Transcriptome Analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. Reveals Different Mechanisms among NaCl, NaOH and Na2CO3 Stress Tolerance.
ABSTRACT: As an important source of fiber and edible oil, cotton has great economic value. In comparison to their individual studies, association and differentiation between salt and alkaline tolerance has not been focused yet by scientists. We have used next-generation RNA-Seq technique to analyze transcriptional changes under salt and alkaline stresses in cotton. Overall, 25,929 and 6,564 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene functional annotation showed that genes involving ionic homeostasis were significantly up-regulated under NaCl stress and Na2CO3 stress, and genes enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism were up-regulated under NaOH stress and Na2CO3 stress. Furthermore, a synergistic enhancing effect between NaCl and NaOH stress was also observed in this study. Likewise, our studies indicate further that genes related with starch and sucrose metabolism were regulated to respond to the high pH under Na2CO3 stress, inducing plant hormone signal transduction and key enzyme reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity to respond to ionic toxicity and intracellular ionic homeostasis. By analyzing the expression profiles of diverse tissues under different salt and alkaline stresses, this study provides valuable ideas for genetic improvements of cotton tolerance to salt-alkaline stress.
Project description:The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems. Sugar beet (B. vulgaris L.) is a moderately salt tolerant glycophyte, but little is known about the different mechanisms of sugar beet response to salt and alkaline stresses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neutral salt (NaCl:Na2SO4, 1:1) and alkaline salt (Na2CO3) treatment on physiological and transcriptome changes in sugar beet. We found that a low level of neutral salt (NaCl:Na2SO4; 1:1, Na+ 25 mM) or alkaline salt (Na2CO3, Na+ 25 mM) significantly enhanced total biomass, leaf area and photosynthesis indictors in sugar beet. Under a high concentration of alkaline salt (Na2CO3, Na+ 100 mM), the growth of plants was not significantly affected compared with the control. But a high level of neutral salt (NaCl: Na2SO4; 1:1, Na+ 100 mM) significantly inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis. Furthermore, sugar beet tends to synthesize higher levels of soluble sugar and reducing sugar to cope with high neutral salt stress, and more drastic changes in indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were detected. We used next-generation RNA-Seq technique to analyze transcriptional changes under neutral salt and alkaline salt treatment in sugar beet. Overall, 4,773 and 2,251 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in leaves and roots, respectively. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that genes involving cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis had simultaneously changed expression under low neutral salt or alkaline salt, so these genes may be related to stimulating sugar beet growth in both low salt treatments. Genes enriched in monoterpenoid biosynthesis, amino acids metabolism and starch and sucrose metabolism were specifically regulated to respond to the high alkaline salt. Meanwhile, compared with high alkaline salt, high neutral salt induced the expression change of genes involved in DNA replication, and decreased the expression of genes participating in cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, and linoleic acid metabolism. These results indicate the presence of different mechanisms responsible for sugar beet responses to neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses.
