Regulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) expression, activity, and function in IL-13-stimulated monocytes and A549 lung carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and inflammation and also in many neurological disorders. MAO-A also has been reported as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling cytokine-induced MAO-A expression in immune or cancer cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that MAO-A expression is co-induced with 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in interleukin 13 (IL-13)-activated primary human monocytes and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. We present evidence that MAO-A gene expression and activity are regulated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 3, and 6 (STAT1, STAT3, and STAT6), early growth response 1 (EGR1), and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), the same transcription factors that control IL-13-dependent 15-LO expression. We further established that in both primary monocytes and in A549 cells, IL-13-stimulated MAO-A expression, activity, and function are directly governed by 15-LO. In contrast, IL-13-driven expression and activity of MAO-A was 15-LO-independent in U937 promonocytic cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the 15-LO-dependent transcriptional regulation of MAO-A in response to IL-13 stimulation in monocytes and in A549 cells is mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and that signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) plays a crucial role in facilitating the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. We further report that the IL-13-STAT6-15-LO-PPARγ axis is critical for MAO-A expression, activity, and function, including migration and reactive oxygen species generation. Altogether, these results have major implications for the resolution of inflammation and indicate that MAO-A may promote metastatic potential in lung cancer cells.
Project description:Monocytes/macrophages are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the resolution of inflammation. In the presence of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), they display an anti-inflammatory profile and this activation pathway is known as alternative activation. In this study we compare and differentiate pathways mediated by IL-4 and IL-13 activation of human monocytes/macrophages. Here we report differential regulation of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in monocytes/macrophages starting from IL-4/IL-13 cytokine receptors to Jak/Stat-mediated signaling pathways that ultimately control expression of several inflammatory genes. Our data demonstrate that although the receptor-associated tyrosine kinases Jak2 and Tyk2 are activated after the recruitment of IL-13 to its receptor (containing IL-4R? and IL-13R?1), IL-4 stimulates Jak1 activation. We further show that Jak2 is upstream of Stat3 activation and Tyk2 controls Stat1 and Stat6 activation in response to IL-13 stimulation. In contrast, Jak1 regulates Stat3 and Stat6 activation in IL-4-induced monocytes. Our results further reveal that although IL-13 utilizes both IL-4R?/Jak2/Stat3 and IL-13R?1/Tyk2/Stat1/Stat6 signaling pathways, IL-4 can use only the IL-4R?/Jak1/Stat3/Stat6 cascade to regulate the expression of some critical inflammatory genes, including 15-lipoxygenase, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), and the scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, we demonstrate here that IL-13 and IL-4 can uniquely affect the expression of particular genes such as dual-specificity phosphatase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 and do so through different Jaks. As evidence of differential regulation of gene function by IL-4 and IL-13, we further report that MAO-A-mediated reactive oxygen species generation is influenced by different Jaks. Collectively, these results have major implications for understanding the mechanism and function of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages by IL-4 and IL-13 and add novel insights into the pathogenesis and potential treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
Project description:IL-13 is a Th2 cytokine that promotes alternative activation (M2 polarization) in primary human monocytes. Our studies have characterized the functional IL-13 receptor complex and the downstream signaling events in response to IL-13 stimulation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. In this report, we present evidence that IL-13 induces the activation of a Src family tyrosine kinase, which is required for IL-13 induction of M2 gene expression, including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). Our data show that Src kinase activity regulates IL-13-induced p38 MAPK tyrosine phosphorylation via the upstream kinases MKK3 or MKK6. Our findings also reveal that the IL-13 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase Jak2 is required for the activation of both Src kinase as well as p38 MAPK. Further, we found that Src tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is required for Stat1 and Stat3 serine 727 phosphorylation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. Additional studies identify Hck as the specific Src family member, stimulated by IL-13 and involved in regulating both p38 MAPK activation and p38 MAPK-mediated 15-LO expression. Finally we show that the Hck regulates the expression of other alternative state (M2)-specific genes (Mannose receptor, MAO-A, and CD36) and therefore conclude that Hck acts as a key regulator controlling gene expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.
