I-A2cDb. Conclusion: Dual-modality imaging using the anti-PSCA cys-diabody resulted in high-contrast immuno-PET/NIRF images of PDX-PDACs, suggesting that this imaging agent might offer both noninvasive whole-body imaging to localize PSCA-positive pancreatic cancer and fluorescence image-guided identification of tumor margins during surgery.
Project description:Inadequate diagnostic methods for prostate cancer lead to over- and undertreatment, and the inability to intraoperatively visualize positive margins may limit the success of surgical resection. Prostate cancer visualization could be improved by combining the complementary modalities of immuno-positron emission tomography (immunoPET) for preoperative disease detection, and fluorescence imaging-guided surgery (FIGS) for real-time intraoperative tumor margin identification. Here, we report on the evaluation of dual-labeled humanized anti-prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) cys-minibody (A11 cMb) for immunoPET/fluorescence imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate cancer models. Methods: A11 cMb was site-specifically conjugated with the near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5 and radiolabeled with 124I or 89Zr. 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 was used for successive immunoPET/fluorescence imaging of prostate cancer xenografts expressing high or moderate levels of PSCA (22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA). 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 dual-modality imaging was evaluated in an orthotopic model. Ex vivo biodistribution at 24 h was used to confirm the uptake values, and tumors were visualized by post-mortem fluorescence imaging. Results: A11 cMb-Cy5.5 retained low nanomolar affinity for PSCA-positive cells. Conjugation conditions were established (dye-to-protein ratio of 0.7:1) that did not affect the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, or clearance of A11 cMb. ImmunoPET using dual-labeled 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 showed specific targeting to both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA s.c. xenografts in nude mice. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed specific uptake to PSCA-expressing tumors with 22Rv1-PSCA:22Rv1 and PC3-PSCA:PC3 ratios of 13:1 and 5.6:1, respectively. Consistent with the immunoPET, fluorescence imaging showed a strong signal from both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA tumors compared with non-PSCA expressing tumors. In an orthotopic model, 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 immunoPET was able to detect intraprostatically implanted 22Rv1-PSCA cells. Importantly, fluorescence imaging clearly distinguished the prostate tumor from surrounding seminal vesicles. Conclusion: Dual-labeled A11 cMb specifically visualized PSCA-positive tumor by successive immunoPET/fluorescence, which can potentially be translated for preoperative whole-body prostate cancer detection and intraoperative surgical guidance in patients.
Project description:Molecular imaging agents for preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF)-guided delineation of surgical margins could greatly enhance the diagnosis, staging, and resection of pancreatic cancer. PET and NIRF optical imaging offer complementary clinical applications, enabling the noninvasive whole-body imaging to localize disease and identification of tumor margins during surgery, respectively. We report the development of PET, NIRF, and dual-modal (PET/NIRF) imaging agents, using 5B1, a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets CA19.9, a well-established pancreatic cancer biomarker. Desferrioxamine (DFO) and/or a NIRF dye (FL) were conjugated to the heavy-chain glycans of 5B1, using a robust and reproducible site-specific (ss) labeling methodology to generate three constructs ((ss)DFO-5B1, (ss)FL-5B1, and (ss)dual-5B1) in which the immunoreactivity was not affected by the conjugation of either label. Each construct was evaluated in a s.c. xenograft model, using CA19.9-positive (BxPC3) and -negative (MIAPaCa-2) human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Each construct showed exceptional uptake and contrast in antigen-positive tumors with negligible nonspecific uptake in antigen-negative tumors. Additionally, the dual-modal construct was evaluated in an orthotopic murine pancreatic cancer model, using the human pancreatic cancer cell line, Suit-2. The (ss)dual-5B1 demonstrated a remarkable capacity to delineate metastases and to map the sentinel lymph nodes via tandem PET-computed tomography (PET/CT) and NIRF imaging. Fluorescence microscopy, histopathology, and autoradiography were performed on representative sections of excised tumors to visualize the distribution of the constructs within the tumors. These imaging tools have tremendous potential for further preclinical research and for clinical translation.