Project description:Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress factor that limits cotton production worldwide. To improve salt tolerance in cotton, an in-depth understanding of ionic balance is needed. In this study, a pot experiment using three levels of soil salinity (0%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, represented as CK, SL, and SH, respectively) and two cotton genotypes (salt-tolerant genotype: L24; salt-sensitive genotype: X45) was employed to investigate how sodium chloride (NaCl) stress effects cotton growth, ion distribution, and transport, as well as to explore the related mechanism. The results showed that SL treatment mainly inhibited shoot growth, while SH treatment caused more extensive impairment to roots and shoots. The growth inhibition ratio of NaCl stress on X45 was more marked than that of L24. Under NaCl stress, the Na concentration in the roots, stems and leaves significantly increased, whereas the K, Cu, B, and Mo concentration in roots, as well as Mg and S concentrations in the leaves, significantly decreased. Under salt stress conditions, salt-tolerant cotton plants can store Na in the leaves, and as a result, a larger amount of minerals (e.g., Cu, Mo, Si, P, and B) tend to transport to the leaves. By contrast, salt-sensitive varieties tend to accumulate certain minerals (e.g., Ca, P, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, B, Mo, and Si) in the roots. Most genes related to ion transport and homeostasis were upregulated in L24, but not in X45. The expression level of GhSOS1 in X45 was higher than L24, but GhNHX1 in L24 was higher than X45. Our findings suggest that the two varieties response to salt stress differently; for X45 (salt-sensitive), the response is predominantly governed by Na+ efflux, whereas for L24 (salt-tolerant), vacuolar sequestration of Na+ is the major mechanism. The expression changes of the genes encoding the ion transporters may partially explain the genotypic difference in leaf ion accumulation under salt stress conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Soil salinization and alkalinization are the main factors that affect the agricultural productivity. Evaluating the persistence of the compound material applied in field soils is an important part of the regulation of the responses of cotton to saline and alkaline stresses. RESULT:To determine the molecular effects of compound material on the cotton's responses to saline stress and alkaline stress, cotton was planted in the salinized soil (NaCl 8?g?kg-?1) and alkalized soil (Na2CO3 8?g?kg-?1) after application of the compound material, and ion content, physiological characteristics, and transcription of new cotton leaves at flowering and boll-forming stage were analyzed. The results showed that compared with saline stress, alkaline stress increased the contents of Na+, K+, SOD, and MDA in leaves. The application of the compound material reduced the content of Na+ but increased the K+/Na+ ratio, the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, and REC. Transcriptome analysis revealed that after the application of the compound material, the Na+/H+ exchanger gene in cotton leaves was down-regulated, while the K+ transporter, K+ channel, and POD genes were up-regulated. Besides, the down-regulation of genes related to lignin synthesis in phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway had a close relationship with the ion content and physiological characteristics in leaves. The quantitative analysis with PCR proved the reliability of the results of RNA sequencing. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the compound material alleviated saline stress and alkaline stress on cotton leaves by regulating candidate genes in key biological pathways, which improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the compound material regulating the responses of cotton to saline stress and alkaline stress.
Project description:Purpose:Identification of genes and miRNAs responsible for salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) would help reveal the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. We performed physiological experiments and transcriptome sequencing (mRNA-seq and small RNA-seq) of cotton leaves under salt stress using Illumina sequencing technology. And quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) methods and to evaluate protocols for optimal high-throughput data analysis Methods:We investigated two distinct salt stress phases—dehydration (4 h) and ionic stress (osmotic restoration; 24 h)—that were identified by physiological changes of 14-day-old seedlings of two cotton genotypes, one salt tolerant and the other salt sensitive, during a 72-h NaCl exposure. A comparative transcriptomics approach was used to monitor gene and miRNA differential expression at two time points (4 and 24 h) in leaves of the two cotton genotypes under salinity conditions. Results:During a 24-h salt exposure, 819 transcription factor unigenes were differentially expressed in both genotypes, with 129 unigenes specifically expressed in the salt-tolerant genotype. Under salt stress, 108 conserved miRNAs from known families were differentially expressed at two time points in the salt-tolerant genotype. Conclusions:Our comprehensive transcriptome analysis has provided new insights into salt-stress response of upland cotton. The results should contribute to the development of genetically modified cotton with salt tolerance. Overall design: Leaf mRNA and miRNA profiles of 14-day-old seedlings of two cotton genotypes, one salt tolerant and the other salt sensitive during a 72-h NaCl exposure were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq 2000 system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the major fibre crops of the world. Although it is classified as salt tolerant crop, cotton growth and productivity are adversely