Project description:RATIONALE:The alternative activation of monocytes by interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 is a significant component of the inflammatory response. The consequences of alternative activation in inflammatory diseases remain to be determined. OBJECTIVE:In this report, we explored how integrins, receptors important for monocyte migration to inflammatory sites, regulate IL-13-mediated monocyte activation. We focused on the analysis of 2 proteins, which are upregulated during the alternative activation and are important for the development of atherosclerosis, an oxidative enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and a scavenger receptor CD36. METHODS AND RESULTS:We found that adhesion of resting monocytes through ?(2) integrins and inside-out activation of ?(2) integrins by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 did not change IL-13-stimulated 15-LO upregulation; however, preincubation of monocytes with the antibody MEM48, which generates full activation of ?(2) integrins, significantly inhibited 15-LO mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, activation of ?(1) integrins had no effect on 15-LO expression. Analysis of integrin clustering through ?(M), ?(L), ?(X), and ?(D) subunits demonstrated the pivotal role for integrin ?(M)?(2) in inhibiting 15-LO expression. IL-13 treatment upregulates 15-LO-dependent CD36 expression on human monocytes; our studies showed that ?(2) integrin activation and ?(M) integrin clustering significantly inhibited IL-13-dependent CD36 mRNA and protein expression, as well as CD36-related foam cell formation. Moreover, IL-13 stimulation of ?(M)-deficient peritoneal macrophages demonstrated an upregulated level of 15-LO induction, CD36 expression, and lipid accumulation as compared with wild-type controls. CONCLUSIONS:The adhesion of monocytes/macrophages through activated integrin ?(M)?(2) has a regulatory and potential atheroprotective function during the alternative activation of macrophages.
Project description:Macrophages play a pivotal role in tissue fibrogenesis, which underlies the pathogenesis of many end-stage chronic inflammatory diseases. MicroRNAs are key regulators of immune cell functions, but their roles in macrophage's fibrogenesis have not been characterized. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-13 induce miR-142-5p and downregulate miR-130a-3p in macrophages; these changes sustain the profibrogenic effect of macrophages. In vitro, miR-142-5p mimic prolongs STAT6 phosphorylation by targeting its negative regulator, SOCS1. Blocking miR-130a relieves its inhibition of PPARγ, which coordinates STAT6 signalling. In vivo, inhibiting miR-142-5p and increasing miR-130a-3p expression with locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotides inhibits CCL4-induced liver fibrosis and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, macrophages from the tissue samples of patients with liver cirrhosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis display increased miR-142-5p and decreased miR-130a-3p expression. Therefore, miR-142-5p and miR-130a-3p regulate macrophage profibrogenic gene expression in chronic inflammation.
Project description:Basophil-derived IL-4 is involved in the alternative activation of mouse monocytes, as recently shown in vivo. Whether this applies to human basophils and monocytes has not been established yet. Here, we sought to characterise the interaction between basophils and monocytes and identify the molecular determinants. A basophil-monocyte co-culture model revealed that IL-3 and basophil-derived IL-4 and IL-13 induced monocyte production of CCL17, a marker of alternative activation. Critically, IL-3 and IL-4 acted directly on monocytes to induce CCL17 production through histone H3 acetylation, but did not increase the recruitment of STAT5 or STAT6. Although freshly isolated monocytes did not express the IL-3 receptor ? chain (CD123), and did not respond to IL-3 (as assessed by STAT5 phosphorylation), the overnight incubation with IL-4 (especially if associated with IL-3) upregulated CD123 expression. IL-3-activated JAK2-STAT5 pathway inhibitors reduced the CCL17 production in response to IL-3 and IL-4, but not to IL-4 alone. Interestingly, monocytes isolated from allergen-sensitised asthmatic patients exhibited a higher expression of CD123. Taken together, our data show that the JAK2-STAT5 pathway modulates both basophil and monocyte effector responses. The coordinated activation of STAT5 and STAT6 may have a major impact on monocyte alternative activation in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The formation of the atherosclerotic lesion is a complex process influenced by an array of inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways. We previously demonstrated that NR4A nuclear receptors are highly induced in macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli and modulate the expression of genes linked to inflammation in vitro. Here we used mouse genetic models to assess the impact of NR4A expression on atherosclerosis development and macrophage polarization. Transplantation of wild-type, Nur77?/?, or Nor1?/? null hematopoetic precursors into LDL receptor (LDLR)?/? recipient mice led to comparable development of atherosclerotic lesions after high-cholesterol diet. We also observed comparable induction of genes linked to M1 and M2 responses in wild-type and Nur77-null macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides and interleukin (IL)-4, respectively. In contrast, activation of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) strongly suppressed M1 responses, and ablation of signal transductor and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) strongly suppressed M2 responses. Recent studies have suggested that alterations in levels of Ly6C(lo) monocytes may be a contributor to inflammation and atherosclerosis. In our study, loss of Nur77, but not Nor1, was associated with decreased abundance of Ly6C(lo) monocytes, but this change was not correlated with atherosclerotic lesion development. Collectively, our results suggest that alterations in the Ly6C(lo) monocyte population and bone marrow NR4A expression do not play dominant roles in macrophage polarization or the development of atherosclerosis in mice.
