4-Phenyl-1,3-thiazole-2-amines as scaffolds for new antileishmanial agents.
ABSTRACT: Background:There is still a need for new alternatives in pharmacological therapy for neglected diseases, as the drugs available show high toxicity and parenteral administration. That is the case for the treatment of leishmaniasis, particularly to the cutaneous clinical form of the disease. In this study, we present the synthesis and biological screening of eight 4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amines assayed against Leishmania amazonensis. Herein we propose that these compounds are good starting points for the search of new antileishmanial drugs by demonstrating some of the structural aspects which could interfere with the observed activity, as well as suggesting potential macromolecular targets. Methods:The compounds were easily synthesized by the methodology of Hantzsch and Weber, had their purities determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry and assayed against the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis as well as against two white cell lines (L929 and THP-1) and the monkey's kidney Vero cells. PrestoBlue® and MTT viability assays were the methodologies applied to measure the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities, respectively. A molecular modeling target fishing study was performed aiming to propose potential macromolecular targets which could explain the observed biological behavior. Results:Four out of the eight compounds tested exhibited important anti-promastigote activity associated with good selectivity indexes when considering Vero cells. For the most promising compound, compound 6, IC50 against promastigotes was 20.78 while SI was 5.69. Compounds 3 (IC50: 46.63 μM; SI: 26.11) and 4 (IC50: 53.12 μM; SI: 4.80) also presented important biological behavior. A target fishing study suggested that S-methyl-5-thioadenosine phosphorylase is a potential target to these compounds, which could be explored to enhance activity and decrease the potential toxic side effects. Conclusions:This study shows that 4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amines could be good scaffolds to the development of new antileishmanial agents. The S-methyl-5-thioadenosine phosphorylase could be one of the macromolecular targets involved in the action.
Project description:We describe herein the synthesis and antileishmanial activity of 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-ols. Five compounds (2, 3, 13, 17, and 18) exhibited an effective antileishmanial activity against stationary promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 < 15.0 ?m), and an influence of compound lipophilicity on activity was suggested. Most of the compounds were poorly selective, as they showed toxicity toward murine macrophages, except 17 and 18, which presented good selective indexes (SI ? 10.0). The five more active compounds (2, 3, 13, 17, and 18) were selected for the treatment of infected macrophages, and all of them were able to reduce the number of internalized parasites by more than 80%, as well as the number of infected macrophages by more than 70% in at least one of the tested concentrations. Altogether, these results demonstrate the potential of these compounds as new hits of antileishmanial agents and open future possibilities for them to be tested in in vivo studies.
Project description:Leishmaniasis is a disease impacting public health worldwide due to its high incidence, morbidity and mortality. Available treatments are costly, lengthy and toxic, not to mention the problem of parasite resistance. The development of alternative treatments is warranted and natural products demonstrate promising activity. This study investigated the activity of Connarus suberosus extracts and compounds against Leishmania species. Several C. suberosus extracts were tested against L. amazonensis promastigotes. Active and inactive extracts were analyzed by UHPLC-MS and data evaluated using a metabolomics platform, revealing an unknown neoflavonoid (connarin, 3), isolated together with the pterocarpans: hemileiocarpin (1) and leiocarpin (2). The aforementioned compounds (1-3), together with the benzoquinones: rapanone (4), embelin (5) and suberonone (6) previously isolated by our group from the same species, were tested against: (i) L. amazonensis and L. infantum promastigotes, and (ii) L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes, with the most active compound (3) also tested against L. infantum amastigotes. Cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages was also investigated. Compounds 2 and 3 presented an IC50 33.8 ?M and 11.4 ?M for L. amazonensis promastigotes; and 44.3 ?M and 13.3 ?M for L. infantum promastigotes, respectively. For L. amazonensis amastigotes, the IC50 of 2 was 20.4 ?M with a selectivity index (SI) of 5.7, while the IC50 of 3 was 2.9 ?M with an SI of 6.3. For L. infantum amastigotes, the IC50 of 3 was 7.7 ?M. Compounds 2 and 3 presented activity comparable with the miltefosine positive control, with compound 3 found to be 2-4 times more active than the positive control, depending on the Leishmania species and form. The extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate toxicity against macrophages. Compounds 2 and 3 altered the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and neutral lipid body accumulation, while 2 also impacted plasma membrane permeabilization, culminating in cellular disorder and parasite death. Transmission electron microscopy of L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with compound 3 confirmed the presence of lipid bodies. Leiocarpin (2) and connarin (3) demonstrated antileishmanial activity. This study provides knowledge of natural products with antileishmanial activity, paving the way for prototype development to fight this neglected tropical disease.
