Intra-annual raw basal area increments (early-wood and late-wood) of Pinus nigra subsp. laricio Poiret trees from southern Italy at the pines? mesic to xeric distribution range.
ABSTRACT: This article contains tree rings data related to the research article entitled "An intra-stand approach to identify intra-annual growth responses to climate in Pinus nigra subsp. laricio Poiret trees from southern Italy" (Mazza et al., 2018). Most dendroclimatological studies on black pine have been conducted on the P. nigra subsp. nigra, while only few results on climate-growth relationships are available for other taxa such as P. nigra subsp. laricio, which has the narrowest distribution range of the collective species P. nigra. This data article provides tree rings data for the subsp. laricio at an intra-annual growth level, distinguishing early-wood (EW) and late-wood (LW), from an even aged forest stand from the Sila mountain area within the subspecies mesic to xeric distribution range.
Project description:A quali-quantitative analysis of diterpenoid composition in tissues obtained from different organs of <i>Pinus nigra</i> subsp. <i>laricio</i> (Poiret) Maire (Calabrian pine) was carried out. Diterpene resin acids were the most abundant diterpenoids across all the examined tissues. The same nine diterpene resin acids were always found, with the abietane type prevailing on the pimarane type, although their quantitative distribution was found to be remarkably tissue-specific. The scrutiny of the available literature revealed species specificity as well. A phylogeny-based approach allowed us to isolate four cDNAs coding for diterpene synthases in Calabrian pine, each of which belonging to one of the four groups into which the d3 clade of the plants' terpene synthases family can be divided. The deduced amino acid sequences allowed predicting that both monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids in Calabrian pine. Transcript profiling revealed differential expression across the different tissues and was found to be consistent with the corresponding diterpenoid profiles. The isolation of the complete genomic sequences and the determination of their exon/intron structures allowed us to place the diterpene synthase genes from Calabrian pine on the background of current ideas on the functional evolution of diterpene synthases in Gymnosperms.
Project description:Climate response of tree-species growth may be influenced by intra- and inter-specific interactions. The different physiological strategies of stress response and resource use among species may lead to different levels of competition and/or complementarity, likely changing in space and time according to climatic conditions. Investigating the drivers of inter- and intra-specific interactions under a changing climate is important when managing mixed and pure stands, especially in a climate change hot spot such as the Mediterranean basin. Mediterranean tree rings show intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs): the links among their occurrence, anatomical traits, wood growth and stable isotope ratios can help understanding tree physiological responses to drought. In this study, we compared wood production and tree-ring traits in Quercus ilex L. dominant trees growing in two pure and two mixed stands with Pinus pinea at two sites in Southern Italy, on the basis of the temporal variation of cumulative basal area, intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), ?18O and IADF frequency in long tree-ring chronologies. The general aim was to assess whether Q. ilex trees growing in pure or mixed stands have a different wood production through time, depending on climatic conditions and stand structure. The occurrence of dry climatic conditions triggered opposite complementarity interactions for Q. ilex growing with P. pinea trees at the two sites. Competitive reduction was experienced at the T site characterized by higher soil water holding capacity (WHC), lower stand density and less steep slope than the S site; on the opposite, high competition occurred at S site. The observed difference in wood growth was accompanied by a higher WUEi due to a higher photosynthetic rate at the T site, while by a tighter stomatal control in mixed stand of S site. IADF frequency in Q. ilex tree rings was linked to higher WUEi, thus to stressful conditions and could be interpreted as strategy to cope with dry periods, independently from the different wood growth. Considering the forecasted water shortage, inter-specific competition should be reduced in denser stands of Q. ilex mixed with P. pinea. Such findings have important implications for forest management of mixed and pure Q. ilex forests.
Project description:Age plays an important role in regulating the intra-annual changes in wood cell development. Investigating the effect of age on intra-annual wood cell development would help to understand cambial phenology and xylem formation dynamics of trees and predict the growth of trees accurately. Five intermediate trees in each stand (total of 5 stands) in five age groupings of Chinese fir (<i>Cunninghamia lanceolata</i> Hook.) plantations in subtropical China were monitored on micro-cores collected weekly or biweekly from January to December in 2019. We modeled the dynamics of wood cell development with a mixed effects model, analyzed the age effect on intra-annual wood cell development, and explored the contribution of rate and duration of wood cell development on intra-annual wood cell development. We found a bimodal pattern of wood cell development in all age classes, and no matter the date of peak or the maximal number of cells the bimodal patterns were similar in all age classes. In addition, compared with the older trees, the younger trees had the longest duration of wood cell development because of the later end of wood cell development and a larger number of wood cells. The younger trees had the faster growth rate than the older trees, but the date of the maximal growth rate in older trees was earlier than younger trees, which led to the production of more wood cells in the younger trees. Moreover, we found that the number of cells in wood cell formation was mostly affected by the rate (92%) rather than the duration (8%) of wood cell formation.
Project description:Understanding tree growth and carbon sequestration are of crucial interest to forecast the feedback of forests to climate change. To have a global understanding of the wood formation, it is necessary to develop new methodologies for xylogenesis measurements, valid across diverse wood structures and applicable to both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In this study, the authors present a new workflow to study xylogenesis using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), which is generic and offers high potential for automatization. The HXRCT-based approach was benchmarked with the current classical approach (microtomy) on three tree species with contrasted wood anatomy (<i>Pinus nigra, Fagus sylvatica</i>, and <i>Quercus robur</i>). HRXCT proved to estimate the relevant xylogenesis parameters (timing, duration, and growth rates) across species with high accuracy. HRXCT showed to be an efficient avenue to investigate tree xylogenesis for a wide range of wood anatomies, structures, and species. HRXCT also showed its potential to provide quantification of intra-annual dynamics of biomass production through high-resolution 3D mapping of wood biomass within the forming growth ring.