Project description:Patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) exhibit chronic colonic inflammation caused by a dysregulated mucosal immune response and epithelial barrier disruption. Th2 cytokines, including IL-13, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of UC. IL-13 induces phosphorylation of STAT6, and we previously demonstrated increased epithelial p-STAT6 in children with UC. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT6 in oxazolone colitis, a murine model of UC, by inducing colitis in STAT6-deficient (STAT6(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice. We observed increased epithelial cell, T cell, macrophage, and NKT cell STAT6 phosphorylation, as well as increased p-STAT6(+) IL-13-producing NKT cells, in colitic WT mice. Colitis was attenuated in STAT6(-/-) mice, with improvements in weight, colon length, and histopathology. There was decreased induction of the pore-forming tight junction protein claudin-2 in STAT6(-/-) mice. Similarly, short hairpin RNA STAT6 knockdown reduced claudin-2 induction and transepithelial resistance decrease in IL-13-treated human T84 cells. Tissue expression of IL-13, IFN-?, IL-17, and IL-10 mRNA was similarly induced in WT and STAT6(-/-) colitic mice; however, we observed increased mRNA expression for the Th2-inducing cytokines IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin in WT mice with colitis, which was abrogated in STAT6(-/-) mice. Mesenteric lymph node cells from STAT6(-/-) mice with colitis exhibited reduced secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-?. IL-33 augmented mesenteric lymph node cell secretion of IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, and IFN-?. These data implicate STAT6 in the pathogenesis of colitis in vivo with important roles in altering epithelial barrier function and regulating Th2-inducing cytokine production.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, food-driven allergic disease resulting in eosinophilic esophageal inflammation. We recently found that EoE susceptibility is associated with genetic variants in the promoter of CAPN14, a gene with reported esophagus-specific expression. CAPN14 is dynamically up-regulated as a function of EoE disease activity and after exposure of epithelial cells to interleukin-13 (IL-13). Herein, we aimed to explore molecular modulation of CAPN14 expression. We identified three putative binding sites for the IL-13-activated transcription factor STAT6 in the promoter and first intron of CAPN14 Luciferase reporter assays revealed that the two most distal STAT6 elements were required for the ?10-fold increase in promoter activity subsequent to stimulation with IL-13 or IL-4, and also for the genotype-dependent reduction in IL-13-induced promoter activity. One of the STAT6 elements in the promoter was necessary for IL-13-mediated induction of CAPN14 promoter activity while the other STAT6 promoter element was necessary for full induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in IL-13 stimulated esophageal epithelial cells was used to further support STAT6 binding to the promoter of CAPN14 at these STAT6 binding sites. The highest CAPN14 and calpain-14 expression occurred with IL-13 or IL-4 stimulation of esophageal epithelial cells under culture conditions that allow the cells to differentiate into a stratified epithelium. This work corroborates a candidate molecular mechanism for EoE disease etiology in which the risk variant at 2p23 dampens CAPN14 expression in differentiated esophageal epithelial cells following IL-13/STAT6 induction of CAPN14 promoter activity.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide due to the distant metastases. Compelling evidence has reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in promoting cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) could induce an aggressive phenotype displaying EMT by enhancing the expression of EMT-promoting factor ZEB1. Importantly, STAT6 signaling inhibitor and STAT6 knockdown significantly reversed IL-13-induced EMT and ZEB1 induction in CRC cells, whereas ectopic STAT6 expression in STAT6null CRC cell line markedly promoted EMT in the present of IL-13. ChIP-PCR and Luciferase assays revealed that activated STAT6 directly bound to the promoter of ZEB1. Otherwise, we found IL-13 also up-regulated the stem cell markers (nanog, CD44, CD133 and CD166) and promoted cell migration and invasion through STAT6 pathway. We also found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-13R?1 could reverse IL-13-induced ZEB1 and EMT changes by preventing STAT6 signaling. Finally, we demonstrated positive correlation between IL-13R?1 and ZEB1 at mRNA levels in human CRC samples. Taken together, our findings first demonstrated that IL-13/IL-13R?1/STAT6/ZEB1 pathway plays a critical role in promoting EMT and aggressiveness of CRC.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) transmits signals from cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and is activated in allergic airway disease. We are developing phosphopeptide mimetics targeting the SH2 domain of STAT6 to block recruitment to phosphotyrosine residues on IL-4 or IL-13 receptors and subsequent Tyr641 phosphorylation to inhibit the expression of genes contributing to asthma. Structure-affinity relationship studies showed that phosphopeptides based on Tyr631 from IL-4R? bind with weak affinity to STAT6, whereas replacing the pY+3 residue with simple aryl and alkyl amides resulted in affinities in the mid to low nM range. A set of phosphatase-stable, cell-permeable prodrug analogues inhibited cytokine-stimulated STAT6 phosphorylation in both Beas-2B human airway cells and primary mouse T-lymphocytes at concentrations as low as 100 nM. IL-13-stimulated expression of CCL26 (eotaxin-3) was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that targeting the SH2 domain blocks both phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT6.