Associations between chronic caregiving stress and T cell markers implicated in immunosenescence.
ABSTRACT: Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated biological aging, immune dysfunction, and premature morbidity and mortality. Changes in the relative proportions of T cell subpopulations are thought to be a characteristic of immunological aging; however, understanding of whether these changes are associated with chronic psychological stress is incomplete. This study investigated associations between chronic caregiving stress and distributions of T cell phenotypes in a sample of high stress mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (caregivers; n?=?91) and low stress mothers of neurotypical children (controls; n?=?88). Immune markers assessed were naïve (CD45RA?+?CD62L+), central memory (CD45RA-CD62L+), and effector memory (CD45RA-CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We also examined the ratio of effector to naïve (E:N) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and antidepressant use, caregivers displayed higher percentages of effector memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as lower percentages of naïve CD8+ T cells and central memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells compared to controls. Caregivers also displayed significantly higher E:N ratios for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings were also independent of cytomegalovirus infection status. Furthermore, higher parental stress, across both groups, was related to several immune parameters. These findings provide preliminary evidence that chronic parental caregiving stress is associated with changes in relative proportions of T cell subpopulations that are consistent with accelerated immunological aging.
Project description:The study was aimed at assessing T cell subsets of peripheral blood from recipients of long-term functioning (more than 60 months) biological and mechanical heart valve prostheses. The absolute and relative number of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets was analyzed: naïve (N, CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)), central memory (CM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(+)), effector memory (EM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(-)), and terminally differentiated CD45RA-positive effector memory (TEMRA, CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)) in 25 persons with biological and 7 with mechanical prosthesis compared with 48 apparently healthy volunteers. The relative and absolute number of central memory and naïve CD3(+)CD8(+) in patients with biological prosthesis was decreased (p < 0.001). Meanwhile the number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) was increased (p < 0.001). Patients with mechanical prosthesis had increased absolute and relative number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) cells (p = 0.006). Also the relative number of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells was reduced (p = 0.04). We assume that altered composition of T cell subsets points at development of xenograft rejection reaction against both mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children ? 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-algorithm study.<label>METHODS</label>Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+) viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry.<label>RESULTS</label>Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system.
Project description:While dogs are increasingly being utilized as large-animal models of disease, important features of age-related immunosenescence in the dog have yet to be evaluated due to the lack of defined naïve vs. memory T lymphocyte phenotypes. We therefore performed multi-color flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and aged beagles, and determined the differential cytokine production by proposed memory subsets. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in aged dogs displayed increased cytokine production, and decreased proliferative capacity. Antibodies targeting CD45RA and CD62L, but less so CD28 or CD44, defined canine cells that consistently exhibited properties of naïve-, central memory-, effector memory-, and terminal effector-like CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets. Older dogs demonstrated decreased frequencies of naïve-like CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and an increased frequency of terminal effector-like CD8+ T lymphocytes. Overall findings revealed that aged dogs displayed features of immunosenescence similar to those reported in other species.
Project description:Background: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystem disorder with progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and increased cancer susceptibility. Cellular immunodeficiency is based on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a potential to cure immunodeficiency and cancer due to restoration of the lymphopoietic system. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of HSCT on naïve CD4+ as well as CD8+ T-cell numbers in A-T. Methods: We analyzed total numbers of peripheral naïve (CD45RA+CD62L+) and memory (CD45RO+CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 32 A-T patients. Naïve (CD62LhighCD44low) and memory (CD62LlowCD44high) T-cells were also measured in Atm-deficient mice before and after HSCT with GFP-expressing bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we analyzed T-cells in the peripheral blood of two A-T patients after HLA-identic allogeneic HSCT. Results: Like in humans, naïve CD4+ as well as naïve CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in Atm-deficient mice. HSCT significantly inhibited thymic lymphomas and increased survival time in these animals. Donor cell chimerism increased up to more than 50% 6 months after HSCT accompanied by a significant increase of naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell subpopulations, but not of memory T-cells. This finding was also identified in the blood of the A-T patients after HSCT. Conclusion: HSCT seems to be a feasible strategy to overcome immunodeficiency and might be a conceivable strategy to avoid T-cell driven cancer in A-T at higher risk for malignancy. Naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cells counts are suitable markers for monitoring immune reconstitution post-HSCT. However, risks and benefits of HSCT in A-T have to be properly weighted.
