Selective Deletion of Heparan Sulfotransferase Enzyme, Ndst1, in Donor Endothelial and Myeloid Precursor Cells Significantly Decreases Acute Allograft Rejection.
ABSTRACT: Early damage to transplanted organs initiates excess inflammation that can cause ongoing injury, a leading cause for late graft loss. The endothelial glycocalyx modulates immune reactions and chemokine-mediated haptotaxis, potentially driving graft loss. In prior work, conditional deficiency of the glycocalyx-modifying enzyme N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1f/f TekCre+) reduced aortic allograft inflammation. Here we investigated modification of heparan sulfate (HS) and chemokine interactions in whole-organ renal allografts. Conditional donor allograft Ndst1 deficiency (Ndst1-/-; C57Bl/6 background) was compared to systemic treatment with M-T7, a broad-spectrum chemokine-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) inhibitor. Early rejection was significantly reduced in Ndst1-/- kidneys engrafted into wildtype BALB/c mice (Ndst1+/+) and comparable to M-T7 treatment in C57Bl/6 allografts (P?
Project description:While the incidence of antibody-mediated kidney graft rejection has increased, the key cellular and molecular participants underlying this graft injury remain unclear. Rejection of kidney allografts in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 is dependent on production of donor-specific antibody. Here we determine if cells expressing cytotoxic function contributed to antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection in these recipients. Wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) mice were transplanted with complete MHC-mismatched A/J kidney grafts, and intragraft inflammatory components were followed to rejection. B6.CCR5(-/-) and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected kidney allografts by day 35, whereas 65% of allografts in wild-type recipients survived past day 80 post-transplant. Rejected allografts in wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients expressed high levels of VCAM-1 and MMP7 mRNA that was associated with high serum titers of donor-specific antibody. High levels of perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression peaked on day 6 post-transplant in allografts in all recipients, but were absent in isografts. Depletion of natural killer cells in B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients reduced this expression to background levels and promoted the long-term survival of 40% of the kidney allografts. Thus, natural killer cells have a role in increased inflammation during antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury and in rejection of the grafts.
Project description:Chronic airway rejection is characterized by prolonged inflammation, epithelial damage, and eventual luminal obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). In cardiac allografts, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promotes acute rejection but paradoxically reduces neointimal formation, the hallmark of chronic rejection. The specific roles of NOS isoforms in modulating lymphocyte traffic and airway rejection are not known. Using a double lumen mouse tracheal transplant model, tracheal grafts from B10.A (allo) or C57BL/6J (iso) mice were transplanted into cyclosporine-treated wild-type (WT) iNOS(-/-) or endothelial NOS (eNOS)(-/-) recipients. OB was observed in WT tracheal allografts at 3 weeks (53 +/- 2% luminal occlusion vs. 17 +/- 1% for isografts, P < 0.05) with sites of obstructive lesion formation coinciding with areas of CD3(+) CD8(+) T cell-rich lymphocytic bronchitis. In contrast, allografts in iNOS(-/-) recipients exhibited reductions in local expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, graft T cell recruitment and apoptosis, and luminal obliteration (29 +/- 2%, P < 0.05 vs. WT allografts). Recipient eNOS deficiency, however, suppressed neither chemokine expression, lymphocyte infiltration, nor airway occlusion (54 +/- 2%). These data demonstrate that iNOS exacerbates luminal obliteration of airway allografts in contrast with the known suppression by iNOS of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Because iNOS(-/-) airways transplanted into WT allograft hosts are not protected from rejection, these data suggest that iNOS expressed by graft-infiltrating leukocytes exerts the dominant influence on airway rejection.