affected by high salinity, especially at germination and seedling stages. Identification of genes and miRNAs responsible for salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) would help reveal the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. We performed physiological experiments and transcriptome sequencing (mRNA-seq and small RNA-seq) of cotton leaves under salt stress using Illumina sequencing technology. RESULTS: We investigated two distinct salt stress phases--dehydration (4 h) and ionic stress (osmotic restoration; 24 h)--that were identified by physiological changes of 14-day-old seedlings of two cotton genotypes, one salt tolerant and the other salt sensitive, during a 72-h NaCl exposure. A comparative transcriptomics was used to monitor gene and miRNA differential expression at two time points (4 and 24 h) in leaves of the two cotton genotypes under salinity conditions. The expression patterns of differentially co-expressed unigenes were divided into six groups using short time-servies expression miner software. During a 24-h salt exposure, 819 transcription factor unigenes were differentially expressed in both genotypes, with 129 unigenes specifically expressed in the salt-tolerant genotype. Under salt stress, 108 conserved miRNAs from known families were differentially expressed at two time points in the salt-tolerant genotype. We further analyzed the predicted target genes of these miRNAs along with the transcriptome for each time point. Important expressed genes encoding membrane receptors, transporters, and pathways involved in biosynthesis and signal transduction of calcium-dependent protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and hormones (abscisic acid and ethylene) were up-regulated. We also analyzed the salt stress response of some key miRNAs and their target genes and found that the expressions of five of nine target genes exhibited significant inverse correlations with their corresponding miRNAs. On the basis of these results, we constructed molecular regulatory pathways and a potential regulatory network for these salt-responsive miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive transcriptome analysis has provided new insights into salt-stress response of upland cotton. The results should contribute to the development of genetically modified cotton with salt tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important world-wide fiber crop but salt stress limits cotton production in coastal and other areas. Growth regulation factors (GRFs) play regulatory roles in response to salt stress, but their roles have not been studied in cotton under salt stress. RESULTS:We identified 19 GRF genes in G. raimondii, 18 in G. arboreum, 34 in G. hirsutum and 45 in G. barbadense, respectively. These GRF genes were phylogenetically analyzed leading to the recognition of seven GRF clades. GRF genes from diploid cottons (G. raimondii and G. arboreum) were largely retained in allopolyploid cotton, with subsequent gene expansion in G. barbadense relative to G. hirsutum. Most G. hirsutum GRF (GhGRF) genes are preferentially expressed in young and growing tissues. To explore their possible role in salt stress, we used qRT-PCR to study expression responses to NaCl treatment, showing that five GhGRF genes were down-regulated in leaves. RNA-seq experiments showed that seven GhGRF genes exhibited decreased expression in leaves under NaCl treatment, three of which (GhGRF3, GhGRF4, and GhGRF16) were identified by both RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. We also identified six and three GRF genes that exhibit decreased expression under salt stress in G. arboreum and G. barbadense, respectively. Consistent with its lack of leaf withering or yellowing under the salt treatment conditions, G. arboreum had better salt tolerance than G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Our results suggest that GRF genes are involved in salt stress responses in Gossypium. CONCLUSION:In summary, we identified candidate GRF genes that were involved in salt stress responses in cotton.
Project description:Saline-alkali soil is an arable land resource on which transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has been planted on a large scale in accordance with food security strategies. There are, however, concerns about the insecticidal effects of Bt cotton on target insect pests. In this study, a Bt cotton variety, GK19, and its nontransgenic parent variety, Simian-3, were used as experimental models for investigating the effect of the expression of exogenous insecticidal proteins in Bt cotton under NaCl stress on the feeding behavior and nutritional parameters of Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that the expression of exogenous insecticidal proteins in GK19 was significantly inhibited under NaCl stress. However, the feeding, crawling, resting and spinning down behavior of the 5th instar H. armigera larvae on GK19 Bt cotton, as well as the amount of food consumed and feces produced by these larvae, did not markedly differ under different NaCl concentrations. In contrast, the mean relative growth rate (MRGR), relative growth rate (RGR), approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) of the larvae markedly decreased in response to NaCl stress. Under the same concentration of NaCl, the nutritional parameters of the bollworm larvae on GK19 Bt cotton or Simian-3 nontransgenic cotton were different. However, the interaction between salt stress and cotton variety had no significant effect on the feeding behavior or nutritional parameters of H. armigera larvae. These results may provide a scientific basis for determining the effect of exogenous insecticidal protein expression in Bt cotton under NaCl stress on H. armigera and can therefore be useful for the effective application of Bt cotton in saline-alkali soils to prevent and control H. armigera.