Project description:Based on a previously identified antileishmanial 6,8-dibromo-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction at position 8 of the scaffold was studied and optimized from a 8-bromo-6-chloro-3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine substrate. Twenty-one original derivatives were prepared, screened in vitro for activity against L. infantum axenic amastigotes and T. brucei brucei trypomastigotes and evaluated for their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 human cell line. Thus, 7 antileishmanial hit compounds were identified, displaying IC50 values in the 1.1-3??M range. Compounds 13 and 23, the 2 most selective molecules (SI = >18 or >17) were additionally tested on both the promastigote and intramacrophage amastigote stages of L. donovani. The two molecules presented a good activity (IC50?=?1.2-1.3??M) on the promastigote stage but only molecule 23, bearing a 4-pyridinyl substituent at position 8, was active on the intracellular amastigote stage, with a good IC50 value (2.3??M), slightly lower than the one of miltefosine (IC50?=?4.3??M). The antiparasitic screening also revealed 8 antitrypanosomal hit compounds, including 14 and 20, 2 very active (IC50?=?0.04-0.16??M) and selective (SI = >313 to 550) molecules toward T. brucei brucei, in comparison with drug-candidate fexinidazole (IC50?=?0.6 & SI?>?333) or reference drugs suramin and eflornithine (respective IC50?=?0.03 and 13.3??M). Introducing an aryl moiety at position 8 of the scaffold quite significantly increased the antitrypanosomal activity of the pharmacophore. Antikinetoplastid molecules 13, 14, 20 and 23 were assessed for bioactivation by parasitic nitroreductases (either in L. donovani or in T. brucei brucei), using genetically modified parasite strains that over-express NTRs: all these molecules are substrates of type 1 nitroreductases (NTR1), such as those that are responsible for the bioactivation of fexinidazole. Reduction potentials measured for these 4 hit compounds were higher than that of fexinidazole (-0.83?V), ranging from -0.70 to -0.64?V.
Project description:Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan disease; it mainly originates from the bite of sandfly and initiated when parasite is transmitted to human at metacyclic flagellated promastigote form. In the current study, a synthesis of a series of 4-substituted benzophenone ethers 1-20 was carried out in good yields and their in vitro antileishmanial activities were also screened. Among synthetic derivatives, 15 compounds 1, 3, 5-12, 15 and 17-20 showed antileishmanial activities against promastigotes of Leishmania major with IC50 values in the range of 1.19-82.30?µg?ml-1, and the values were compared with those of the standard pentamidine (IC50?=?5.09?±?0.09?µg?ml-1). Our study identified a series of new antileishmanial molecules as potential leads. Structures of these synthetic compounds were deduced by different spectroscopic techniques, such as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, electron impact and high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry and IR.
Project description:In the search for new compounds with antileishmanial activity, we synthesized a triazole hybrid analogue of the neolignans grandisin and machilin G (LASQUIM 25), which was previously found highly active against both promastigotes and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. In this work, we investigated the leishmanicidal effects of LASQUIM 25 to identify the mechanisms involved in the cell death of L. amazonensis promastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed marked effects of LASQUIM 25 (IC50 = 7.2 µM) on the morphology of promastigote forms, notably on mitochondria. The direct action of the triazole derivative on the parasite was noticed over time from 2 h to 48 h, and cells displayed several ultrastructural alterations characteristic of apoptotic cells. Also, flow cytometric analysis (FACS) after TMRE staining detected changes in mitochondrial membrane potential after LASQUIM 25 treatment (64.83% labeling versus 83.38% labeling in nontreated cells). On the other hand, FACS after PI staining in 24 h-treatment showed a slight alteration in the integrity of the cell membrane, a necrotic event (16.76% necrotic cells versus 3.19% staining in live parasites). An abnormal secretion of lipids was observed, suggesting an exocytic activity. Another striking finding was the presence of autophagy-related lysosome-like vacuoles, suggesting an autophagic cell death that may arise as consequence of mitochondrial stress. Taken together, these results suggest that LASQUIM 25 leishmanicidal mechanisms involve some degree of mitochondrial dysregulation, already evidenced by the treatment with the IC50 of this compound. This effect may be due to the presence of a methylenedioxy group originated from machilin G, whose toxicity has been associated with the capacity to generate electrophilic intermediates.
Project description:In this Letter, a detailed analysis of 30 4-aminoquinoline-based compounds with regard to their potential as antileishmanial drugs has been carried out. Ten compounds demonstrated IC50 < 1 μM against promastigote stages of L. infantum and L. tropica, and five compounds showed IC50 < 1 μM against intramacrophage L. infantum amastigotes. Two compounds showed dose-dependent enhancement of NO and ROS production by bone marrow-derived macrophages and remarkable reduction of parasite load in vivo, with advantage of being short-term and orally active. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline derivatives active in Leishmania infantum infected mice.