Project description:Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-? production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The immune rejection mediated by CD4+ T cell and antigen presenting macrophages is the leading cause of corneal transplantation failure. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) possess robust immunomodulatory potentials, and have been shown by us and others to promote corneal allograft survival. However, the immunological mechanism underlying the protective effects of BM-MSCs remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, this mechanism was investigated in a BM-MSC-treated rat model of corneal allograft rejection, in the hope to facilitate the search for novel interventional targets to corneal allograft rejection. METHODS:Lewis rats were subjected to corneal transplantation and then received subconjunctival injections of BM-MSCs (2×106 cells / 100 ?l PBS) immediately and at day 3 post-transplantation. The control group received the injections of PBS with the same volume. The clinical parameters of the corneal allografts, including opacity, edema, and neovascularization, were regularly evaluated after transplantation. On day 10 post-transplantation, the corneal allografts were collected and subjected to flow cytometry and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). GO enrichment and KEGG pathways were analyzed. The quantitative realtime PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to validate the expression of the selected target genes at transcript and protein levels, respectively. RESULTS:BM-MSC subconjunctival administration prolonged the corneal allograft survival, with reduced opacity, alleviated edema, and diminished neovascularization. Flow cytometry showed reduced CD4+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages as well as boosted regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the BM-MSC-treated corneal allografts as compared with the PBS-treated counterparts. Moreover, the RNA-seq and qPCR results demonstrated that the transcript abundance of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4 (Ctla4), Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor Type C (Ptprc), and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9 (Cxcl9) genes were increased in the allografts of BM-MSC group compared with PBS group; whereas the expression of Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 8 (Hspa8) gene was downregulated. The expression of these genes was confirmed by IHC at protein level. CONCLUSION:Subconjunctival injections of BM-MSCs promoted corneal allograft survival, reduced CD4+ and CD68+ cell infiltration, and enriched Treg population in the allografts. The BM-MSC-induced upregulation of Ctla4, Ptprc, Cxcl9 genes and downregulation of Hspa8 gene might contribute to the protective effects of BM-MSCs and subserve the potential interventional targets to corneal allograft rejection.
Project description:Low levels of plasma adiponectin, an adipocytokine that possesses anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties, frequently observed among obese subjects correlate with higher prevalence of several cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated whether adiponectin modulates allograft rejection in major histocompatibility complex class II-mismatched cardiac transplants.We heterotopically transplanted Bm12 allografts into adiponectin-deficient (APN-/-, C57BL/6 background) or wild-type (APN+/+) mice. Some APN-/- mice received adiponectin reconstitution by adenovirus. Histologic analyses assessed allograft rejection, and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction evaluated the genes for cytokines/chemokines associated with the immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, we tested the effect of adiponectin on proliferation and cytokine/chemokine production in mouse T lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3 antibodies.Allografts transplanted to APN-/- mice showed severe acute rejection relative to transplants in APN+/+ hosts accompanied by increased accumulation of CD4- and CD8-positive T lymphocytes and Mac3-positive macrophages. Adiponectin provision by adenovirus in APN-/- mice reversed these exacerbated responses to allografting. The rejected allografts in APN-/- mice contained significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and regulated on activation normal t expressed and presumably secreted. Moreover, adiponectin significantly suppressed proliferation and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, regulated on activation normal t expressed and presumably secreted, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 in mouse T lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3 antibodies.These observations provide new mechanistic insight into immunoregulation in allograft recipients relative to obesity, an increasingly prevalent risk factor. Adiponectin may offer a new therapeutic target for allograft rejection after cardiac transplantation.
Project description:Chemokines control the migration of cells in normal physiological processes and in the context of disease such as inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. Two major interactions are involved: (i) binding of chemokines to chemokine receptors, which activates the cellular machinery required for movement; and (ii) binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which facilitates the organization of chemokines into haptotactic gradients that direct cell movement. Chemokines can bind and activate their receptors as monomers; however, the ability to oligomerize is critical for the function of many chemokines in vivo Chemokine oligomerization is thought to enhance their affinity for GAGs, and here we show that it significantly affects the ability of chemokines to accumulate on and be retained by heparan sulfate (HS). We also demonstrate that several chemokines differentially rigidify and cross-link HS, thereby affecting HS rigidity and mobility, and that HS cross-linking is significantly enhanced by chemokine oligomerization. These findings suggest that chemokine-GAG interactions may play more diverse biological roles than the traditional paradigms of physical immobilization and establishment of chemokine gradients; we hypothesize that they may promote receptor-independent events such as physical re-organization of the endothelial glycocalyx and extracellular matrix, as well as signalling through proteoglycans to facilitate leukocyte adhesion and transmigration.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients. PROCEDURES:The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26 years) with acute allograft rejection (n = 5), non-rejecting allografts (n = 13), and normal native kidneys (n = 8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p.i.) of 5 mg Fe/kg ferumoxytol. T2* relaxation times at 4 h p.i. (perfusion phase) and more than 20 h p.i. (macrophage phase) were compared with biopsy results. The presence of rejection was assessed using the Banff criteria, and the prevalence of macrophages on CD163 immunostains was determined based on a semi-quantitative scoring system. MRI and histology data were compared among patient groups using t tests, analysis of variance, and regression analyses with a significance threshold of p < 0.05. RESULTS:At 4 h p.i., mean T2* values were 6.6 ± 1.5 ms for native kidneys and 3.9 ms for one allograft undergoing acute immune rejection. Surprisingly, at 20-24 h p.i., one rejecting allograft showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times (37.0 ms) compared to native kidneys (6.3 ± 1.7 ms) and non-rejecting allografts (7.6 ± 0.1 ms). Likewise, three additional rejecting allografts showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times compared to non-rejecting allografts at later post-contrast time points, 25-97 h p.i. (p = 0.008). Histological analysis revealed edema and compressed microvessels in biopsies of rejecting allografts. Allografts with and without rejection showed insignificant differences in macrophage content on histopathology (p = 0.44). CONCLUSION:After ferumoxytol administration, renal allografts undergoing acute rejection show prolonged T2* values compared to non-rejecting allografts. Since histology revealed no significant differences in macrophage content, the increasing T2* value is likely due to the combined effect of reduced perfusion and increased edema in rejecting allografts.
