Marked disparity of microRNA modulation by cGMP-selective PDE5 versus PDE9 inhibitors in heart disease.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) posttranscriptionally regulate mRNA and its translation into protein, and are considered master controllers of genes modulating normal physiology and disease. There is growing interest in how miRs change with drug treatment, and leveraging this for precision guided therapy. Here we contrast 2 closely related therapies, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 or type 9 (PDE5-I, PDE9-I), given to mice subjected to sustained cardiac pressure overload (PO). Both inhibitors augment cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to activate protein kinase G, with PDE5-I regulating nitric oxide (NO) and PDE9-I natriuretic peptide-dependent signaling. While both produced strong phenotypic improvement of PO pathobiology, they surprisingly showed binary differences in miR profiles; PDE5-I broadly reduces more than 120 miRs, including nearly half those increased by PO, whereas PDE9-I has minimal impact on any miR (P < 0.0001). The disparity evolves after pre-miR processing and is organ specific. Lastly, even enhancing NO-coupled cGMP by different methods leads to altered miR regulation. Thus, seemingly similar therapeutic interventions can be barcoded by profound differences in miR signatures, and reversing disease-associated miR changes is not required for therapy success.
Project description:In platelets, the nitric oxide (NO)-induced cGMP response is indicative of a highly regulated interplay of cGMP formation and cGMP degradation. Recently, we showed that within the NO-induced cGMP response in human platelets, activation and phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) occurred. Here, we identify cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I as the kinase responsible for the NO-induced PDE5 phosphorylation. However, we demonstrate that cGMP can directly activate PDE5 without phosphorylation in platelet cytosol, most likely via binding to the regulatory GAF domains. The reversal of activation was slow, and was not completed after 60 min. Phosphorylation enhanced the cGMP-induced activation, allowing it to occur at lower cGMP concentrations. Also, in intact platelets, a sustained NO-induced activation of PDE5 for as long as 60 min was detected. Finally, the long-term desensitization of the cGMP response induced by a low NO concentration reveals the physiological relevance of the PDE5 activation within NO/cGMP signaling. In sum, we suggest NO-induced activation and phosphorylation of PDE5 as the mechanism for a long-lasting negative feedback loop shaping the cGMP response in human platelets in order to adapt to the amount of NO available.
Project description:cGMP-specific, cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase (PDE5) regulates such physiological processes as smooth muscle relaxation and neuronal survival. PDE5 contains two N-terminal domains (GAF A and GAF B), but the functional roles of these domains have not been determined. Here we show that recombinant PDE5 is activated directly upon cGMP binding to the GAF A domain, and this effect does not require PDE5 phosphorylation. PDE5 exhibited time- and concentration-dependent reversible activation in response to cGMP, with the highest activation (9- to 11-fold) observed at low substrate concentrations (0.1 micro M cGMP). A monoclonal antibody directed against GAF A blocked cGMP binding, prevented PDE5 activation and decreased basal activity, revealing that PDE5 in its non-activated state has low intrinsic catalytic activity. Activated PDE5 showed higher sensitivity towards sildenafil than non-activated PDE5. The stimulatory effect of cGMP binding on the catalytic activity of PDE5 suggests that this mechanism of enzyme activation may be common among other GAF domain-containing proteins. The data also suggest that development of agonists and antagonists of PDE5 activity based on binding to this site might be possible.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases comprise an 11-member superfamily yielding near 100 isoform variants that hydrolyze cAMP or cGMP to their respective 5'-monophosphate form. Each plays a role in compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide signaling, with varying selectivity for each substrate, and conveying cell and intracellular-specific localized control. This review focuses on the 5 phosphodiesterases (PDEs) expressed in the cardiac myocyte capable of hydrolyzing cGMP and that have been shown to play a role in cardiac physiological and pathological processes. PDE1, PDE2, and PDE3 catabolize cAMP as well, whereas PDE5 and PDE9 are cGMP selective. PDE3 and PDE5 are already in clinical use, the former for heart failure, and PDE1, PDE9, and PDE5 are all being actively studied for this indication in patients. Research in just the past few years has revealed many novel cardiac influences of each isoform, expanding the therapeutic potential from their selective pharmacological blockade or in some instances, activation. PDE1C inhibition was found to confer cell survival protection and enhance cardiac contractility, whereas PDE2 inhibition or activation induces beneficial effects in hypertrophied or failing hearts, respectively. PDE3 inhibition is already clinically used to treat acute decompensated heart failure, although toxicity has precluded its long-term use. However, newer approaches including isoform-specific allosteric modulation may change this. Finally, inhibition of PDE5A and PDE9A counter pathological remodeling of the heart and are both being pursued in clinical trials. Here, we discuss recent research advances in each of these PDEs, their impact on the myocardium, and cardiac therapeutic potential.