Project description:Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations.
Project description:The <i>Pinus nigra</i> distribution in Portugal is restricted to six allochthonous populations with unknown origin and infraspecific taxonomy. This work intends to evaluate their genetic diversity, structure and relationships, and to infer about their infraspecific taxonomy by comparing molecular patterns produced by inter-simple sequence repeat and Start Codon Targeted markers among Portuguese and foreign samples with known taxonomy and provenance. 127 Portuguese <i>P. nigra</i> individuals were clustered per population. The genetic differentiation was higher within rather than among populations. The pooled molecular data indicated high genetic proximity among the Portuguese and foreign samples of subspecies <i>laricio</i>. However, the separate analysis per marker system demonstrated that two varieties of subspecies <i>laricio</i> (<i>corsicana</i> and <i>calabrica</i>) may have been used in the plantations of the Portuguese <i>P. nigra</i> stands performed in the last century. The genetic characterization and extrapolation of the intraspecific taxonomy of these populations provide useful information for forest management, afforestation and germplasm use.
Project description:Elderberries are being increasingly produced and consumed in North America for their edible and medicinal flowers and fruits. The American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is native to, and most often cultivated in North America. The European elderberry (S. nigra subsp. nigra) has been developed into an economically-important horticultural crop in Europe, but most European cultivars do not perform well in the midwestern USA. The genotype S. nigra subsp. nigra 'Marge' is an open-pollinated seedling of S. nigra subsp. nigra 'Haschberg', which is one of the most popular elderberry cultivars grown in Europe. In a four-year study (one establishment year followed by 3 production years; 2008-2011) at three Missouri (USA) locations, 'Marge' significantly out-performed and out-yielded eight American elderberry genotypes within the same replicated field plots. Across 3 production years at all three sites, 'Marge' achieved budbreak later, flowered earlier, suffered less Eriophyid mite damage, was taller, produced larger berries, and yielded significantly greater amounts of fruit compared with all eight American elderberry genotypes in the study. At one site, 'Marge' produced three times the yield (1.89 kg/plant) compared with the next highest-producing American elderberry genotype (0.65 kg/plant). It is an exceptionally robust and drought-resistant elderberry. The phenotypic attributes of 'Marge' are similar to that of European elderberry except that it performs exceptionally well in the midwestern USA. DNA marker results, along with phenological and morphological characteristics, indicate that 'Marge' is a European elderberry (S. nigra subsp. nigra). As with most European genotypes, 'Marge' does not fruit on first-year wood, and will therefore require a different pruning regimen compared with American elderberry for success in North American production. We do not yet know how 'Marge' will perform outside the midwestern USA, but it is so productive, unique, and mite resistant, that it merits introduction as a cultivar.
Project description:Human-driven peatland drainage has occurred in Europe for centuries, causing habitat degradation and leading to the emission of greenhouse gases. As such, in the last decades, there has been an increase in policies aiming at restoring these habitats through rewetting. Alder (<i>Alnus glutinosa</i> L.) is a widespread species in temperate forest peatlands with a seemingly high waterlogging tolerance. Yet, little is known about its specific response in growth and wood traits relevant for tree functioning when dealing with changing water table levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of rewetting and extreme flooding on alder growth and wood traits in a peatland forest in northern Germany. We took increment cores from several trees at a drained and a rewetted stand and analyzed changes in ring width, wood density, and xylem anatomical traits related to the hydraulic functioning, growth, and mechanical support for the period 1994-2018. This period included both the rewetting action and an extreme flooding event. We additionally used climate-growth and climate-density correlations to identify the stand-specific responses to climatic conditions. Our results showed that alder growth declined after an extreme flooding in the rewetted stand, whereas the opposite occurred in the drained stand. These changes were accompanied by changes in wood traits related to growth (i.e., number of vessels), but not in wood density and hydraulic-related traits. We found poor climate-growth and climate-density correlations, indicating that water table fluctuations have a stronger effect than climate on alder growth. Our results show detrimental effects on the growth of sudden water table changes leading to permanent waterlogging, but little implications for its wood density and hydraulic architecture. Rewetting actions should thus account for the loss of carbon allocation into wood and ensure suitable conditions for alder growth in temperate peatland forests.
Project description:Vegetation structure is a key determinant of species distribution and diversity. Compared to traditional methods, the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has allowed massive amounts of point cloud data collected for quantifying three-dimensional habitat properties at increasing spatial and temporal scales. We used TLS to characterize the forest plots across a broad range of forest structural diversity, located in the Sila National Park, South Italy. The dataset reports data collected in 24 15-m-radius circular plots, 12 of which were dominated by beech (<i>Fagus sylvatica</i> L.) and 12, by black pine (<i>Pinus nigra</i> subsp. <i>laricio</i>). In detail, this work provides dataset of i) plot-level attributes calculated from raw data, such as the number of trees, ii) tree-level data, comprising a total of 1709 trees, with information related to field-based forest inventory such as the diameter at breast height (DBH), and iii) plot-level information related to the time for conducting both traditional field- and TLS-based forest inventories. Compared to traditional methods, the use of TLS allows a very high-resolution quantification of the 3D forest structural properties, also reducing the time for conducting forest inventories.
Project description:This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A survey analysis of the wood pellet industry in Finland: Future perspectives" (S. Proskurina, E. Alakangas, J. Heinimö, M. Mikkilä, E. Vakkilainen, 2016) . The dataset include information about the importance of wood pellets on the global bioenergy development and role of wood pellets on the Finnish bioenergy development. Data leads to an expansion of knowledge and discoveries of new possibility for wood pellets industry analysis.