Project description:Combining near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and nuclear imaging techniques provides a novel approach for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. Here, we report the synthesis and characteristics of a dual-modality NIRF optical/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe using heptamethine carbocyanine dye and verify its feasibility in both nude mice and rabbits with orthotopic xenograft liver cancer. This dye, MHI-148, is an effective cancer-specific NIRF imaging agent and shows preferential uptake and retention in liver cancer. The corresponding NIRF imaging intensity reaches 109/cm2 tumor area at 24?h after injection in mice with HCC subcutaneous tumors. The dye can be further conjugated with radionuclide 68Ga (68Ga-MHI-148) for PET tracing. We applied the dual-modality methodology toward the detection of HCC in both patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDX) models and rabbit orthotopic transplantation models. NIRF/PET images showed clear tumor delineation after probe injection (MHI-148 and 68Ga-MHI-148). The tumor-to-muscle (T/M) standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios were obtained from PET at 1?h after injection of 68Ga-MHI-148, which was helpful for effectively capturing small tumors in mice (0.5?cm × 0.3?cm) and rabbits (1.2?cm × 1.8?cm). This cancer-targeting NIRF/PET dual-modality imaging probe provides a proof of principle for noninvasive detection of deep-tissue tumors in mouse and rabbit and is a promising technique for more accurate and early detection of HCC.
Project description:The present work demonstrates the use of small bivalent engineered antibody fragments, cys-diabodies, for biological modification of nanoscale particles such as quantum dots (Qdots) for detection of target antigens. Novel bioconjugated quantum dots known as immunoQdots (iQdots) were developed by thiol-specific oriented coupling of tumor specific cys-diabodies, at a position away from the antigen binding site to amino PEG CdSe/ZnS Qdots. Initially, amino PEG Qdot 655 were coupled with reduced anti-HER2 cys-diabody by amine-sulfhydryl-reactive linker [N-?-maleimidocaproyloxy] succinimide ester (EMCS) to produce anti-HER2 iQdot 655. Spectral characterization of the conjugate revealed that the spectrum was symmetrical and essentially identical to unconjugated Qdot. Specific receptor binding activity of anti-HER2 iQdot 655 was confirmed by flow cytometry on HER2 positive and negative cells. Immunofluorescence results showed homogeneous surface labeling of the cell membrane with Qdot 655 conjugate. In addition, cys-diabodies specific for HER2, as well as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), were conjugated successfully with amino PEG Qdot 800. All of these iQdots retain the photoluminescence properties of the unconjugated Qdot 800 as well as the antigen binding specificity of the cys-diabody as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Simultaneous detection of two tumor antigens on LNCaP/PSCA prostate cancer cells (which express PSCA and HER2) in culture was possible using two iQdots, anti-HER2 iQdot 655 and anti-PSCA iQdot 800. Thus, these iQdots are potentially useful as optical probes for sensitive, multiplexed detection of surface markers on tumor cells. The present thiol-specific conjugation method demonstrates a general approach for site-specific oriented coupling of cys-diabodies to a wide variety of nanoparticles without disturbing the antigen binding site and maintaining small size compared to intact antibody.
Project description:JS001 (toripalimab) is a humanized IgG monoclonal antibody which strongly inhibits programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). In this study, we used a different iodine isotype (nat/124/125I) to label JS001 probes to target the human PD1 (hPD1) antigen. In vitro, the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of natI-JS001 did not significantly differ from that of JS001. The uptake of 125I-JS001 by activated T cells was 5.63 times higher than that by nonactivated T cells after 2 h of incubation. The binding affinity of 125I-JS001 to T cells of different lineages after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation reached 4.26 nmol/L. Humanized PD1 C57BL/6 mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180 cell tumors were validated for immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET) imaging. Pathological staining was used to assess the expression of PD1 in tumor tissues. The homologous 124I-human IgG (124I-hIgG) group or blocking group was used as a control group. Immuno-PET imaging showed that the uptake in the tumor area of the 124I-JS001 group at different time points was significantly higher than that of the blocking group or the 124I-hIgG group in the humanized PD1 mouse model. Taken together, these results suggest that this radiotracer has potential for noninvasive monitoring and directing tumor-specific personalized immunotherapy in PD1-positive tumors.