Project description:In gastrointestinal smooth muscle cGMP levels in response to relaxant agonists are regulated by PKG-mediated phosphorylation and activation of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). The aim of the present study was to determine whether contractile agonists modulate cGMP levels by cross-regulating PDE5 activity and to identify the mechanism of action.Dispersed and cultured muscle cells from rabbit stomach were treated with the nitric oxide donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or with a contractile agonist, ACh and GSNO. PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, and cGMP levels were determined.GSNO stimulated PDE5 phosphorylation and activity and increased cGMP levels in gastric smooth muscle cells. Concurrent activation of cells with ACh augmented GSNO-stimulated PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, and attenuated cGMP levels. The effect of ACh was blocked by the m3 receptor antagonist and by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) or RhoA, but not by the m2 receptor antagonist or inhibitors of PI hydrolysis. The effects of ACh on PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, and cGMP levels were mimicked by a low concentration of tautomycin (10 nM), and a high (1 microM) but not low (1 nM) concentration of okadaic acid. PDE5 was associated with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and dephosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of PP1 but not PP2A.In gastrointestinal smooth muscle cGMP levels are cross-regulated by contractile agonists via a mechanism that involves RhoA-dependent, PKC-mediated inhibition of PP1 activity. This leads to augmentation of PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, and inhibition of cGMP levels.
Project description:The present study was designed to clarify phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) expression in bovine tracheal smooth muscle tissue, and to elucidate that PDE9 may contribute to the regulation of airway relaxation. PDE9 mRNA expression was detected in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor) and BAY 73-6691 (a selective PDE9 inhibitor) reduced high K+- and carbachol-induced contraction. BAY 73-6691 relaxed tracheal tissue on the same level with vardenafil (a selective PDE5 inhibitor). These results support our hypothesis that PDE9 plays functional role in the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation. PDE9 inhibitors are expected to be a novel target of the add-on treatment of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Up-regulation of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is associated with several vascular diseases, and better understanding of the roles of each PDE isoform in controlling subcellular pools of cyclic nucleotides in vascular cells is needed. We investigated the respective role of PDE1, PDE5, and PDE9 in controlling intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP concentrations ([cAMP]<sub>i</sub> , [cGMP]<sub>i</sub> ) in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs).<h4>Experimental approach</h4>We used selective inhibitors of PDE1 (PF-04471141), PDE5 (sildenafil), and PDE9 (PF-04447943) to measure cAMP- and cGMP-PDE activities with a radioenzymatic assay, in RASMC extracts. Real-time [cAMP]<sub>i</sub> and [cGMP]<sub>i</sub> were recorded by Förster resonance energy transfer-imaging in single living cells, and cell proliferation was assessed in FBS-stimulated cells.<h4>Key results</h4>PDE1, PDE5, and PDE9 represented the major cGMP-hydrolyzing activity in RASMCs. Basal PDE1 exerted a functional role in degrading in situ the cGMP produced in response to activation of particulate GC by C-type natriuretic peptide. In high intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentrations, PDE1 also regulated the NO/soluble GC-dependent cGMP response, as well as the ?-adrenoceptor-mediated cAMP response. PDE5 exerted a major role in degrading cGMP produced by NO and the natriuretic peptides. PDE9 only regulated the NO-induced [cGMP]<sub>i</sub> increase. All three PDEs contributed differently to regulate cell proliferation under basal conditions and upon cGMP-elevating stimuli.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Our data emphasize the distinct roles of PDE1, PDE5, and PDE9 in local regulation of [cAMP]<sub>i</sub> and [cGMP]<sub>i</sub> , in vascular smooth muscle cells, strengthening the concept of PDEs as key actors in the subcellular compartmentation of cyclic nucleotides.