Project description:In a screening of Sudanese medicinal plants for antiprotozoal activity, the chloroform fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Croton gratissimus var. gratissimus and stems of Cuscuta hyalina Roth ex Schult. exhibited in vitro activity against axenically grown Leishmania donovani amastigotes. This antileishmanial activity was localized by HPLC-based activity profiling. Targeted preparative isolation afforded flavonoids 1-6, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids laudanine (8) and laudanosine (9) from C. gratissimus, and pinoresinol (10), isorhamnetin (11), (-)-pseudosemiglabrin (12), and kaempferol (13) from C. hyalina. The antiprotozoal activity of 1-13 against L. donovani (axenic and intracellular amastigotes), Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (bloodstream forms), and Plasmodium falciparum (erythrocytic stages), and the cytotoxicity in L6 murine myoblast cells were determined in vitro. Quercetin-3,7-dimethylether (6) showed the highest activity against axenic L. donovani (IC50, 4.5 µM; selectivity index [SI], 12.3), P. falciparum (IC50, 7.3 µM; SI, 7.6), and T. b. rhodesiense (IC50, 2.4 µM; SI, 23.2). The congener ayanin (2) exhibited moderate antileishmanial (IC50, 8.2 µM; SI, 12.2), antiplasmodial (IC50, 7.8 µM; SI, 12.9), and antitrypanosomal activity (IC50, 11.2 µM; SI, 8.9). None of the compounds showed notable activity against the intramacrophage form of L. donovani.
Project description:Chemotherapy is limited in the treatment of leishmaniasis due to the toxic effects of drugs, low efficacy of alternative treatments, and resistance of the parasite. This work assesses the in vitro activity of flavopereirine on promastigote cultures of Leishmania amazonensis. In addition, an in silico evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of this alkaloid is performed. The extract and fractions were characterized by thin-layer chromatography and HPLC-DAD, yielding an alkaloid identified by NMR. The antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity were assayed by cell viability test (MTT). The theoretical molecular properties were calculated on the Molinspiration website. The fractionation made it possible to isolate a beta-carboline alkaloid (flavopereirine) in the alkaloid fraction. Moreover, it led to obtaining a fraction with greater antileishmanial activity, since flavopereirine is very active. Regarding the exposure time, a greater inhibitory effect of flavopereirine was observed at 24 h and 72 h (IC50 of 0.23 and 0.15 ?g/mL, respectively). The extract, fractions, and flavopereirine presented low toxicity, with high selectivity for the alkaloid. Furthermore, flavopereirine showed no violation of Lipinski's rule of five, showing even better results than the known inhibitor of oligopeptidase B, antipain, with three violations. Flavopereirine also interacted with residue Tyr-499 of oligopeptidase B during the molecular dynamics simulations, giving a few insights of a possible favorable mechanism of interaction and a possible inhibitory pathway. Flavopereirine proved to be a promising molecule for its antileishmanial activity.
Project description:Leishmaniasis is one of the World's most problematic diseases in developing countries. Traditional medicines to treat leishmaniasis have serious side effects, as well as significant parasite resistance problems. In this work, two alkaloids 1 and 2 were obtained from Corydalis govaniana Wall and seven alkaloids 3-9, were obtained from Erythrina verna. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by mass spectrometry and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The leishmanicidal activity of compounds 1-9 against Leishmania amazonensis was tested on promastigote forms and cytotoxicity against J774 (macrophage cell line) was assessed in vitro. Compound 1 showed potent activity (IC50 = 0.18 µg/mL), compared with the standard amphotericin B (IC50 = 0.20 µg/mL). The spirocyclic erythrina-alkaloids showed lower leishmanicidal activity than dibenzoquinolizine type alkaloids.
Project description:The current therapies of leishmaniasis, the second most widespread neglected tropical disease, have limited effectiveness and toxic side effects. In this regard, natural products play an important role in overcoming the current need for new leishmanicidal agents. The present study reports a bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper pseudoarboreum against four species of Leishmania spp. promastigote forms, which afforded six known alkamides (1-6). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 were identified as the most promising ones, displaying higher potency against Leishmania spp. promastigotes (IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 µM) and amastigotes of L. amazonensis (IC50 values ranging from 8.2 to 9.1 µM) than the reference drug, miltefosine. The efficacy of (E)-piplartine (3) against L. amazonensis infection in an in vivo model for cutaneous leishmaniasis was evidenced by a significant reduction of the lesion size footpad and spleen parasite burden, similar to those of glucantime used as the reference drug. This study reinforces the therapeutic potential of (E)-piplartine as a promising lead compound against neglected infectious diseases caused by Leishmania parasites.