Project description:Radiation dose estimations are key for optimizing therapies. We studied the role of 124I-omburtamab (8H9) given intraventricularly in assessing the distribution and radiation doses before 131I-omburtamab therapy in patients with metastatic leptomeningeal disease and compared it with the estimates from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Methods: Patients with histologically proven malignancy and metastatic disease to the central nervous system or leptomeninges who met eligibility criteria for 131I-omburtamab therapy underwent immuno-PET imaging with 124I-8H9 followed by 131I-8H9 antibody therapy. Patients were imaged with approximately 74 MBq of intraventricular 124I-omburtamab via an Ommaya reservoir. Whole-body PET images were acquired at approximately 4, 24, and 48 h after administration and analyzed for dosimetry calculations. Peripheral blood and CSF samples were obtained at multiple time points for dosimetry estimation. Results: Forty-two patients with complete dosimetry and therapy data were analyzed. 124I-omburtamab PET-based radiation dosimetry estimations revealed mean (±SD) absorbed dose to the CSF for 131I-8H9 of 0.62 ± 0.40 cGy/MBq, compared with 2.22 ± 2.19 cGy/MBq based on 124I-omburtamab CSF samples and 1.53 ± 1.37 cGy/MBq based on 131I-omburtamab CSF samples. The mean absorbed dose to the blood was 0.051 ± 0.11 cGy/MBq for 124I-omburtamab samples and 0.07 ± 0.04 cGy/MBq for 131I-omburtamab samples. The effective whole-body radiation dose for 124I-omburtamab was 0.49 ± 0.27 mSv/MBq. The mean whole-body clearance half-time was 44.98 ± 16.29 h. Conclusion: PET imaging with 124I-omburtamab antibody administered intraventricularly allows for noninvasive estimation of dose to CSF and normal organs. High CSF-to-blood absorbed-dose ratios are noted, allowing for an improved therapeutic index to leptomeningeal disease and reduced systemic doses. PET imaging-based estimates were less variable and more reliable than CSF sample-based dosimetry.
Project description:Understanding the in vivo behavior of experimental therapeutic cells is fundamental to their successful development and clinical translation. Iodine-124 has the longest half-life (4.2 days) among the clinically used positron emitters. Consequently, this isotope offers the longest possible tracking time for directly labeled cells using positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we have radiosynthesized and evaluated two iodine-124/fluorescein-based dual PET and fluorescent labeling reagents, namely 124I-FIT-Mal and 124I-FIT-(PhS)2Mal for cell surface thiol bioconjugation. 124I-FIT-(PhS)2Mal labeled cells significantly more effectively than 124I-FIT-Mal. It conjugated to various cell lines in 22%-62% labeling efficiencies with prolonged iodine-124 retention. 124I-FIT-(PhS)2Mal mainly conjugated on the cell membrane, which was confirmed by high-resolution fluorescence imaging. The migration of 124I-FIT-(PhS)2Mal labeled Jurkat cells was visualized in NSG mice with excellent target-to-background contrast using PET/CT over 7 days. These data demonstrate that 124I-FIT-(PhS)2Mal can dynamically track cell migration in vivo using PET/CT over a clinically relevant time frame.
Project description:The combination of early diagnosis and complete surgical resection offers the greatest prospect of curative cancer treatment. An iodine-124/fluorescein-based dual-modality labeling reagent, 124I-Green, constitutes a generic tool for one-step installation of a positron emission tomography (PET) and a fluorescent reporter to any cancer-specific antibody. The resulting antibody conjugate would allow both cancer PET imaging and intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. 124I-Green was synthesized in excellent radiochemical yields of 92 ± 5% (n = 4) determined by HPLC with an improved one-pot three-component radioiodination reaction. The A5B7 carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific antibody was conjugated to 124I-Green. High tumor uptake of the dual-labeled A5B7 of 20.21 ± 2.70, 13.31 ± 0.73, and 10.64 ± 1.86%ID/g was observed in CEA-expressing SW1222 xenograft mouse model (n = 3) at 24, 48, and 72 h post intravenous injection, respectively. The xenografts were clearly visualized by both PET/CT and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These encouraging results warrant the further translational development of 124I-Green for cancer PET imaging and fluorescence-guided surgery.
Project description:The novel synthesis of a dual-modality, pentamethine cyanine (Cy5) fluorescent, 18F positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe is reported. The probe shows a large extinction coefficient and large quantum yield in the biologically transparent, near-infrared window (650-900 nm) for in vivo fluorescent imaging. This fluorophore bears the isotope, 18F, giving a 18F-PET/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF), bi-modal imaging probe, that combines the long-term stability of NIRF and the unlimited penetration depth of PET imaging. The bi-modal probe is labeled with 18F in a quick, one-step reaction, which is important in working with the rapid decay of 18F. The bi-modal probe bears a free carboxyl group, highlighting a PET/NIRF synthon that can be conjugated onto many advanced biomolecules for biomarker-specific in vivo dual-modal PET/NIR tumor imaging, confocal histology, and utility in multi-fluorophore, fluorescence-guided surgery. Its potential in vivo biocompatibility is explored in a quick proof-of-principal in vivo study. The dye is delivered to A549 xenograft flank-tumors to generate PET and NIRF signals at the tumor site. The tumor distribution is confirmed in ex vivo gamma counting and imaging. Pentamethine cyanine (Cy5) has the ability to preferentially accumulate in tumor xenografts. We substitute the PET/NIRF probe for Cy5, and explore this phenomenon.