Project description:Cotton is a pioneer of saline land crop, while salt stress still causes its growth inhibition and fiber production decrease. Phenotype identification showed better salt tolerance of a wild diploid cotton species Gossypium klotzschianum. To elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in G. klotzschianum, we firstly detected the changes in hormones, H2O2 and glutathione (GSSH and GSH), then investigated the gene expression pattern of roots and leaves treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0, 3, 12, 48 h, and each time control by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination proved that the significant increase in hormone ABA at 48 h, while that in H2O2 was at 12 h, likewise, the GSH content decrease at 48 h and the GSSH content increase at 48 h, under salt stress. In total, 37,278 unigenes were identified from the transcriptome data, 8,312 and 6,732 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation and expression analysis elucidated hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction related genes revealed the important roles of them in signal transmission, oxidation balance and ion homeostasis in response to salinity stress. This is a report which focuses on primary response to highly salty stress (upto 300 mM NaCl) in cotton using a wild diploid Gossypium species, broadening our understanding of the salt tolerance mechanism in cotton and laying a solid foundation of salt resistant for the genetic improvement of upland cotton with the resistance to salt stress.
Project description:Drought and high salinity are key limiting factors for cotton production. Therefore, research is increasingly focused on the underlying stress response mechanisms of cotton. We first identified and cloned a novel gene encoding the 525 amino acids in cotton, namely GhWRKY6. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that GhWRKY6 was induced by NaCl, PEG 6000 and ABA. Analyses of germination rate and root length indicated that overexpression of GhWRKY6 in Arabidopsis resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA, NaCl, and PEG 6000. In contrast, the loss-of-function mutant wrky6 was insensitive and had slightly longer roots than the wild-type did under these treatment conditions. Furthermore, GhWRKY6 overexpression in Arabidopsis modulated salt- and drought-sensitive phenotypes and stomatal aperture by regulating ABA signaling pathways, and reduced plant tolerance to abiotic stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS) enrichment, reduced proline content, and increased electrolytes and malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression levels of a series of ABA-, salt- and drought-related marker genes were altered in overexpression seedlings. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology revealed that down-regulation of GhWRKY6 increased salt tolerance in cotton. These results demonstrate that GhWRKY6 is a negative regulator of plant responses to abiotic stress via the ABA signaling pathway.
Project description:Five allotetraploid cotton species have adapted, through their transcriptional responses, to unique environments with distinct levels of inherent abiotic stresses. The transcriptional responses of leaf and root tissue in five allotetraploid cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum, and G. darwinii) under salt stress have been investigated in this study using cotton long oligonucleotide microarrays. Physiological responses to salinity such as stomatal conductance, ion and osmoprotectant contents were also measured as indicators of imposed stress. Accessions from these five cotton species were hydroponically grown and gradually introduced to a NaCl treatment (15 dS m-1). The microarray results identified 2721 and 2460 differentially expressed genes under salt stress that were significant in leaf and root tissue, respectively. Many of these genes were classified under gene ontology (GO) categories that suggest abiotic stress. These allotetraploid cottons shared transcriptional responses to salinity, but also showed responses that were species-specific. No consistent differences in transcriptional response among the previously estimated phylogenetic branches were found. Stomatal conductance, ion accumulation, and betaine, trigonelline, and trehalose contents also indicated salt stress. This global assessment of transcriptional and physiological responses to salt stress of these cotton species may identify possible gene targets for crop improvement and evolutionary studies of cotton. Keywords: CEGC Cotton oligo salt stress Overall design: The transcriptional responses of leaf and root tissue in five allotetraploid cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum, and G. darwinii) under salt stress have been investigated in this study using cotton long oligonucleotide microarrays. Physiological responses to salinity such as stomatal conductance, ion and osmoprotectant contents were also measured as indicators of imposed stress. Accessions from these five cotton species were hydroponically grown and gradually introduced to a NaCl treatment (15 dS m-1).