Project description:Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the primary cause of late morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation. Current animal models do not reliably develop OB pathology. Given the similarities between ferret and human lung biology, we hypothesized an orthotopic ferret lung allograft would develop OB. Orthotopic left lower lobe transplants were successfully performed in 22 outbred domestic ferrets in the absence of immunosuppression (IS; n = 5) and presence of varying IS protocols (n = 17). CT scans were performed to evaluate the allografts. At intervals between 3-6 months the allografts were examined histologically for evidence of acute/chronic rejection. IS protects allografts from acute rejection and early graft loss. Reduction of IS dosage by 50% allowed development of controlled rejection. Allografts developed infiltrates on CT and classic histologic acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis. Cycling of IS, to induce repeated episodes of controlled rejection, promoted classic histologic hallmarks of OB including fibrosis-associated occlusion of the bronchiolar airways in all allografts of long-term survivors. In conclusion, we have developed an orthotopic lung transplant model in the ferret with documented long-term functional allograft survival. Allografts develop acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis, similar to humans. Long-term survivors develop histologic changes in the allografts that are hallmarks of OB.
Project description:The myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) adapter protein is an important mediator of kidney allograft rejection, yet the precise role of MyD88 signaling in directing the host immune response toward the development of kidney allograft rejection remains unclear. Using a stringent mouse model of allogeneic kidney transplantation, we demonstrated that acute allograft rejection occurred equally in MyD88-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and MyD88(-/-) recipients. However, MyD88 deficiency resulted in spontaneous diminution of graft infiltrating effector cells, including CD11b(-)Gr-1(+) cells and activated CD8 T cells, as well as subsequent restoration of near-normal renal graft function, leading to long-term kidney allograft acceptance. Compared with T cells from WT recipients, T cells from MyD88(-/-) recipients failed to mount a robust recall response upon donor antigen restimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures ex vivo. Notably, exogenous IL-6 restored the proliferation rate of T cells, particularly CD8 T cells, from MyD88(-/-) recipients to the proliferation rate of cells from WT recipients. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) T cells exhibited diminished expression of chemokine receptors, specifically CCR4 and CXCR3, and the impaired ability to accumulate in the kidney allografts despite an otherwise MyD88-sufficient environment. These results provide a mechanism linking the lack of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in T cells to the effective control of the rejection response that results in spontaneous resolution of acute rejection and long-term graft protection.
Project description:The specificities of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) modification enzymes, particularly sulfotransferases, and the locations and concentrations of these enzymes in the Golgi apparatus give rise to the mature GAG polysaccharides that bind protein ligands. We studied the substrate specificities of sulfotransferases with a stable isotopically labeled donor substrate, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. The sulfate incorporated by in vitro sulfation using recombinant sulfotransferases was easily distinguished from those previously present on the GAG chains using mass spectrometry. The enrichment of the [M + 2] isotopic peak caused by (34)S incorporation, and the [M + 2]/[M + 1] ratio, provided reliable and sensitive measures of the degree of in vitro sulfation. It was found that both CHST3 and CHST15 have higher activities at the non-reducing end (NRE) units of chondroitin sulfate, particularly those terminating with a GalNAc monosaccharide. In contrast, both NDST1 and HS6ST1 showed lower activities at the NRE of heparan sulfate (HS) chains than at the interior of the chain. Contrary to the traditional view of HS biosynthesis processes, NDST1 also showed activity on O-sulfated GlcNAc residues.