Project description:Subpopulations of human fetal thymocyte and circulating naïve T cells were obtained through FACS sorting, including CD3-CD4+CD8- intrathymic T progenitor cells (ITTP), CD3intCD4+CD8+ "double positive" thymocytes (DP), CD3highCD4+CD8- "single positive" thymocytes (SP4), CD3+CD4+CD8-CD45RA+CD62L+ naïve T cells from cord blood (CB4+), and CD3+CD4+CD8-CD45RA+CD62L+ naïve T cells from adult blood (AB4+).
Project description:The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor-specific antigen receptors is a potent strategy to treat cancer patients. T lymphocyte subsets, such as naïve or central memory T cells, selected in vitro prior to genetic engineering have been extensively investigated in preclinical mouse models, where they demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy. However, so far, this is challenging to realize in the clinical setting, since good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures for complex cell sorting and genetic manipulation are limited. To be able to directly compare the immunological attributes and therapeutic efficacy of naïve (T(N)) and central memory (T(CM)) CD8(+) T cells, we investigated clinical-scale procedures for their parallel selection and in vitro manipulation. We also evaluated currently available GMP-grade reagents for stimulation of T cell subsets, including a new type of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 nanomatrix. An optimized protocol was established for the isolation of both CD8(+) T(N) cells (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and CD8(+) T(CM) (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(-)) from a single patient. The highly enriched T cell subsets can be efficiently transduced and expanded to large cell numbers, sufficient for clinical applications and equivalent to or better than current cell and gene therapy approaches with unselected lymphocyte populations. The GMP protocols for selection of T(N) and T(CM) we reported here will be the basis for clinical trials analyzing safety, in vivo persistence and clinical efficacy in cancer patients and will help to generate a more reliable and efficacious cellular product.
Project description:Cytokine immunotherapies targeting T lymphocytes are attractive clinical interventions against viruses and tumors. In the mouse, the homeostasis of memory ?/? CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is significantly improved with increased IL-15 bioavailability. In contrast, the role of "transpresented" IL-15 on human T-cell development and homeostasis in vivo is unknown. We found that both CD8 and CD4 T cells in human immune system (HIS) mice are highly sensitive to transpresented IL-15 in vivo, with both naïve (CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and memory phenotype (CD62L(-)CD45RO(+)) subsets being significantly increased following IL-15 "boosting." The unexpected global improvement in human T-cell homeostasis involved enhanced proliferation and survival of both naïve and memory phenotype peripheral T cells, which potentiated B-cell responses by increasing the frequency of antigen-specific responses following immunization. Transpresented IL-15 did not modify T-cell activation patterns or alter the global T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity. Our results indicate an unexpected effect of IL-15 on human T cells in vivo, in particular on CD4(+) T cells. As IL-15 promotes human peripheral T-cell homeostasis and increases the frequency of neutralizing antibody responses in HIS mice, IL-15 immunotherapy could be envisaged as a unique approach to improve vaccine responses in the clinical setting.
Project description:Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in malaria holoendemic areas is characterized by the gradual, age-related development of protection against high-density parasitemia and clinical malaria. Animal studies, and less commonly, observations of humans with malaria, suggest that T-cell responses are important in the development and maintenance of this immunity, which is mediated primarily by antibodies that slow repeated cycles of merozoites through erythrocytes. To advance our rather limited knowledge on human T-cell immunity to blood stage malaria infection, we evaluated CD4 and CD8 T-cell effector memory subset responses to the 42 kDa C-terminal fragment of Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1(42)), a malaria vaccine candidate, by 49 healthy 0.5 to ?18 year old residents of a holoendemic area in western Kenya. The proportion of individuals with peripheral blood mononuclear cell MSP1(42) driven IFN-? ELISPOT responses increased from 20% (2/20) among 0.5-1 year old children to 90% (9/10) of adults ?18 years (P?=?0.01); parallel increases in the magnitude of IFN-? responses were observed across all age groups (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and ?18 years, P?=?0.001). Less than 1% of total CD4 and CD8 T-cells from both children and adults produced IFN-? in response to MSP1(42). However, adults had higher proportions of MSP1(42) driven IFN-? secreting CD4 and CD8 effector memory (CD45RA(-) CD62L(-)) T-cells than children (CD4: 50.9% vs. 28.8%, P?