Project description:It is generally accepted that nitric oxide (NO) donors, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, including sildenafil, each impact human platelet function. Although a strong correlation exists between the actions of NO donors in platelets and their impact on cGMP, agents such as sildenafil act without increasing global intra-platelet cGMP levels. This study was undertaken to identify how PDE5 inhibitors might act without increasing cGMP. Our data identify PDE5 as an integral component of a protein kinase G1beta (PKG1beta)-containing signaling complex, reported previously to coordinate cGMP-mediated inhibition of inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP(3)R1)-mediated Ca(2+)-release. PKG1beta and PDE5 did not interact in subcellular fractions devoid of IP(3)R1 and were not recruited to IP(3)R1-enriched membranes in response to cGMP-elevating agents. Activation of platelet PKG promoted phosphorylation and activation of the PDE5 fraction tethered to the IP(3)R1-PKG complex, an effect not observed for the nontethered PDE5. Based on these findings, we elaborate a model in which PKG selectively activates PDE5 within a defined microdomain in platelets and propose that this mechanism allows spatial and temporal regulation of cGMP signaling in these cells. Recent reports indicate that sildenafil might prove useful in limiting in-stent thrombosis and the thrombotic events associated with the acute coronary syndromes (ACS), situations poorly regulated with currently available therapeutics. We submit that our findings may define a molecular mechanism by which PDE5 inhibition can differentially impact selected cellular functions of platelets, and perhaps of other cell types.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>By controlling intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels, phosphodiesterases (PDE) serve important functions within various signalling pathways. The PDE2 and PDE5 families are allosterically activated by their substrate cGMP via regulatory so-called GAF domains. Here, we set out to identify synthetic ligands for the GAF domains of PDE2 and PDE5.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Using fluorophore-tagged, isolated GAF domains of PDE2 and PDE5, promising cGMP analogues were selected. Subsequently, the effects of these analogues on the enzymatic activity of PDE2 and PDE5 were analysed.<h4>Key results</h4>The PDE2 ligands identified, 5,6-DM-cBIMP and 5,6-DCl-cBIMP, caused pronounced, up to 40-fold increases of the cAMP- and cGMP-hydrolysing activities of PDE2. The ligand for the GAF domains of PDE5, 8-Br-cGMP, elicited a 20-fold GAF-dependent activation and moreover revealed a time-dependent increase in PDE5 activity that occurred independently of a GAF ligand. Although GAF-dependent PDE5 activation was fast at high ligand concentrations, it was slow at physiologically relevant cGMP concentrations; PDE5 reached its final catalytic rates at 1µM cGMP after approximately 10min.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>We conclude that the delayed activation of PDE5 is required to shape biphasic, spike-like cGMP signals. Phosphorylation of PDE5 further enhances activity and conserves PDE5 activation, thereby enabling PDE5 to act as a molecular memory balancing cGMP responses to nitric oxide or natriuretic peptide signals.
Project description:The meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes in preovulatory follicles is held in prophase arrest by diffusion of cGMP from the surrounding granulosa cells into the oocyte. Luteinizing hormone (LH) then releases meiotic arrest by lowering cGMP in the granulosa cells. The LH-induced reduction of cGMP is caused in part by a decrease in guanylyl cyclase activity, but the observation that the cGMP phosphodiesterase PDE5 is phosphorylated during LH signaling suggests that an increase in PDE5 activity could also contribute. To investigate this idea, we measured cGMP-hydrolytic activity in rat ovarian follicles. Basal activity was due primarily to PDE1A and PDE5, and LH increased PDE5 activity. The increase in PDE5 activity was accompanied by phosphorylation of PDE5 at serine 92, a protein kinase A/G consensus site. Both the phosphorylation and the increase in activity were promoted by elevating cAMP and opposed by inhibiting protein kinase A, supporting the hypothesis that LH activates PDE5 by stimulating its phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Inhibition of PDE5 activity partially suppressed LH-induced meiotic resumption as indicated by nuclear envelope breakdown, but inhibition of both PDE5 and PDE1 activities was needed to completely inhibit this response. These results show that activities of both PDE5 and PDE1 contribute to the LH-induced resumption of meiosis in rat oocytes, and that phosphorylation and activation of PDE5 is a regulatory mechanism.