=?0.036; CD8: 52.1% vs. 18.3%, respectively P?=?0.009). In contrast, MSP1(42) driven IFN-? secreting naïve-like, transitional (CD45RA(+) CD62L(+)) CD4 and CD8 cells were the predominant T-cell subset among children with significantly fewer of these cells in adults (CD4: 34.9% vs. 5.1%, P?=?0.002; CD8: 47.0% vs. 20.5%, respectively, P?=?0.030). These data support the concept that meaningful age-related differences exist in the quality of T-cell immunity to malaria antigens such as MSP1.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although effective antiretroviral therapy(ART) increases CD4+ T-cell count, responses to ART vary considerably and only a minority of patients normalise their CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Although retention of naïve CD4+ T-cells is thought to predict better immune responses, relationships between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and CD4+/CD8+ ratio have not been well described.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study in a cohort of ambulatory HIV+ patients. We used flow cytometry on fresh blood to determine expanded CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets; CD45RO+CD62L+(central memory), CD45RO+CD62L-(effector memory) and CD45RO-CD62L+(naïve) alongside routine T-cell subsets(absolute, percentage CD4+ and CD8+ counts), HIVRNA and collected demographic and treatment data. Relationship between CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio and expanded T-cell subsets was determined using linear regression analysis. Results are median[IQR] and regression coefficients unless stated.<h4>Results</h4>We recruited 190 subjects, age 42(36-48) years, 65% male, 65.3% Caucasian, 91% on ART(52.6% on protease inhibitors), 78.4% with HIVRNA<40cps/ml and median ART duration 6.8(2.6-10.2) years. Nadir and current CD4+ counts were 200(112-309) and 465(335-607) cells/mm3 respectively. Median CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.6(0.4-1.0), with 26.3% of subjects achieving CD4+/CD8+ ratio>1. Of the expanded CD4+ T-cell subsets, 27.3(18.0-38.3)% were naïve, 36.8(29.0-40.0)% central memory and 27.4(20.0-38.5)% effector memory. Of the CD8+ T-cells subsets, 16.5(10.2-25.5)% were naïve, 19.9(12.7-26.6)% central memory and 41.0(31.8-52.5)% effector memory. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, total cumulative-ART exposure(+0.15,p?=?0.007), higher nadir CD4+ count(+0.011,p<0.001) and higher %CD8+ naive T-cells(+0.0085,p<0.001) were associated with higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio, higher absolute CD8+ T-cell(-0.0044,p<0.001) and higher %CD4+ effector memory T-cells(-0.004,p?=?0.0036) were associated with lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Those with CD4+/CD8+ ratio>1 had significantly higher median %CD8+ naive T-cells; 25.4(14.0-36.0)% versus 14.4(9.4-21.6)%, p<0.0001, but significantly lower absolute CD8+ count; 464(384.5-567) versus 765(603-1084) cells/mm3, p<0.001.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Study suggests important role for naïve CD8+ T-cell populations in normalisation of the immune response to HIV-infection. How these findings relate to persistent immune activation on ART requires further study.
Project description:A key determinant of the therapeutic potency of adoptive T-cell transfer is the extent to which infused cells can persist and expand in vivo. Ex vivo propagated virus-specific and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected antitumor CD8 effector T cells derived from CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) central memory (TCM) precursors engraft long-term and reconstitute functional memory after adoptive transfer. Here, we describe a clinical scale, closed system, immunomagnetic selection method to isolate CD8(+) T(CM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This method uses the CliniMACS device to first deplete CD14(+), CD45RA(+), and CD4(+) cells from PBMC, and then to positively select CD62L(+) cells. The average purity and yield of CD8(+) CD45RA(-) CD62L TCM obtained in full-scale qualification runs were 70% and 0.4% (of input PBMC), respectively. These CD8(+) T(CM) are responsive to anti-CD3/CD28 bead stimulation, and can be efficiently transduced with CAR encoding lentiviral vectors, and undergo sustained expansion in interleukin (IL)-2/IL-15 over 3-6 weeks. The resulting CD8(+) T(CM)-derived effectors are polyclonal, retain expression of CD62L and CD28, exhibit CAR-redirected antitumor effector function, and are capable of huIL-15-dependent in vivo homeostatic engraftment after transfer to immunodeficient NOD/Scid IL-2RgCnull mice. Adoptive therapy using purified T(CM) cells is now the subject of a Food and Drug Administration-authorized clinical trial for the treatment of CD19(+) B-cell malignancies, and 3 clinical cell products expressing a CD19-specific CAR for IND #14645 have already been successfully generated from lymphoma patients using this manufacturing platform.